Casualty evacuation, known as CASEVAC or by the callsign Dustoff or colloquially Dust Off, is a military term for the emergency patient evacuation of casualties from a combat zone. Casevac can be done by ground and air. DUSTOFF is the specific to U. S. Army Air Ambulance units. DUSTOFF is an backronym meaning Dedicated Unhesitating Service To Our Fighting Forces, the primary difference between a CASEVAC and a medical evacuation is that a MEDEVAC uses a standardized and dedicated vehicle providing en route care. On the other hand, CASEVAC uses non-standardized and non-dedicated vehicles that may or may not provide en route care, cASEVACs are commonly referred to as a lift/flight of opportunity. If a Corpsman/Medic on the calls for a CASEVAC, the closest available unit with space could be called to assist. These could include U. S. Marine Corps aircraft such as the MV-22 Osprey or U. S. Navy SH-60 Seahawk helicopters. The guiding principles in a CASEVAC is to transport casualties that are in dire need for evacuation from the battlefield, MEDEVAC aircraft and ground transport are mandated by the Geneva Convention to be unarmed and well marked. CASEVAC transport are allowed to be armed since they are used for other purposes.
Dust Off was the call sign for medical evacuation missions first used in 1963 by Major Lloyd E. Spencer, Commander of the U. S. Army 57th Medical Detachment. The name lasted the rest of the war, typically Air ambulances transport wounded soldiers categorized as urgent patients from point of injury to a medical facility within an hour of soldier being wounded. Flying into a landing zone to pick up wounded was a dangerous job. Peter Dorland and James Nanney wrote in Dust Off, Army Aeromedical Evacuation in Vietnam, slightly more a third of the aviators became casualties in their work, and the crew chiefs and medical corpsmen who accompanied them suffered similarly. The danger of their work was borne out by the high rate of air ambulance loss to hostile fire,3.3 times that of all other forms of helicopter missions in the Vietnam War. All members of the US Armed Forces today are trained in some form of basic first aid, while lacking advanced life saving equipment and medical personnel in regular vehicles, all personnel today enter the combat zone with an Improved First Aid Kit on their equipment.
The IFAK has basic medical supplies such as bandages, a tourniquet, most units have stretchers and burn blankets in their vehicles. In addition each unit is staffed by a Corpsman or Medic and these professionals are trained in Tactical Combat Casualty Care. Military has worked tirelessly to ensure dedicated MEDEVAC platforms with trained personnel are available in the event of a casualty
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and known as Burma, is a sovereign state in South East Asia bordered by Bangladesh, China and Thailand. About one third of Myanmars total perimeter of 5,876 km, forms an uninterrupted coastline of 1,930 km along the Bay of Bengal, the countrys 2014 census revealed a much lower population than expected, with 51 million people recorded. Myanmar is 676,578 square kilometres in size and its capital city is Naypyidaw and its largest city and former capital city is Yangon. Early civilizations in Myanmar included the Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Burma, the Pagan Kingdom fell due to the Mongol invasions and several warring states emerged. In the 16th century, reunified by the Taungoo Dynasty, the country was for a period the largest empire in the history of Mainland Southeast Asia. The early 19th century Konbaung Dynasty ruled over an area included modern Myanmar and briefly controlled Manipur. The British invaded Myanmar after three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century and the became a British colony.
Myanmar became an independent nation in 1948, initially as a nation and then, following a coup détat in 1962. For most of its independent years, the country has been engrossed in rampant ethnic strife, during this time, the United Nations and several other organisations have reported consistent and systematic human rights violations in the country. In 2011, the junta was officially dissolved following a 2010 general election. While former military leaders still wield enormous power in the country, there is, continuing criticism of the governments treatment of the Muslim Rohingya minority and its poor response to the religious clashes. In the landmark 2015 election, Aung San Suu Kyis party won a majority in both houses, Myanmar is a country rich in jade and gems, natural gas and other mineral resources. In 2013, its GDP stood at US$56.7 billion, the income gap in Myanmar is among the widest in the world, as a large proportion of the economy is controlled by supporters of the former military government.
