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Medical examiner

A medical examiner is an official trained in pathology that investigates deaths that occur under unusual or suspicious circumstances, to perform post-mortem examinations, in some jurisdictions to initiate inquests. In the US, there are two death investigation systems, the coroner system based on English law, the medical examiner system, which evolved from the coroner system during the latter half of the 19th century; the type of system varies from municipality to municipality and from state to state, with over 2,000 separate jurisdictions for investigating unnatural deaths. In 2002, 22 states had a medical examiner system, 11 states had a coroner system, 18 states had a mixed system. Since the 1940s, the medical examiner system has replaced the coroner system, serves about 48% of the US population; the coroner is not a medical doctor, but a lawyer, or a layperson. In the 19th century, the public became dissatisfied with lay coroners and demanded that the coroner be replaced by a physician. In 1918, New York City introduced the office of the Chief Medical Examiner, appointed physicians experienced in the field of pathology.

In 1959, the medical subspecialty of forensic pathology was formally certified. The types of death reportable to the system are determined by federal, state or local laws; these include violent, suspicious and unexpected deaths, death when no physician or practitioner treated inmates in public institutions, in custody of law enforcement, during or following therapeutic or diagnostic procedures, or deaths due to neglect. A medical examiner's duties may vary depending on location; the medical examiners’ job is extensive and has a lot that goes into it. A medical examiner's duties may include: investigating human organs like the stomach, brain, determining cause of death, examining the condition of the body studying tissue, organs and bodily fluids issuing death certificates, maintaining death records, responding to deaths in mass disasters, working with law enforcement identifying unknown dead, or performing other functions depending on local law. In some jurisdictions, a coroner performs other duties.

It's not uncommon for a medical examiner to testify in court. This takes a certain amount of confidence in which the medical examiner has to rely on their expertise to make a true testimony and testify the facts of their findings. Medical examiners rely on this during their work. In addition to studying cadavers, they are trained in toxicology, DNA technology and forensic serology. Pulling from each area of knowledge, a medical examiner can determine a cause of death; this information can help law enforcement crack a case and is crucial to their ability to track criminals in the event of a homicide or other related events. Within the United States, there is a mixture of coroner and medical examiner systems, in some states, dual systems; the requirements to hold office vary between jurisdictions. In the UK, formal medical training is required for medical examiners. Many employers request training in pathology while others do not. In the UK, a medical examiner is always a medically trained professional, whereas a coroner is a judicial officer.

Pilot studies in Sheffield and seven other areas, which involved medical examiners looking at more than 27,000 deaths since 2008, found 25% of hospital death certificates were inaccurate and 20% of causes of death were wrong. Suzy Lishman, president of the Royal College of Pathologists, said it was crucial there was "independent scrutiny of causes of death". Qualifications for medical examiners in the US vary from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. In Wisconsin, for example, some counties do not require individuals to have any special educational or medical training to hold this office. In most jurisdictions, a medical examiner is required to have a medical degree, although in many this need not be in pathology. Other jurisdictions have stricter requirements, including additional education in pathology and forensic pathology. Medical examiners are appointed officers. In the United States, medical examiners require extensive training in order to become experts in their field. After high school, the additional schooling may take 11–18 years.

They must attend a university to receive a bachelor's degree in the sciences. Biology is the most common. A medical degree is required to become a medical examiner. To enter medical school, the MCAT may be required after which medical school is another four years with the first two dedicated to academics and the rest of the two used to gain clinical experience. Additional training is required after medical school; the first step is to complete pathological forensic training. This consists of anatomic and clinical pathology training which takes anywhere from four to five years to complete. After this, an anatomic pathology residency and/or a fellowship in forensic pathology should be completed. Before practicing, they must become certified through the American Board of Pathology; the general job outlook for medical examiners in the United States is considered to be excellent. Remuneration varies by location, but it is estimated to average between $105,000 and $500,000. In the United States, there are less than 500 board-certified pathologists, but the National Commission on Forensic Science estimates the country needs 1100-1200 to perform the needed number of autopsies.

The shortage is attributed to the nature of the work and the higher pay in other medical specialties. It has caused long delays in some states, resulted in fewer investigations and


Outotec Oyj is a Finnish listed technology company as well as project company, selling complex mining technology and plant projects that it first designs and executes itself or in collaboration with its partners. The company purchases the majority of its products from subcontracted manufacturers, making only the key components itself. Manufacturing is carried out at Outotec's workshop in the city of Outokumpu, which makes equipment, at Lappeenranta plant, where industrial filters are manufactured. Outotec delivers its processes for metallurgy and mineral processing. Outotec's technologies are used for applications such as producing base metals, processing iron ore and raw materials containing titanium, producing sulfuric acid, producing aluminium oxide and light metals, processing exhaust gases, producing bioenergy, refining oil shale and oil sands, treating industrial wastewater. Processes developed by Outotec enable aluminiferous clay, paper sludge, slag heaps created during the process to be converted into raw materials for synthetic sapphire, biorefineries, or copper.

