Illinois is a state in the Midwestern and Great Lakes region of the United States. It has the fifth largest gross domestic product, the sixth largest population, the 25th largest land area of all U. S. states. Illinois is noted as a microcosm of the entire United States. With Chicago in northeastern Illinois, small industrial cities and immense agricultural productivity in the north and center of the state, natural resources such as coal and petroleum in the south, Illinois has a diverse economic base, is a major transportation hub. Chicagoland, Chicago's metropolitan area, encompasses over 65% of the state's population; the Port of Chicago connects the state to international ports via two main routes: from the Great Lakes, via the Saint Lawrence Seaway, to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Great Lakes to the Mississippi River, via the Illinois Waterway to the Illinois River. The Mississippi River, the Ohio River, the Wabash River form parts of the boundaries of Illinois. For decades, Chicago's O'Hare International Airport has been ranked as one of the world's busiest airports.
Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and, through the 1980s, in politics. The capital of Illinois is Springfield, located in the central part of the state. Although today's Illinois' largest population center is in its northeast, the state's European population grew first in the west as the French settled the vast Mississippi of the Illinois Country of New France. Following the American Revolutionary War, American settlers began arriving from Kentucky in the 1780s via the Ohio River, the population grew from south to north. In 1818, Illinois achieved statehood. Following increased commercial activity in the Great Lakes after the construction of the Erie Canal, Chicago was founded in the 1830s on the banks of the Chicago River at one of the few natural harbors on the southern section of Lake Michigan. John Deere's invention of the self-scouring steel plow turned Illinois's rich prairie into some of the world's most productive and valuable farmland, attracting immigrant farmers from Germany and Sweden.
The Illinois and Michigan Canal made transportation between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River valley faster and cheaper, new railroads carried immigrants to new homes in the country's west and shipped commodity crops to the nation's east. The state became a transportation hub for the nation. By 1900, the growth of industrial jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted immigrants from Eastern and Southern Europe. Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars; the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in the state, including Chicago, who founded the city's famous jazz and blues cultures. Chicago, the center of the Chicago Metropolitan Area, is now recognized as a global alpha-level city. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois: Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Barack Obama. Additionally, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was born and raised in the state.
Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official state slogan Land of Lincoln, displayed on its license plates since 1954. The state is the site of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum in Springfield and the future home of the Barack Obama Presidential Center in Chicago. "Illinois" is the modern spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers' name for the Illinois Native Americans, a name, spelled in many different ways in the early records. American scholars thought the name "Illinois" meant "man" or "men" in the Miami-Illinois language, with the original iliniwek transformed via French into Illinois; this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for "man" is ireniwa, plural of "man" is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has been said to mean "tribe of superior men", a false etymology; the name "Illinois" derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa - "he speaks the regular way". This was taken into the Ojibwe language in the Ottawa dialect, modified into ilinwe·.
The French borrowed these forms, changing the /we/ ending to spell it as -ois, a transliteration for its pronunciation in French of that time. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, when French colonists had settled in the western area; the Illinois's name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans; the Koster Site demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation. Cahokia, the largest regional chiefdom and urban center of the Pre-Columbian Mississippian culture, was located near present-day Collinsville, Illinois, they built an urban complex of more than 100 platform and burial mounds, a 50-acre plaza larger than 35 football fields, a woodhenge of sacred cedar, all in a planned design expressing the culture's cosmology.
Monks Mound, the center of the site, is the largest Pre-Columbian structure north of the Valley of Mexico. It is 100 feet high, 951 feet long, 836 feet wide, covers 13.8 acres. It contains about 814,000 cubic yards of earth, it was topped by a structure thought to have measured about 105 feet in length and 48 feet in width, covered an area 5,000 square feet, been as much as 50 feet high, making its peak 150 feet above the level of the pl
Itasca is a village in DuPage County, United States. It is located 27 miles northwest of downtown Chicago, it is close to O'Hare International Airport, major expressways, rail transportation. The population was 8,649 at the 2010 census. In 2009, BusinessWeek rated Itasca as the'Best Affordable Suburb' in the state of Illinois. Itasca was first settled by Elijah Smith in 1841. Smith practiced medicine in Boston. In May 1841, at the advice of his colleagues he set out to find a suitable site for doctoring and raising a family, he headed toward DuPage County. His parchment government land title dated March 10, 1843, was signed by John Tyler, President of the United States; the document gave Smith title to the land, now bounded by the railroad tracks on the south, Maple Street on the west, Cherry Street on the east, Division Street on the north. The post office was established in 1846 and took on various names, such as Bremen and Sagon; the name Itasca comes from Lake Itasca. In the 1860s the first school was built.