As of 2016, according to the Human Development Index, Myanmar had a level of human development. The renaming remains a contested issue, many political and ethnic opposition groups and countries continue to use Burma because they do not recognise the legitimacy of the ruling military government or its authority to rename the country. The countrys official name is the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Countries that do not officially recognise that name use the long form Union of Burma instead, in English, the country is popularly known as either Burma or Myanmar /ˈmjɑːnˌmɑːr/. Both these names are derived from the name of the majority Burmese Bamar ethnic group, Myanmar is considered to be the literary form of the name of the group, while Burma is derived from Bamar, the colloquial form of the groups name
Air medical services
Air medical services is a comprehensive term covering the use of air transportation, airplane or helicopter, to move patients to and from healthcare facilities and accident scenes. The use of air transport of patients dates to World War I, helicopters are used to transport patients between hospitals and from trauma scenes, fixed-wing aircraft are used for long-distance transport. The advantages of medical transport by helicopter may include providing a level of care at the scene of trauma. Helicopter-based emergency medical service provides critical care capabilities during interfacility transport from community hospitals to trauma centers, effective use of helicopter services for trauma depends on the ground responders ability to determine whether the patients condition warrants air medical transport. Protocols and training must be developed to ensure appropriate triage criteria are applied and patient safety is the single most important factor to be considered when deciding whether to transport a patient by helicopter.
Weather, air traffic patterns, and distances must be considered, another reason for cancelling a flight is based on Flight Crew comfort with the flight. The general rule of safety is upon the crew, when there is one pilot, if one Flight Member is not comfortable with the flight for whatever reason, the flight is cancelled. Some have questioned the safety of air medical services While the number of crashes may be increasing, factors associated with fatal crashes of medical transport helicopters include flying at night and during bad weather, and postcrash fires. Fixed wing aircraft are more often used to move patients over long distances. These and related operations are called aeromedical, in some circumstances, the same aircraft may be used to search for missing or wanted people. Like ground ambulances, air ambulances are equipped with medical equipment vital to monitoring and treating injured or ill patients, common equipment for air ambulances includes medications, ventilators, ECGs and monitoring units, CPR equipment, and stretchers.
A medically staffed and equipped air ambulance provides medical care in flight—while a non-medically equipped and staffed aircraft simply transports patients without care in flight, Military organizations and NATO refer to the former as medical evacuation and to the latter as casualty evacuation. Air Traffic Control grants special treatment to air operations, much like a ground ambulance using lights. When this happens, air ambulance aircraft take the call sign MEDEVAC and receive priority handling in the air, as with many Emergency Medical Service innovations, treating patients in flight originated in the military. The concept of using aircraft as ambulances is almost as old as powered flight itself, although balloons were not used to evacuate wounded soldiers at the Siege of Paris in 1870, air evacuation was experimented with during the First World War. The first true Air Ambulance flight was made when a Serbian officer was flown from the battlefield to hospital by a plane of the French Air Service.
French records at the time indicated that the mortality rate of the injured was reduced from 60% to just under 10% if they were evacuated by air. The first recorded British ambulance flight took place in 1917 in Turkey when a soldier in the Camel Corps who had shot in the ankle was flown to hospital in a de Havilland DH9 in 45 minutes
Serbia, officially the Republic of Serbia, is a sovereign state situated at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and the central Balkans. Relative to its territory, it is a diverse country distinguished by a transitional character, situated along cultural, climatic. Serbia numbers around 7 million residents, and its capital, following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans from the 6th century onwards, Serbs established several states in the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained recognition by Rome and the Byzantine Empire in 1217, in the early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the nation-state as the regions first constitutional monarchy, which subsequently expanded its territory. During the breakup of Yugoslavia, Serbia formed a union with Montenegro which dissolved peacefully in 2006, in 2008 the parliament of the province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence, with mixed responses from the international community.
Serbia is a member of organizations such as the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC. An EU membership candidate since 2012, Serbia has been negotiating its EU accession since January 2014, the country is acceding to the WTO and is a militarily neutral state. Serbia is an income economy with dominant service sector, followed by the industrial sector. The country ranks high on the Social Progress Index as well as the Global Peace Index, relatively high on the Human Development Index, located at the crossroads between Central and Southern Europe, Serbia is found in the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain. Serbia lies between latitudes 41° and 47° N, and longitudes 18° and 23° E. The country covers a total of 88,361 km2, which places it at 113th place in the world, with Kosovo excluded, the area is 77,474 km2. Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km, all of Kosovos border with Albania and Montenegro are under control of the Kosovo border police. The Pannonian Plain covers the third of the country while the easternmost tip of Serbia extends into the Wallachian Plain.
