A medication is a drug used to diagnose, treat, or prevent disease. Drug therapy is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management. Drugs are classified in multiple ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs from over-the-counter drugs. Another key distinction is between traditional small-molecule drugs derived from chemical synthesis, biopharmaceuticals, which include recombinant proteins, blood products used therapeutically, gene therapy, monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy. Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of action, route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System; the World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines. Drug discovery and drug development are complex and expensive endeavors undertaken by pharmaceutical companies, academic scientists, governments.
As a result of this complex path from discovery to commercialization, partnering has become a standard practice for advancing drug candidates through development pipelines. Governments regulate what drugs can be marketed, how drugs are marketed, in some jurisdictions, drug pricing. Controversies have arisen over drug disposal of used drugs. In Europe, the term is "medicinal product", it is defined by EU law as: "Any substance or combination of substances presented as having properties for treating or preventing disease in human beings. A substance intended for use in the diagnosis, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease. A substance intended to affect any function of the body. A substance intended for use as a component of a medicine but not a device or a component, part or accessory of a device. Biological products are included within this definition and are covered by the same laws and regulations, but differences exist regarding their manufacturing processes. Drug use among elderly Americans has been studied.
One of the key classifications is between traditional small molecule drugs. Pharmaceuticals or drugs or medicines are classified in various other groups besides their origin on the basis of pharmacological properties like mode of action and their pharmacological action or activity, such as by chemical properties, mode or route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System; the World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines. A sampling of classes of medicine includes: Antipyretics: reducing fever Analgesics: reducing pain Antimalarial drugs: treating malaria Antibiotics: inhibiting germ growth Antiseptics: prevention of germ growth near burns and wounds Mood stabilizers: lithium and valpromide Hormone replacements: Premarin Oral contraceptives: Enovid, "biphasic" pill, "triphasic" pill Stimulants: methylphenidate, amphetamine Tranquilizers: meprobamate, reserpine, chlordiazepoxide and alprazolam Statins: lovastatin and simvastatinPharmaceuticals may be described as "specialty", independent of other classifications, an ill-defined class of drugs that might be difficult to administer, require special handling during administration, require patient monitoring during and after administration, have particular regulatory requirements restricting their use, are expensive relative to other drugs.
Upper digestive tract: antacids, reflux suppressants, antidopaminergics, proton pump inhibitors, H2-receptor antagonists, prostaglandin analogues Lower digestive tract: laxatives, antidiarrhoeals, bile acid sequestrants, opioid General: β-receptor blockers, calcium channel blockers, cardiac glycosides, nitrate, vasoconstrictors, vasodilators. Affecting blood pressure/: ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta-blockers, α blockers, calcium channel blockers, thiazide diuretics, loop diuretics, aldosterone inhibitors Coagulation: anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs, anti-hemophilic factors, haemostatic drugs HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors for low
A mountain in north-central Crete, Mount Juktas spelled Iuktas, Iouktas, or Ioukhtas, was an important religious site for the Minoan civilization. Located a few kilometers from the palaces of Knossos and Fourni and the megaron at Vathypetro, Mount Juktas was the site of an important peak sanctuary in the Minoan world. At the base of Juktas, at Anemospilia, is a site that has suggested to some that the Minoans practiced human sacrifice, but the evidence is somewhat in question. Mount Juktas is the site of one of the most important peak sanctuaries in the Minoan world, the first of them. Archaeologists have studied the site over an extensive period, examining fragments of pottery, remains of walls, some unique kinds of stone that must have been hauled up the mountain because they do not otherwise occur there; the mountain remains important in the religious life of the people of the area to this day – a Greek Orthodox chapel is located about a kilometer south of the sanctuary along the ridge of the mountain.
Every year, people from towns down in the plains below Mount Juktas bring flowers in procession to the chapel. Juktas was first excavated in 1909 by Sir Arthur Evans, it can be regarded as an adjunct archaeological site to the important Knossos site a few kilometres distant. Among the finds at the Juktas Minoan peak sanctuary were clay human and animal figurines, stone horns, stone altars, bronze double axes, both bowls and tables with Linear A inscriptions. See references for a more comprehensive inventory. Pottery sherds from the site date back as far as Middle Minoan IA. Anna Simandiraki, Middle Minoan III Pottery from Building B of the Peak Sanctuary of Mount Juktas, a general re-assessment of the Middle Minoan III Period, PhD Thesis, University of Bristol, 2002, British Library catalogue C. Michael Hogan Knossos fieldnotes, The Modern Antiquarian Donald W. Jones Peak Sanctuaries and Sacred Caves in Minoan Crete ISBN 91-7081-153-9 Juktas Peak Sanctuary at Ian Swindale's Minoan Crete website Younger, John Linear A Texts: Religious Texts
David Charles Brooke-Taylor was an English cricketer who played first-class cricket for Derbyshire from 1947 to 1949. Brooke-Taylor was born at Derbyshire, he was educated at Cheltenham College. He started playing for Derbyshire in the second XI and for the Club and Ground in 1938, continued doing so in 1939. After the war he played similar games but made his first-class debut for Derbyshire against Nottinghamshire in July 1947 as captain, he was standing in for Edward Gothard according to the Derbyshire tradition that the captain be an amateur. He scored 1 in 38 in the second, he played two more first-class matches that season, captaining one of them against Surrey and making his top score of 61 not out against Northamptonshire. In 1948 he played in the County squad and in miscellaneous matches. In 1949 he played for the second XI in the Minor Counties Championship and in two final first-class matches in August 1949. Brooke Taylor was a right-hand batsman and played 26 innings in 15 first-class matches at an average of 15.00 with a top score of 61 not out.