Frio County, Texas
Frio County is a county located in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 17,217; the county seat is Pearsall. The county was created in 1858 and organized in 1871. Frio is named for the Frio River, whose name is Spanish for "cold". According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,134 square miles, of which 1,134 square miles is land and 0.8 square miles is covered by water. Interstate 35 U. S. Highway 57 State Highway 85 State Highway 173 Medina County Atascosa County La Salle County Dimmit County Zavala County As of the census of 2000, 16,252 people, 4,743 households, 3,642 families resided in the county; the population density was 14 people per square mile. The 5,660 housing units averaged 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 71.86% White, 4.87% Black or African American, 0.58% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 19.76% from other races, 2.50% from two or more races. About 73.76% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.
Of the 4,743 households, 40.70% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.20% were married couples living together, 16.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.20% were not families. About 20.60% of all households was made up of individuals and 9.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.98 and the average family size was 3.44. In the county, the population was distributed as 28.70% under the age of 18, 11.20% from 18 to 24, 30.80% from 25 to 44, 18.70% from 45 to 64, 10.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 121.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 130.20 males. The median income for a household in the county was $24,504, for a family was $26,578. Males had a median income of $23,810 versus $16,498 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,069. About 24.50% of families and 29.00% of the population were below the poverty line, including 36.20% of those under age 18 and 30.40% of those age 65 or over.
Dilley Pearsall Bigfoot Hilltop Moore North Pearsall Derby Frio Town National Register of Historic Places listings in Frio County, Texas Recorded Texas Historic Landmarks in Frio County Winter Garden Region Frio County Government Frio County from the Handbook of Texas Online Historic Frio County materials, hosted by the Portal to Texas History. Frio County Profile from the Texas Association of Counties
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Greater San Antonio
San Antonio–New Braunfels is an eight-county metropolitan area in the U. S. state of Texas defined by the Office of Budget. Colloquially referred to as Greater San Antonio, the metropolitan area straddles South Texas and Central Texas and is on the southwestern corner of the Texas Triangle; the official 2017 U. S. Census estimate showed the metropolitan area's population at 2,473,974—up from a reported 1,711,103 in 2000—making it the 24th largest metropolitan area in the United States. Austin–Round Rock lies about 80 miles northeast of Greater San Antonio. San Antonio–New Braunfels is the third-largest metro area in Texas, after Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington and Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land. There are eight counties; the central county is Bexar. The MSA covers a total of 7,387 sq. mi. 7,340 sq. mi. is land and 47 sq. mi. is water. Greater San Antonio has a number of communities spread out across several regions, it is centered around the City of San Antonio, the second largest city in Texas and the seventh largest city in the USA, with 1.5 million residents spread across 500 square miles.
Other regions include the surrounding counties. San Antonio New Braunfels Cibolo Schertz Seguin Timberwood Park San Antonio–New Braunfels is home to seven Fortune 1000 companies. Valero Energy Corp, Tesoro Petroleum Corp, Clear Channel Communications, USAA, NuStar Energy and CST Brands Inc are located in San Antonio. Rush Enterprises is located in New Braunfels; the San Antonio International Airport is located in Uptown San Antonio eight miles north of Downtown. It has two terminals and is served by 21 airlines serving 44 destinations including six in Mexico and one in Canada. VIA Metropolitan Transit is the metropolitan area's public transportation authority, serving the entire City of San Antonio and many of its suburbs throughout Bexar County. San Antonio Station serves as the area's Amtrak train station. Interstate Highways Interstate 10- West to El Paso, east to Houston Interstate 35- North to Austin and the Dallas/Fort Worth area, south to Laredo Interstate 37- South to Corpus Christi Interstate 410- Inner loop around San Antonio passes through the following municipalities: Castle Hills, Balcones Heights, Leon ValleyOther major highways U.
S. Highway 87- South to Victoria, north to San Angelo U. S. Highway 90- West to Uvalde U. S. Highway 181- South to Beeville U. S. Highway 281- North to Wichita Falls, south to McAllen Loop 1604- Outer loop around San Antonio The City of San Antonio is home to many public institutions; the San Antonio area's largest university is the University of Texas at San Antonio. Other public institutions include the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Texas A&M University–San Antonio, the five colleges of the Alamo Community College District; the city has many private institutions as well, such as Our Lady of the Lake University and St. Mary's University on the inner west side. Trinity University and the University of the Incarnate Word are in Midtown; the Culinary Institute of America maintains its third campus in Downtown. Texas Lutheran University in Seguin and Howard Payne University at New Braunfels, now offering classes at a local high school but will soon have a true campus in the Veramendi Development, are the only higher education institutions in the area outside of San Antonio city limits.