The terrain of the part of the country, with the region of Šumadija at its heart. Mountains dominate the third of Serbia. Dinaric Alps stretch in the west and the southwest, following the flow of the rivers Drina, the Carpathian Mountains and Balkan Mountains stretch in a north–south direction in eastern Serbia. Ancient mountains in the southeast corner of the country belong to the Rilo-Rhodope Mountain system, elevation ranges from the Midžor peak of the Balkan Mountains at 2,169 metres to the lowest point of just 17 metres near the Danube river at Prahovo. The largest lake is Đerdap Lake and the longest river passing through Serbia is the Danube, the climate of Serbia is under the influences of the landmass of Eurasia and the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea
The Korean War began when North Korea invaded South Korea. The United Nations, with the United States as the principal force, China came to the aid of North Korea, and the Soviet Union gave some assistance. Korea was ruled by Japan from 1910 until the days of World War II. In August 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on Japan, as a result of an agreement with the United States, U. S. forces subsequently moved into the south. By 1948, as a product of the Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States, Korea was split into two regions, with separate governments, both governments claimed to be the legitimate government of all of Korea, and neither side accepted the border as permanent. The conflict escalated into open warfare when North Korean forces—supported by the Soviet Union, on that day, the United Nations Security Council recognized this North Korean act as invasion and called for an immediate ceasefire. On 27 June, the Security Council adopted S/RES/83, Complaint of aggression upon the Republic of Korea and decided the formation, twenty-one countries of the United Nations eventually contributed to the UN force, with the United States providing 88% of the UNs military personnel.
After the first two months of war, South Korean forces were on the point of defeat, forced back to the Pusan Perimeter, in September 1950, an amphibious UN counter-offensive was launched at Inchon, and cut off many North Korean troops. Those who escaped envelopment and capture were rapidly forced back north all the way to the border with China at the Yalu River, at this point, in October 1950, Chinese forces crossed the Yalu and entered the war. Chinese intervention triggered a retreat of UN forces which continued until mid-1951, after these reversals of fortune, which saw Seoul change hands four times, the last two years of fighting became a war of attrition, with the front line close to the 38th parallel. The war in the air, was never a stalemate, North Korea was subject to a massive bombing campaign. Jet fighters confronted each other in combat for the first time in history. The fighting ended on 27 July 1953, when an armistice was signed, the agreement created the Korean Demilitarized Zone to separate North and South Korea, and allowed the return of prisoners.
However, no treaty has been signed, and the two Koreas are technically still at war. Periodic clashes, many of which are deadly, continue to the present, in the U. S. the war was initially described by President Harry S. Truman as a police action as it was an undeclared military action, conducted under the auspices of the United Nations. In South Korea, the war is referred to as 625 or the 6–2–5 Upheaval. In North Korea, the war is referred to as the Fatherland Liberation War or alternatively the Chosǒn War. In China, the war is called the War to Resist U. S
World War I
World War I, known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world.
On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors.
During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary and Germany
Isidore Auguste Marie Louis Paulhan, known as Louis Paulhan, was a pioneering French aviator. He is known for winning the first Daily Mail aviation prize for a flight between London and Manchester in 1910, Paulhan was born at Pézenas, Hérault, and his heavier-than-air flying career began with making model aircraft. Stationed at St Cyr as a pilot during his military service. The same year he won a competition for model aircraft design in which the first prize was to be a construction of the winning design. His design was so complex that instead he was given a Voisin airframe, with the help of family and friends, he obtained an engine and taught himself to fly in 1909. He was issued with French pilot licence No.10 and he quickly established himself as gifted pilot. He took part in airshows, including one in Douai in July 1909, where he set new records for altitude and duration, covering 47 km. In Lyon, flying a Farman III, he broke three records, height and weight, carrying a 73-kilogram passenger, on 29 October 1909 Paulhan made the first official powered flight at Brooklands, England, in his biplane made by Farman Aviation Works.