It was a small wooden structure with one room. The building was located on a site near the present First Presbyterian Church. In 1873 Smith plotted eighty acres of his land into lots; the Chicago and Pacific Railroad was completed from Chicago to Elgin, with stations at Bensenville, Wood Dale and Itasca. Smith gave the right-of-way to encourage location of the tracks through the settlement, he donated $400 to help build a station. The Chicago and Pacific Railroad became "insolvent," as bankruptcy was termed. In 1880 the road went into the hands of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, a newly formed corporation combining several rail networks; the citizens of Itasca decided in 1890 to incorporate into a village. At a meeting at his mill, A. G. Chessman was elected the first Village President. Irving Park Road was first called the Elgin Road. At an 1891 Village Board meeting, the name was changed to Elgin Avenue; the 1900s The Village of Itasca created a Historical Commission in 1985 to retain the aesthetic beauty and historical integrity of the Village.
The Village of Itasca is committed to the preservation of its pre-1900 and early 1900 homes, buildings and places. In 1987, the Village adopted the Historic Preservation Ordinance which provides a mechanism to identify and preserve the special distinctive historic, architectural and/or landscaping characteristics of the Village's cultural, economic and architectural history; the Itasca Historical District includes the following area: Bounded on the north by North Street, on the south by Bloomingdale Road, east to Irving Park, Irving Park east to Rush Street. The Spire, Itasca's most familiar landmark, graces the top of what was the Lutheran Church of St. Luke; this edifice was erected in 1907 by builder Fred Westendorf. Pastor Frederick Zersen served the congregation for thirty-eight years. Church services were in German, it was not until 1926. German was taught in the church school; until 1916, there was no bank in Itasca. Herman H. Franzen took deposits for Village residents to the Roselle Bank each morning, making the trip on the 9:00 AM train.
In 1916, two banks opened within weeks of each other. The Itasca State Bank had as its president H. F. Lawrence; the cashier was Elmer H. Franzen; the second bank was called the Dairyman's Bank of Northern Illinois, was opened by F. N. Peck. Peck opened a total of four banks; the Franzen banks in Itasca and Fox Lake were sound throughout the hard times of the 1920s, emerged from the Depression. Telephone service had come to Itasca in 1899. Electricity was first installed in some homes in 1923; the bustling community soon gained another facility. The Itasca Country Club was opened in the spring of 1925; the rural village of the 1800s and early 1900s retained its atmosphere until the 1940s. A new word began to enter the American vocabulary: suburb; the influence of the city increased. Commuting daily to the Loop became the routine for many of the Village wage earners. By 1982, the population had grown to 7,192. Annexations had resulted in fifty miles of Village streets, more parks, two industrial areas to serve.
Providing safety and service as population increased required the establishment of departments of public works, of sewer and water, of building and police. A park district, a Village library, a fire district were formed. High school students from Itasca attended Bensenville's Fenton High School and Glenbard High School, a combined Glen Ellyn-Lombard school. A high school district, District 108, was organized in 1953. Lake Park High School, with students from Itasca, Medinah and Bloomingdale, opened in September 1956. Modern industry was foreign to Itasca until 1961 when Central Manufacturing District bought about 400 acres on the western edge of the village. An industrial park was established, such national companies as Continental Can and FMC soon moved in. In 1970, the Itasca Industrial Park was established to the east of the Village, attracted many more industries. Anvan Corporation built a Holiday Inn on Irving Park east of Route 53; the building was of modular construction, the first such hotel in the nation to be built in this manner.