Outotec's environment and energy business has grown alongside its traditional ore and metal technology. Mines and refineries consume enormous quantities of water and energy, but Outotec's applications enable a significant reduction in consumption. Outotec has been ranked among the world's 10 most responsible companies by Corporate Knights' yearly listing several times, for example in 2018; the company was created when Outokumpu Oyj spun off its technology business into a separate entity in 2006. In July 2019, it was announced that Metso and Outotec are planning to combine Metso’s Minerals business unit with Outotec; the new company will be called Metso Outotec. In 2017, Outotec's operations consisted of two parts of equal size, one focusing on mining technology and the other focusing on technologies for refining metals; the company's third pillar was its environment and energy business, which expanded thanks to the 2011 acquisition of Energy Products of Idaho. In 2017, a considerable proportion of the company's design work took place in Finland.

The headquarter is in Espoo, employed 800 personnel, the company had a large design unit in Germany. In 2018, Outotec had sales and service centers in 36 countries on six continents and three business units. Outotec's competitive position varies depending on the technology, but its competitiveness is strong in areas such as flash smelting, flotation cells for concentrating plants, grinding mills. A further area of strength is copper mines, for which the company can supply all of the main equipment. In 2012, the base metals business generated 80 percent of net sales, energy, light metal, environmental solutions brought in half a billion euros of revenue. In 2017 77 percent of net sales consisted of metal technologies, technologies related to energy generation accounted for 7 percent of net sales. Other areas generated 12 percent of net sales; the business area focuses on minerals processing for the mining industry, conducting a range of works such as preliminary suitability studies, as well as implementing entire production plants and supporting them throughout the various phases in their lifecycles.

The Services unit's business ranges from individual deliveries of spare parts to extensive, long-term operation and maintenance agreements. In the 1940s, the Finnish state's copper company, had a problem: it needed electricity to refine metal, but there was a shortage of electricity in Finland. A solution was found in a proposal to manufacture copper without using external energy; the flash smelting method uses the sulfur present in the ore. The invention marked the first chapter in Outotec's story. On the back of the success of flash smelting, Outokumpu, a state-owned enterprise, established a technology unit, which became known as Outokumpu Technology. Japanese and Indian businesses that had taken interest in the invention in the 1950s became customers in the 1970s. Nowadays, more than half of the world's copper is manufactured using flash smelting technology; the invention brought Outokumpu international success in copper, cobalt, zinc and sulfuric acid technologies, the company began establishing sales offices in Canada, the United States, Brazil and Peru.

Outokumpu expanded its technology expertise with the help of mergers, acquiring aluminum expertise in Canada and Germany and process technology for gas processing and precious metals in Sweden. An important acquisition took place in 2001 when Lurgi Metallurgie, a 100-year-old German company, was purchased, bringing expertise in areas such as sulfuric acid production technology. In 2010, President and CEO Pertti Korhonen's assessment was that Outotec's success was as much due to Lurgi as it was to Outokumpu's technology unit. In spring 2006, Outokumpu Oyj spun off its technology division into a new company named Outokumpu Technology Oyj, it sold 80 percent of the company's stock to external investors in the fall of the same year; the company was listed on the Helsinki Stock Exchange in October 2006 and changed its name to Outotec Oyj in April 2007. Outokumpu received EUR 360 million for its technology unit in connection with the listing. In 2007, Outotec's market capitalization rose to EUR 2.5 billion, between 2005 and 2008, the company's net sales more than doubled from EUR 0.5 billion to more than EUR 1.2 billion.

In 2008, capital invested in the company returned an incredible 67 percent. In 2013, Outotec surpassed Outokumpu in terms of market capitalization. In 2007, Outotec acquired Chena, in the following year, it acquired Auburn Group. In 20

2003 Scottish Open (snooker)

The 2003 Regal Scottish Open was a professional ranking snooker tournament that took place between 5–13 April 2003 at the Royal Highland Centre in Edinburgh, Scotland. It was the penultimate ranking event of the 2002/2003 season. David Gray won his first ranking title by defeating Mark Selby 9–7 in the final; this was Gray's only ranking final victory, was Selby's first appearance in a ranking final. The defending champion, Stephen Lee, was defeated in the quarter-finals by John Higgins; this was the final tournament held under the Scottish Open name, being re-branded the following season as the Players Championship before being discontinued. The tournament would be revived under the Scottish Open name in 2016