This was the first public flying display at Brooklands and some 20,000 spectators watched him fly to a height of 720 feet. Local press reported that the land surrounded by the Brooklands Motor Racing Track was converted into an aerodrome for this event by a gang of men working day and night. In January 1910, Paulhan was invited to America to take part in airshows and competitions and he arrived with two Blériot monoplanes and two Farman biplanes. The Wright brothers, though not taking part in the event, were there with their lawyers to prevent Paulhan, the Wrights claimed that the ailerons on their aircraft infringed patents. Paulhan flew anyway, winning all of the prizes and $19,000 and he set up a new altitude record of 4,164 feet, beating his own previous record of 1,900 feet, and won the endurance prize with a flight lasting 1hr 49mn 40sec. He gave William Randolph Hearst his first experience of flight, for three days Boeing waited, but on the fourth day he discovered Paulhan had already left the meet.
Possibly, one of the biggest missed opportunities in Paulhans life was the ride he never gave Boeing, from Los Angeles, Paulhan moved on to give exhibitions in Salt Lake City, where the Deseret News headline announced that the Air King is Here to Fly. He appeared in New Orleans and made the first aeroplane flight in Texas, the Wright brothers case led, on 17 February, to a Federal judge ordering Paulhan to pay $25,000 for every paid display. Furious, he cancelled his American tour and went to New York City to challenge the Wright brothers by giving public demonstration flights for free. The affair threatened the international aviation meet to be hosted by the Aero Club of America
Slovakia, officially the Slovak Republic, is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Austria to the west, Poland to the north, Ukraine to the east, Slovakias territory spans about 49,000 square kilometres and is mostly mountainous. The population is over 5 million and comprises mostly ethnic Slovaks, the capital and largest city is Bratislava. The Slavs arrived in the territory of present-day Slovakia in the 5th and 6th centuries, in the 7th century, they played a significant role in the creation of Samos Empire and in the 9th century established the Principality of Nitra. In the 10th century, the territory was integrated into the Kingdom of Hungary, which became part of the Habsburg Empire. After World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, a separate Slovak Republic existed in World War II as a client state of Nazi Germany. In 1945, Czechoslovakia was reëstablished under Communist rule as a Soviet satellite, in 1989 the Velvet Revolution ended authoritarian Communist rule in Czechoslovakia.
Slovakia became an independent state on 1 January 1993 after the dissolution of Czechoslovakia. The country maintains a combination of economy with universal health care. The country joined the European Union in 2004 and the Eurozone on 1 January 2009, Slovakia is a member of the Schengen Area, NATO, the United Nations, the OECD, the WTO, CERN, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group. The Slovak economy is one of the fastest growing economies in Europe and its legal tender, the Euro, is the worlds 2nd most traded currency. Although regional income inequality is high, 90% of citizens own their homes, in 2016, Slovak citizens had visa-free or visa-on-arrival access to 165 countries and territories, ranking the Slovak passport 11th in the world. Slovakia is the world’s biggest per-capita car producer with a total of 1,040,000 cars manufactured in the country in 2016 alone, the car industry represents 43 percent of Slovakia’s industrial output, and a quarter of its exports. Radiocarbon datingputs the oldest surviving archaeological artefacts from Slovakia – found near Nové Mesto nad Váhom – at 270,000 BC and these ancient tools, made by the Clactonian technique, bear witness to the ancient habitation of Slovakia.