In 1969, Carson Pirie Scott purchased Nordic Hills Country Club. Two 10-story tower hotel buil
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Medinah Country Club
Medinah Country Club is a private country club in Medinah, with nearly 600 members and 640 acres containing three golf courses, Lake Kadijah, swimming facilities, a golf learning center, golf shop, gun club, racket center and a Byzantine-style, mosque-evoking clubhouse with Oriental, Louis XIV and Italian architectural aspects. Medinah is known for its Course 3, now at 7,657 yards, which has hosted five major championships: three U. S. Opens and two PGA Championships, as well as the Ryder Cup in 2012; the club was founded in 1924 by the Medinah Shriners and by the late 1920s had 1,500 golfing and social members. The first golf course was opened in September of 1925, followed by Course 2 in 1926, Course 3 in 1928. During the construction of the courses, Richard G. Schmid, a Shriner and charter member of the club, had designed the clubhouse itself The Great Depression brought severe financial hardship and many members left; the club responded by waiving initiation fees, lowering dues, holding fundraising events, hosting professional golf tournaments.
Non-Shriners were allowed to apply for membership. World War II exacerbated membership fell far below capacity. Course 2 was closed and members helped with upkeep on the two remaining courses. During the post war era Medinah entered a period of gradual membership growth; the Duke of York once visited the club and remarked, "I've never seen such a place, it is quite strange, yet attractive." Medinah has three golf courses in a 54-hole complex. Many noted golf professionals have played Course 3, beginning with "Lighthorse" Harry Cooper at the Medinah Open in 1930. Other noted players include Gene Sarazen, Byron Nelson, Cary Middlecoff, Billy Casper, Gary Player, Hale Irwin and Tiger Woods. Tommy Armour, winner of multiple major championships and the namesake of a well-known golfing equipment brand, was Medinah's head pro for many years. Course 3 hosted the Western Open three times in 1939, 1962, 1966. Medinah's courses were designed by Tom Bendelow. Noted American golf course designer A. W. Tillinghast played a major role in the design changes to Course 3 in the 1930s.
In the 1930 Medinah Open, Lighthorse Harry played the course with a 63 in the second round. The junior course record of 68 is jointly held by Kenny Wittenberg. Medinah's board approved a redesign of the course, subject to the availability of funds and the return of adjacent land to the club by Medinah's four founders; the major redesign was followed by several more changes. Roger Packard's 1986 redesign in preparation for the U. S. Open brought substantial changes and was followed by Rees Jones' work in preparation for the 2006 PGA Championship, which extended Course 3 to 7,561 yards, at the time, the longest golf course in major championship history. Furthermore, Medinah Country Club is noted for the three waterfront par three holes in numbers 2, 13, 17. Medinah's Course 3 will play host to the BMW Championship in 2019. Woods's appearances at Medinah have enhanced the club's international reputation, his first win at the course was the 1999 PGA Championship. During the late afternoon of the final round, Sergio García hit a shot on the 16th hole that seemed to have at least earned the 19-year-old a playoff, but Woods maintained his focus before a raucous crowd and preserved a one-stroke win.
In 2006 Woods won by five strokes and became the first to win the PGA Championship twice on the same course. In recognition of this achievement Woods was made a member of the club. All held on Course 3: Bolded years are major championships on the PGA Tour. Denotes the winning margin after a playoff of 18 holes. 91 Holes denotes a sudden-death playoff was used after the score was tied following the 18-hole playoff. Medinah hosted the Ryder Cup in 2012, its first time in the state of Illinois, the first U. S. venue outside the eastern time zone since 1971. The full tournament took place between September 25–30, with the main competition taking place from September 28–30 on Course 3; the club offers various amenities to its members apart from the three golf courses. As they are a part of the club, each of these are exclusive to club members, throughout the year, the club holds various events where guests can be invited by members to experience the club's amenities; the clubhouse features six different member dining areas featuring food from Executive Chef Michael Ponzio.
These include a family style restaurant which features seasonal menu changes. A member bar. East and west verandas, outdoor seating areas that overlook one of the practive putting greens; the Oasis, the most casual setting of the country club, which serves as a bar and a family restaurant. The Backyard Patio and Grill, a resting spot near the pool and backyard practice putting green; the Golf Shop is a 3000 sq. ft. building separate from the main clubhouse. The shop included golf apparel and equipment; the driving range includes seven target greens as well as a short game area. The club has two practice putting greens, one located in the front of the clubhouse, one in the backyard. Located to the southeast side of the clubhouse, the pool features two diving boards, five competitive swim lanes, as well as a deck for seating. Near the poolside is the Cabana bar and a snack bar; the golf learning center has three virtual practice bays, a fitness bay, custom club fitting. The center first opened in the wint
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land, not governed by a local municipal corporation. Municipalities dissolve or disincorporate, which may happen if they become fiscally insolvent, services become the responsibility of a higher administration. Widespread unincorporated communities and areas are a distinguishing feature of the United States and Canada. In most other countries of the world, there are either no unincorporated areas at all, or these are rare. Unlike many other countries, Australia has only one level of local government beneath state and territorial governments. A local government area contains several towns and entire cities. Thus, aside from sparsely populated areas and a few other special cases all of Australia is part of an LGA. Unincorporated areas are in remote locations, cover vast areas or have small populations. Postal addresses in unincorporated areas, as in other parts of Australia use the suburb or locality names gazetted by the relevant state or territorial government.