The San Antonio area has many public elementary and secondary schools sorted into the following independent school districts: As of the census of 2000, there were 1,711,703 people, 601,265 households, 432,131 families residing within the MSA. The racial makeup of the MSA was 71.4% White, 7.2% African American, 0.8% Native American, 1.4% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 16.6% from other races, 3.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 50.4% of the population. The median income for a household in the MSA was $40,764 and the median income for a family was $46,686. Males had a median income of $32,143 versus $24,007 for females; the per capita income for the MSA was $18,713. List of cities in Texas Texas census statistical areas List of Texas metropolitan areas Texas Triangle
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
The Medina Dam is a hollow-masonry type dam built in 1911 and 1912 by the Medina Irrigation Company in what became Mico, Texas, USA. Medina Lake extends north of it in northeastern Medina southeastern Bandera County; the dam and irrigation project was designed and financed by Dr. Frederick Stark Pearson, an American engineer, with extensive British financial backing; the construction took over 1500 men two years to build. They were skilled Mexican workers with experience building other dams for Pearson, they received two dollars for a day's work. Pearson's Medina Irrigation Company built a camp to house their families; the community is now known as Texas. When the dam was completed in 1913, it was the largest hydraulic engineering project west of the Mississippi River and the fourth-largest dam in the US, it is listed on the National Register of Historic Places for its significance as an infrastructure project and its contributions to economic development of the county. Author of Ripples from Medina Lake, Rev. Cyril M. Kuehne claims a total of 70 lives were taken during the dam's construction, however, he only managed to locate 27 death certificates.
Dr. Oscar B. Taylor, dentist of near-by settlement Hondo, was quoted by Kuehne as saying "sixty-six graves" were counted at a cemetery 3 miles away; the dam contains over 292,000 cubic yards of concrete and measures 164 feet high by 128 feet wide at the base by 1,580 feet long. It is 25 feet wide at the top, 1076.2 feet above sea level, the spillway is 1,064.2 feet above sea level. The dam provides irrigation to over 34,000 acres to Blackland Prairie farmlands below the Balcones Escarpment around Castroville and supplies water to the Medina River Ultrafiltration Water Treatment Plant owned and operated by the San Antonio Water System; the reservoir behind the dam is a major recreation area. It discharges into the Medina River, which contains a diversion dam four miles downstream. Medina Dam was once a publicly accessible, one-lane roadway from the time of its creation until 1980 when vehicle traffic was closed and rerouted to a new road. Located on the dam and inaccessible to the public are three state-placed historical markers.
The earliest of the three markers is a 1936 state marker that acknowledges the previous Mormon settlement, Mountain Valley, built in 1854 and was destroyed in 1913 during construction of the dam. The Mormon settlement Mountain Valley is now located underneath Medina Lake."Established in 1854 by 16 families of Mormons under the leadership of Lyman Wight. They abandoned their mills in 1858 as the result of Indian depredations, their lands are now beneath the waters of Medina Lake. Erected by the State of Texas - 1936." The next is a marker placed in 1978 by the Texas Historical Commission that designated the dam as a state historical landmark."Henri Castro, who colonized this area in the 1840s, envisioned irrigated farms along the Medina River. The project was delayed, until after the turn of the century, when Dr. Fred Stark Pearson, an internationally known engineer, persuaded British investors to finance construction of a dam at this site. Completed in 1912, Medina Dam was hailed as the largest in Texas and the fourth largest in the United States.
Limestone boulders from a nearby quarry added bulk to the massive concrete structure. Four miles downstream, a small diversion dam conducted water into a system of irrigation canals. Gravitational force delivered the water to fields; the outbreak of World War I disrupted ties with British investors. Seeking new capital, Dr. Pearson and his wife left for England in 1915 on the "Lusitania" and were killed when a German submarine torpedoed the ship; the irrigation network created by Medina Dam brought new prosperity to this region. Vegetables raised in irrigated fields became a valuable crop. Water and electricity were made available to rural residents. In 1925 voters established the Bexar-Medine-Atascosa Counties Water Improvement District No. 1 to manage the project. 1978." Placed in 1991, a marker declared the dam a Texas Historic Civic Engineering Landmark. The Medina Lake Preservation Society is undertaking efforts to get the dam reopened to the public, or to at least have the historical markers moved so people can see them.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Medina County, Texas Medina Valley Edwards Plateau Texas Hill Country Cyril Matthew Kuehne, S. M. Ripples from Medina Lake, San Antonio, TX: Naylor, 1966. Huffstutler Norton and Karen Downing Ripley, Images of America: Medina Lake, Charleston, SC: Arcadia Publishing, 2012. ISBN 978-0-7385-8547-5 Media related to Medina Dam at Wikimedia Commons