Other stone tools from the Middle Paleolithic era come from the Prévôt cave near Bojnice, the most important discovery from that era is a Neanderthal cranium, discovered near Gánovce, a village in northern Slovakia. The most well-known finds include the oldest female statue made of mammoth-bone, the statue was found in the 1940s in Moravany nad Váhom near Piešťany. Numerous necklaces made of shells from Cypraca thermophile gastropods of the Tertiary period have come from the sites of Zákovská, Podkovice and these findings provide the most ancient evidence of commercial exchanges carried out between the Mediterranean and Central Europe. The Bronze Age in the territory of modern-day Slovakia went through three stages of development, stretching from 2000 to 800 BC
Boeing C-17 Globemaster III
The Boeing C-17 Globemaster III is a large military transport aircraft. It was developed for the United States Air Force from the 1980s to the early 1990s by McDonnell Douglas, the C-17 carries forward the name of two previous piston-engined military cargo aircraft, the Douglas C-74 Globemaster and the Douglas C-124 Globemaster II. The C-17 commonly performs tactical and strategic missions, transporting troops and cargo throughout the world, additional roles include medical evacuation. It was designed to replace the Lockheed C-141 Starlifter, and some of the duties of the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy. Boeing, which merged with McDonnell Douglas in the 1990s, continued to manufacture C-17s for export customers following the end of deliveries to the U. S. Air Force. Aside from the United States, the C-17 is in service with the United Kingdom, Canada, United Arab Emirates, NATO Heavy Airlift Wing, the final C-17 was completed at the Long Beach, California plant and flown on 29 November 2015. In the 1970s, the U. S.
Air Force began looking for a replacement for its Lockheed C-130 Hercules tactical cargo aircraft, the Advanced Medium STOL Transport competition was held, with Boeing proposing the YC-14, and McDonnell Douglas proposing the YC-15. Though both entrants exceeded specified requirements, the AMST competition was canceled before a winner was selected, the Air Force started the C-X program in November 1979 to develop a larger AMST with longer range to augment its strategic airlift. By 1980, the USAF found itself with a fleet of aging C-141 Starlifter cargo aircraft. Compounding matters, USAF needed increased strategic airlift capabilities to fulfill its rapid-deployment airlift requirements, the USAF set mission requirements and released a request for proposals for C-X in October 1980. McDonnell Douglas elected to develop a new aircraft based on the YC-15, Boeing bid an enlarged three-engine version of its AMST YC-14. Lockheed submitted two designs, a C-5-based design and an enlarged C-141 design, on 28 August 1981, McDonnell Douglas was chosen to build its proposed aircraft, designated C-17.
Compared to the YC-15, the new aircraft differed in having swept wings, increased size and this would allow it to perform the work done by the C-141, and to fulfill some of the duties of the Lockheed C-5 Galaxy, freeing the C-5 fleet for outsize cargo. Alternate proposals were pursued to fill airlift needs after the C-X contest and these were lengthening of C-141As into C-141Bs, ordering more C-5s, continued purchases of KC-10s, and expansion of the Civil Reserve Air Fleet. Limited budgets reduced program funding, requiring a delay of four years, during this time contracts were awarded for preliminary design work and for the completion of engine certification. In December 1985, a development contract was awarded. At this time, first flight was planned for 1990, the Air Force had formed a requirement for 210 aircraft. Development problems and limited funding caused delays in the late 1980s, criticisms were made of the developing aircraft and questions were raised about more cost-effective alternatives during this time
The Sikorsky H-5, was a helicopter built by Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation. It was used by the United States Air Force, and its predecessor and it was used by the United States Post Office Department. By the time production ceased in 1951, more than 300 examples of all types of the H-5 had been built, the H-5 was originally built by Sikorsky as its model S-48, designated as the R-5 by the United States Army Air Forces. It was designed to provide a helicopter having greater useful load, speed, the R-5 differed from the R-4 by having an increased rotor diameter and a new, longer fuselage for two persons in tandem, though it retained the R-4s tailwheel-type landing gear. Larger than the R-4 or the R-6, the R-5 was fitted with a more powerful Wasp Junior 450-hp radial engine, the first XR-5 of four ordered made its initial flight on 18 August 1943. In March 1944, the Army Air Forces ordered 26 YR-5As for service testing, and in February 1945 and this order was followed by a production contract for 100 R-5s, outfitted with racks for two litters, but only 34 were actually delivered.