Thus, there is any ambiguity regarding addresses in unincorporated areas. The Australian Capital Territory is in some sense an unincorporated area; the territorial government is directly responsible for matters carried out by local government. The far west and north of New South Wales constitutes the Unincorporated Far West Region, sparsely populated and warrants an elected council. A civil servant in the state capital manages such matters; the second unincorporated area of this state is Lord Howe Island. In the Northern Territory, 1.45% of the total area and 4.0% of the population are in unincorporated areas, including Unincorporated Top End Region, areas covered by the Darwin Rates Act—Nhulunbuy, Alyangula on Groote Eylandt in the northern region, Yulara in the southern region. In South Australia, 60% of the area is unincorporated and communities located within can receive municipal services provided by a state agency, the Outback Communities Authority. Victoria has 10 small unincorporated areas, which are either small islands directly administered by the state or ski resorts administered by state-appointed management boards.
Western Australia is exceptional in two respects. Firstly, the only remote area, unincorporated is the Abrolhos Islands, uninhabited and controlled by the WA Department of Fisheries. Secondly, the other unincorporated areas are A-class reserves either in, or close to, the Perth metropolitan area, namely Rottnest Island and Kings Park. In Canada, depending on the province, an unincorporated settlement is one that does not have a municipal council that governs over the settlement, it is but not always, part of a larger municipal government. This can range from small hamlets to large urbanized areas that are similar in size to towns and cities. For example, the urban service areas of Fort McMurray and Sherwood Park, of the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo and Strathcona County would be the fifth and sixth largest cities in Alberta if they were incorporated. In British Columbia, unincorporated settlements lie outside municipal boundaries and are administered directly by regional/county-level governments similar to the American system.
Unincorporated settlements with a population of between 100 and 1,000 residents may have the status of designated place in Canadian census data. In some provinces, large tracts of undeveloped wilderness or rural country are unorganized areas that fall directly under the provincial jurisdiction; some unincorporated settlements in such unorganized areas may have some types of municipal services provided to them by a quasi-governmental agency such as a local services board in Ontario. In New Brunswick where a significant population live in a Local Service District and services may come directly from the province; the entire area of the Czech Republic is divided into municipalities, with the only exception being 4 military areas. These are parts of the regions and do not form self-governing municipalities, but are rather governed by military offices, which are subordinate to the Ministry of Defense. † Brdy Military Area was abandoned by the Army in 2015 and converted into Landscape park, with its area being incorporated either into existing municipalities or municipalities newly established from the existing settlements.
The other four Military Areas were reduced in size in 2015 too. The decisions on whether the settlements join existing municipalities or form new ones are decided in plebiscites. Since Germany has no administrative level comparable to the townships of other countries, the vast majority of the country, close to 99%, is organized in municipalities consisting of multiple settlements which are not considered to be unincorporated; because these settlements lack a council of their own, there is an Ortsvorsteher / Ortsvorsteherin appointed by the municipal council, except in the smallest villages. In 2000, the number of unincorporated areas in Germany, called gemeindefreie Gebiete or singular gemeindefreies Gebiet, was 295 with a total area of 4,890.33 km² and around 1.4% of its territory. However
United States Golf Association
The United States Golf Association is the United States' national association of golf courses and facilities and the governing body of golf for the U. S. and Mexico. Together with The R&A, the USGA interprets the rules of golf; the USGA provides a national handicap system for golfers, conducts 14 national championships, including the U. S. Open, U. S. Women's Open and U. S. Senior Open, tests golf equipment for conformity with regulations; the USGA is headquartered at Golf House in New Jersey. The USGA was formed in 1894 to resolve the question of a national amateur championship. Earlier that year, the Newport Country Club and Saint Andrew's Golf Club, New York, both declared the winners of their tournaments the "national amateur champion." That autumn, delegates from Newport, St. Andrew's, The Country Club, Chicago Golf Club, Shinnecock Hills Golf Club met in New York City to form a national governing body, which would administer the championship and the Rules of Golf for the country. On December 22, 1894, the Amateur Golf Association of the United States was formed, was shortly thereafter renamed the "United States Golf Association."