José de la Luz y Caballero

José Cipriano de la Luz y Caballero was a Cuban scholar, acclaimed by José Martí as "the father... the silent founder" of Cuban intellectual life of the 19th century. Interest in Luz's work was revived around the time of the Cuban Revolution, new editions of his work published, as he was regarded as a wellspring of intellectual autonomy for the country. Luz took his degree in philosophy in 1817 at the Real y Pontificia Universidad de San Gerónimo in Havana, took a degree in law at the Seminario de San Carlos. From 1837 to 1841, he travelled extensively in North America and Europe, meeting a number of important intellectuals of the time, including Sir Walter Scott, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Georges Cuvier, the German philosopher Karl Krause, the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt. Krause paid a public tribute to Luz's philosophical views. With Humboldt, Luz arranged to establish a magnetic observatory in Cuba in correspondence with like institutions in Germany. Caballero is best known for his quoted characterization of Humboldt, who travelled in Cuba in the early 19th century, as the "second discoverer" of the island, after Columbus: "Colón dio a Europa un Nuevo Mundo.

On November 29, 1831, de la Luz was visiting Venice, when he received a communication from Justo Yelez, director of the Seminario de San Carlos in Havana, commissioning him to purchase the machines and devices required to study Physics at the school. De la Luz performed a thorough investigation of the subject. "Neither in France, nor in England, nor in Germany," said de la Luz, "could have been found such a complete assortment of electro-magnetic devices, like that I acquired in Italy from the noble Italian gentleman from Modena."On his return to Cuba in 1831, Luz devoted all his time and energies to the cause of education, assuming the directorship of a college from 1834 until 1839. In 1848 he founded the "El Salvador" school. Among his works are a translation of Volney's Travels in Egypt and Syria, with notes and additions. There are several biographies of one being that in Spanish by José Ignacio Rodriguez. Wilson, J. G.. "Luz-Caballero, José de la". Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography.

New York: D. Appleton. Works by or about José de la Luz y Caballero at Internet Archive Clásicos del Pensamiento Cubano: Cuba Literaria: El Poder de la Palabra:

Nick Krause

Nick Krause is an American film and television actor. In 2014 Krause won Best Actor for his portrayal of Harlon in the film White Rabbit at the Boston and Catalina Film Festivals. Other roles include the film The Descendants. Krause was born in Austin, Texas, as the son of the talent agent Liz Atherton, was raised in Georgetown, his sister is the actress Kate Krause. He attended NYOS Charter School and graduated early from Georgetown High School in order to begin the filming of The Descendants in Hawaii, he attended a mathematics college course at the age of ten. Krause is of part-Mexican descent. Krause's interest in acting began at the age of ten, when he attended an improvisation comedy workshop. In 2014 Krause won Best Actor in the film White Rabbit for his portrayal of Harlon at the Catalina Film Festival, his other works include How to Eat Fried Worms as Nigel, in Homo Erectus as young Thudnik, in The Descendants as Sid and in the TV series Hollywood Heights as Adam. He played Berto, Drew's college roommate, on the TV series Parenthood.

Krause had a small role in the 2014 film Boyhood. Krause starred in the music video for the single, "Weekend" by the band Priory, alongside Bailey Noble. In the clip, actors Nick Krause and Bailey Noble are teenagers who spend their mundane days toiling away at a roller rink. Nick daydreams of winning Bailey's affection by pulling some pretty slick skate moves on the floor, but in reality, as always, doesn't quite measure up. Nick Krause on IMDb Ryzik, Melena. "The Sid Theory of Script-Reading". New York Times. Retrieved 17 May 2013. Hubert, Craig. "The Ascendant: Nick Krause". Interview Magazine. Retrieved 17 May 2013. Barker, Lynn. "Nick Krause: Breakout Star!". Retrieved 17 May 2013. "Nick Krause". Rope of Silicon. Retrieved 17 May 2013

Majorcan Union

Majorcan Union was a regional liberal party on the island of Majorca, Spain. It was founded in October 1982, as a nationalist continuation of the disintegrating Union of the Democratic Centre; the main founder was Jeroni Albertí Picornell. In 1993 it merged with Convergència Balear. Subsequently it forged alliances with Independents per Unió Centristes de Menorca; as a centre party, it supported People's Party governments in the Balearic Islands but the left-wing coalition, led by the socialist Francesc Antich, which replaced the People's Party in 1999. UM was once again was the key element in returning the presidency to Francesc Antich after the regional elections to the Balearic Island parliament held in 2007. Unió Mallorquina was a member of Liberal International; the last president was Josep Melià i Ques. Following a number of corruption scandals, the party decided to disband in February 2011 and establish a new party Convergence for the Isles * Within People's Party–Majorcan Union Liberalism Contributions to liberal theory Liberalism worldwide List of liberal parties Liberal democracy Liberalism in Spain