Of these, fourteen were the R-5A, basically identical with the YR-5A, five of the service-test YR-5As were converted into dual-control YR-5Es. The United States Navy evaluated three R-5As as the HO2S-1, with room for three passengers plus pilot, the S-51 was initially intended to appeal to civilian as well as military operators, and was the first helicopter to be sold to a commercial user. Eleven S-51s were ordered by the USAF and designated the R-5F, while ninety went to the Navy as the HO3S-1, commonly referred to as the Horse. In Britain, Westland Aircraft began production in 1946 of the Westland-Sikorsky S-51 Dragonfly for the Royal Navy and this gave an improved top speed of 103 mph and a service ceiling of 14,000 ft. In total,133 Westland-Sikorsky Dragonfly helicopters were built, a considerably modified version was developed by Westland as the Westland Widgeon, but the type was never adopted for service. The U. S. Navy ordered four S-51s off-the-shelf from Sikorsky in late 1946 for use in the Antarctic and Operation Highjump, placing them into naval inventory as the HO3S-1.
Carried aboard the seaplane tender USS Pine Island, on Christmas Day 1946 an HO3S-1 of VX-3 piloted by Lieutenant Commander Walter M. Sessums became the first helicopter to fly in the Antarctic. Having proved its capabilities, the initial naval HO3S-1 order was followed by subsequent purchases of an additional 42 aircraft in 1948, the Navy equipped several warship classes with HO3S-1 utility helos, including aircraft carriers, seaplane tenders, Des Moines-class cruisers, and Iowa-class battleships. By February 1948, the Marine Corps had equipped HMX-1, its first regular Marine Helicopter Transport Squadron, the U. S. Navy would acquire a total of 88 HO3S-1 helicopters. Thirty-nine additional specialized rescue helicopters were built, as the H-5G, in 1948, several H-5Hs were converted in 1949 to a unique medical-evacuation role, with casualty stretchers loaded sideways through blister-hatches on the side of the fuselage. The back stretcher station was located just forward of the tail boom, very little information is known about the operational use of this modification by the USAF, this being abandoned shortly after tests in 1950.
The R-5 had been designated under the United States Army Air Forces system, in 1947 with the start of the United States Air Force, there was a new system, and many aircraft, but not all, were redesignated
Life was an American magazine that ran weekly from 1883 to 1936 as a humor magazine with limited circulation. Time owner Henry Luce bought the magazine in 1936, solely so that he could acquire the rights to its name, Life was published weekly until 1972, as an intermittent special until 1978, and as a monthly from 1978 to 2000. After 2000 Time Inc. continued to use the Life brand for special, Life returned to regularly scheduled issues when it became a weekly newspaper supplement from 2004 to 2007. The website life. com, originally one of the channels on Time Inc. s Pathfinder service, was for a time in the late 2000s managed as a joint venture with Getty Images under the name See Your World, LLC. On January 30,2012 the LIFE. com URL became a channel on Time. com. When Life was founded in 1883, it was developed as similar to the British magazine and it was published for 53 years as a general-interest light entertainment magazine, heavy on illustrations and social commentary. The Luce Life was the first all-photographic American news magazine, the magazines role in the history of photojournalism is considered its most important contribution to publishing.
Life was wildly successful for two generations before its prestige was diminished by economics and changing tastes, Life was founded January 4,1883, in a New York City artists studio at 1155 Broadway, as a partnership between John Ames Mitchell and Andrew Miller. Mitchell held a 75 per cent interest in the magazine with the remainder by Miller, both men retained their holdings until their deaths. Miller served as secretary-treasurer of the magazine and was very successful managing the side of the operation. Mitchell, a 37-year-old illustrator who used a $10,000 inheritance to invest in the weekly magazine, Mitchell created the first Life name-plate with cupids as mascots, he drew its masthead of a knight leveling his lance at the posterior of a fleeing devil. Mitchell took advantage of a new printing process using zinc-coated plates. This edge helped because Life faced stiff competition from the humor magazines Judge and Puck. Edward Sandford Martin was brought on as Lifes first literary editor, the motto of the first issue of Life was, While theres Life, theres hope.
The new magazine set forth its principles and policies to its readers and we shall try to domesticate as much as possible of the casual cheerfulness that is drifting about in an unfriendly world. The magazine was a success and soon attracted the leading contributors. Among the most important was Charles Dana Gibson, three years after the magazine was founded, the Massachusetts native first sold Life a drawing for $4, a dog outside his kennel howling at the moon. Encouraged by a publisher who was an artist, Gibson was joined in Life early days by such illustrators as Palmer Cox