Theodore Havemeyer was the first president, the U. S. Amateur trophy is named in his honor; the first U. S. Amateur was held in 1895 at the Newport Country Club, with Charles B. Macdonald winning the championship; the first U. S. Open was held the following day as an afterthought, it was not until 1898. Today, the USGA administers 14 separate national championships, ten of which are expressly for amateurs; the USGA expanded its membership from the original five clubs. There were 267 club members in 1910, 1,138 clubs by 1932. Membership fell off during the Great Depression and World War II, but recovered by 1947. By 1980 there were over 5,000 clubs, today membership exceeds 9,700. On September 17, 1956, Ann Gregory began competing in the U. S. Women's Amateur Championship, thus becoming the first African-American woman to play in a national championship conducted by the USGA; the USGA organizes or co-organizes the following competitions: An "open" golf championship is one which both professionals and amateurs may enter.
In practice, such events are always won by professionals nowadays. The two leading opens in the U. S. are: U. S. Open – no age or gender restrictions, Handicap Index requirement of 1.4 or less. Established in 1895, it is the second-oldest of the four major championships. U. S. Women's Open – females, no age restrictions, Handicap Index requirement of 2.4 or less. Established in 1946 and administered by the USGA since 1953, it is the oldest of the five women's majors; the last win by an amateur at the U. S. Open was 86 years ago in 1933 and an amateur has won the women's event only once, 52 years ago in 1967; the USGA conducts the U. S. Senior Open for competitors 50 and over; this is one of the five majors recognized by the world's dominant tour for golfers 50 and over, PGA Tour Champions. The overwhelming majority of the competitors play on this tour. Many of the remaining players compete on the European counterpart of PGA Tour Champions, the European Senior Tour, which recognizes the U. S. Senior Open as one of its three majors.
The USGA added a women's counterpart in 2018. U. S. Senior Open – no gender restriction, players age 50 & older, handicap index requirement of 3.4 or less, established in 1980. U. S. Senior Women's Open – women's players age 50 & older, established in 2018. Professional golf in the U. S. is run by the PGA Tour, the LPGA, the PGA of America. However, the USGA is at the heart of amateur golf in the country and organizes the 10 national amateur championships; the leading events are open to all age groups, but are won by golfers in their early twenties who are working towards a career in professional tournament golf: U. S. Amateur – no age or gender restrictions, handicap index of 2.4 or less, established in 1895. U. S. Women's Amateur – no age restrictions, females with a handicap index of 5.4 or less, established in 1895. There are two championships for players under age 18: U. S. Junior Amateur – no gender restriction, handicap index of 6.4 or less, established in 1948 U. S. Girls' Junior – girls with a handicap index of 18.4 or less, established in 1949And two for senior golfers: U.
S. Senior Amateur – no gender restriction, players age 55 & older, handicap index of 7.4 or less, established in 1955 U. S. Senior Women's Amateur – women age 50 & older with a handicap index of 18.4 or less, established in 1962Because the U. S. Amateur and U. S. Women's Amateur became dominated by future tournament professionals, two national championships were added in the 1980s for "career amateurs" who were 25 years of age & older: U. S. Mid-Amateur – no gender restriction, players age 25 & older, handicap index of 3.4 or less, established in 1981 U. S. Women's Mid-Amateur – women age 25 & older with a handicap index of 9.4 or less, established in 1987 These team events were announced by the USGA in 2013 as the replacements for the discontinued Public Links championships, played for the first time in 2015. Both are contested by two-member teams in four-ball matches. Partners are not required to be from political subdivision, or country. U. S. Amateur Four-Ball – no age or gender restrictions. S.
