A medicine man or medicine woman is a traditional healer and spiritual leader who serves a community of indigenous people of the Americas. Individual cultures have their own names, in their respective Indigenous languages, for the spiritual healers and ceremonial leaders in their particular cultures. In the ceremonial context of Indigenous North American communities, "medicine" refers to spiritual healing. Medicine men/women should not be confused with those who employ Native American ethnobotany, a practice, common in a large number of Native American and First Nations households; the terms "medicine people" or "ceremonial people" are sometimes used in Native American and First Nations communities, for example, when Arwen Nuttall of the National Museum of the American Indian writes, "The knowledge possessed by medicine people is privileged, it remains in particular families."Native Americans tend to be quite reluctant to discuss issues about medicine or medicine people with non-Indians. In some cultures, the people will not discuss these matters with Indians from other tribes.
In most tribes, medicine elders are prohibited from introducing themselves as such. As Nuttall writes, "An inquiry to a Native person about religious beliefs or ceremonies is viewed with suspicion." One example of this is the Apache medicine cord or Izze-kloth whose purpose and use by Apache medicine elders was a mystery to nineteenth century ethnologists because "the Apache look upon these cords as so sacred that strangers are not allowed to see them, much less handle them or talk about them."The 1954 version of Webster's New World Dictionary of the American Language reflects the poorly-grounded perceptions of the people whose use of the term defined it for the people of that time: "a man supposed to have supernatural powers of curing disease and controlling spirits." In effect, such definitions were not explanations of what these "medicine people" are to their own communities but instead reported on the consensus of and psychologically remote observers when they tried to categorize the individuals.
The term "medicine man/woman," like the term "shaman," has been criticized by Native Americans, as well as other specialists in the fields of religion and anthropology. While non-Native anthropologists sometimes use the term "shaman" for Indigenous healers worldwide, including the Americas, "shaman" is the specific name for a spiritual mediator from the Tungusic peoples of Siberia and is not used in Native American or First Nations communities; the term "medicine man/woman" has frequently been used by Europeans to refer to African traditional healers, along with the offensive term "witch doctors". Cherokee spiritual and healing knowledge has been passed down for thousands of years; the Cherokee people were among the first Native Americans to formalize a written language. Some of the information in the Cherokee ledgers is written in code to prevent other people from trying to misuse or exploit their medicine ways; as in all Native American cultures, Cherokee medicine people had to practice in secret from the post-contact era until 1978, when the American Indian Religious Freedom Act was passed.
Training a Cherokee medicine person takes many years due to the vast amount of knowledge needed to practice. Modern-day Cherokee medicine people must be born and raised in the Cherokee community and culture, raised with the language; the skills of gifted and well-trained medicine people are still important to the Cherokee people, though genocide and oppression have resulted in there being fewer now than pre-contact. There are many fraudulent healers and scam artists who pose as Cherokee "shamans", the Cherokee Nation has had to speak out against these people forming a task force to handle the issue. In order to seek help from a Cherokee medicine person a person needs to know someone in the community who can vouch for them and provide a referral. One makes contact through a relative who knows the healer. New Age Frauds & Plastic Shamans, an organization devoted to discussing fraudulent medicine people
Hercule mourant is an opera by the French composer Antoine Dauvergne, first performed at the Académie Royale de Musique on 3 April 1761. It takes the form of a tragédie lyrique in five acts; the libretto, by Jean-François Marmontel, is based on the tragedies The Women of Trachis by Sophocles and Hercule mourant, ou La Déjanire by Jean Rotrou. The premiere was delayed by the death of the Duke of Burgundy; the opera ran for 18 performances. Hercule mourant was given its first performance in modern times on 11 November 2011 at the Opéra Royal de Versailles in a concert version with Christophe Rousset conducting Les Talens Lyriques; the title role was sung by Andrew Foster-Williams with Veronique Gens as Déjanire. A recording of the performance was released the following year on the Aparté label. Scene: the palace of Hercules Deianara awaits the return of her husband Hercules from completing his Twelve Labours. Hercules sends captives from his expedition in advance, his son Hyllus falls in love with one of them, Iole.
Meanwhile, Hercules' arch-enemy the goddess Juno sends Jealousy to make trouble for him with the help of Deianara's maid Dirce. Scene: the palace gardens, by the sea Hyllus declares his love to Iole but Iole asks whether she could love the son of Hercules, her father's killer. More distressingly, she tells him Hercules himself has fallen in love with her and plans to repudiate Deianara in her favour. Hercules arrives to celebrate the homecoming feast. Dirce reveals Hercules' love for Iole to Deianara. In a jealous rage, Deianara plans to use the love potion made from the blood of the dying centaur Nessus. Scene: An amphitheatre near Mount Olympus and the Temple of Jupiter Hercules proclaims the Olympic Games in honour of his father Jupiter. Hyllus gives him the robe Deianara has sent, dipped in the blood of Nessus, he describes. Moved by her concern and persuaded by his friend Philoctetes, Hercules decides to renounce Iole; as he prepares to sacrifice to Jupiter he puts on the robe. Scene: The vestibule of the temple of Jupiter at Trachis Deianara has had an ominous dream of the blood-covered robe bursting into flames and begs Jupiter to save Hercules.
As the sacrifice takes place the temple is shaken and the priests shut the doors to Deianara. Hyllus brings the news that the poisoned robe has burned Hercules and he is now dying. Hercules has sent Hyllus to kill Deianara but he relents when she begs him to tell Hercules on his deathbed that she has always loved him. Scene: The summit of Mount Oeta. Hercules' companions raise a funeral pyre for the dying hero. Hercules asks his friend Philoctetes to kill him with an arrow but Philoctetes refuses. Hyllus tells Hercules that Deianara did not mean to kill him, just before news comes that Deianara has committed suicide out of grief. Hercules now joins Hyllus and Iole in marriage and asks his son to do him one last favour: to light the funeral pyre and burn him to death. Hyllus is horrified but at that moment a lightning bolt from heaven strikes the pyre and it bursts into flames. Hercules emerges from the fire on a flying chariot sent by Jupiter, who welcomes his son into heaven. Hercule mourant, Andrew Foster-Williams, Véronique Gens, Emiliano Gonzalez Toro, Les Chantres du Centre de musique baroque de Versailles, Les Talens Lyriques, conducted by Christophe Rousset David Charlton Opera in the Age of Rousseau: Music, Realism, Cambridge University Press, 2012.
Félix Clément and Pierre Larousse Dictionnaire des Opéras, Paris, 1881. Benoït Dratwicki, Antoine Dauvergne: une carrière tourmentée dans la France musicale des Lumières, Editions Mardaga, 2011. Benoït Dratwicki, booklet notes to the Rousset recording. Les Talens Lyriques: Dossier: Hercule mourant and Hercule mourant
State Highway 50 is a New Zealand state highway that runs through the Hawke's Bay Region. SH 50 begins at the Port of Napier travelling down Breakwater Road, Ahuriri Bypass and Hyderabad Road turning west onto Prebensen Drive, it intersects SH 2, running concurrent with SH 2 and the Hawke's Bay Expressway and heads southbound leaving Napier city. At the intersection with Links Road it turns west, leaving the expressway and continuing on rural road via Fernhill and Tikokino before terminating at SH 2 near Takapau. State Highway 50A was a spur section covering the southern section of the Hawke's Bay Expressway, it covered from the intersection of Links Road at SH 50, traveling in a general south-west direction between Hastings and Flaxmere and terminated at the intersection of Paki Paki Road and Railway Road. SH 2 took over this designation in 2019. List of New Zealand state highways New Zealand Transport Agency