Women's Amateur Four-Ball – no age restrictions, females with a handicap index of 14.4 or less The USGA men's and women's state team championships were first conducted in 1995 as a part of the USGA's Centennial celebration. The two championships were conducted biennially in odd-numbered years through 2009. Since 2010, the men's championship
Metra is a commuter railroad in the Chicago metropolitan area. The railroad operates 242 stations on 11 different rail lines, it is the fourth busiest commuter rail system in the United States by ridership and the largest and busiest commuter rail system outside the New York City metropolitan area. There were 83.4 million passenger rides in 2014, up 1.3% from the previous year. The estimated busiest day for Metra ridership occurred on November 4, 2016—the day of the Chicago Cubs 2016 World Series victory rally. Using Chicago's rail infrastructure, much of which dates to the 1850s, the Illinois General Assembly established the parent Regional Transportation Authority to consolidate all public transit operations in the Chicago area, including commuter rail; the RTA's creation was a result of the anticipated failure of commuter service operated and owned by various private railroad companies in the 1970s. In 1984, RTA formed a commuter rail division to focus on rail operations, which branded itself as Metra in 1985.
Freight rail companies still operate some Metra routes under contracted service agreements. Metra owns all rolling stock and is responsible for all stations along with the respective municipalities. Since its inception, Metra has directed more than $5 billion into the commuter rail system of the Chicago metropolitan area. Since its founding in the 19th century, Chicago has been a major Midwestern hub in the North American rail network, it has more trackage radiating in more directions than any other city in North America. Railroads set up their headquarters in the city and Chicago became a center for building freight cars, passenger cars and diesel locomotives. By the 1930s Chicago had the world's largest public transportation system, but commuter rail services started to decline. By the mid-1970s, the commuter lines faced an uncertain future; the Burlington Northern, Milwaukee Road and North Western and Illinois Central were losing money and were using passenger cars dating as far back as the 1920s.
To provide stability to the commuter rail system, the Illinois General Assembly formed the Regional Transportation Authority in 1974. Its purpose was to plan the Chicago region's public transportation. In the beginning the Regional Transportation Authority commuter train fleet consisted of second-hand equipment, until 1976 when the first order of new EMD F40PH locomotives arrived; that F40PH fleet is still in service today. The companies that had long provided commuter rail in the Chicago area continued to operate their lines under contract to the RTA. Less than a decade the Regional Transportation Authority was suffering from ongoing financial problems. Additionally, two rail providers, the Rock Island Line and the Milwaukee Road, went bankrupt, forcing the RTA to create the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation to operate their lines directly in 1982. In 1983 the Illinois Legislature reorganized the agency; that reorganization left the Regional Transportation Authority in charge of day-to-day operations of all bus, heavy rail and commuter rail services throughout the Chicago metropolitan area.
It was responsible for directing fare and service levels, setting up budgets, finding sources for capital investment and planning. A new Commuter Rail Division was created to handle commuter rail operations; the board of the RTA Commuter Rail Division first met in 1984. In an effort to simplify the operation of commuter rail in the Chicago area, in July 1985 it adopted a unified brand for the entire system–Metra, or Metropolitan Rail; the newly reorganized Metra service helped to bring a single identity to the many infrastructure components serviced by the Regional Transportation Authority's commuter rail system. However, the system is still known as the Commuter Rail Division of the RTA. Today, Metra's operating arm, the Northeast Illinois Regional Commuter Railroad Corporation, operates seven Metra owned routes. Four other routes continue to be operated by Union BNSF under contract to Metra. Service throughout the network is provided under the Metra name. Metra owns all rolling stock, controls fares and staffing levels, is responsible for most of the stations.
However, the freight carriers who operate routes under contract use their own employees and control the right-of-way for those routes. In the late 20th and early 21st century Metra experienced record ridership and expanded its services. In 1996 Metra organized its first new line, the North Central Service, running from Union Station to Antioch. By 2006 it added new intermediate stops to that same route, extended the Union Pacific / West Line from Geneva to Elburn and extended SouthWest Service from Orland Park to Manhattan. In 2012 it boasted 95.8% average on-time performance. It posted its fourth highest volume in its history despite decreases in employment opportunities in downtown Chicago. Metra continued to improve passenger service. Over the past three decades, Metra has invested more than $5 billion into its infrastructure; that investment has been used to purchase new rolling stock, build new stations, renovate tracks, modernize signal systems and upgrade support facilities. In addition to core improvements on the Union Pacific Northwest and Union Pacific West routes, planning advanced on two new Metra routes, SouthEast Service and the Suburban Transit Access Route.
Metra has been marred by allegations and investigations of corruption. In April 2002, board member