Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves, it conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, the roots. Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons and paper. More it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.
As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of, commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for building construction. A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick yielded the earliest known plants to have grown wood 395 to 400 million years ago. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for thousands of years for many purposes, including as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, weapons, packaging and paper. Known constructions using wood date back ten thousand years. Buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made of wood. Recent use of wood has been enhanced by the addition of bronze into construction; the year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at the time a tree was cut.
Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, roots. This process is known as secondary growth; these cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed of cellulose and lignin. Where the differences between the four seasons are distinct, e.g. New Zealand, growth can occur in a discrete annual or seasonal pattern, leading to growth rings. If the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are to be indistinct or absent. If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar. If there are differences within a growth ring the part of a growth ring nearest the center of the tree, formed early in the growing season when growth is rapid, is composed of wider elements.
It is lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring, is known as earlywood or springwood. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are major differences, depending on the kind of wood; as a tree grows, lower branches die, their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. The dead branch may not be attached to the trunk wood except at its base, can drop out after the tree has been sawn into boards. Knots affect the technical properties of the wood reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain, but may be exploited for visual effect. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a circular "solid" piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows". Within a knot, the direction of the wood is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. In the tree a knot is either the base of a dormant bud.
A knot is conical in shape with the inner tip at the point in stem diameter at which the plant's vascular cambium was located when the branch formed as a bud. In grading lumber and structural timber, knots are classified according to their form, size and the firmness with which they are held in place; this firmness is affected by, among other factors, the length of time for which the branch was dead while the attaching stem continued to grow. Knots materially affect cracking and warping, ease in working, cleavability of timber, they are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The weakening effect is much more serious when timber is subjected to forces perpendicular to the grain and/or tension than when under load along the grain and/or compression; the extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size and condition. A knot on the upper side is compressed. If there is a season check
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Depending on taxonomic viewpoint, between 50 and 67 species of junipers are distributed throughout the Northern Hemisphere, from the Arctic, south to tropical Africa, from Ziarat, east to eastern Tibet in the Old World, in the mountains of Central America; the highest-known juniper forest occurs at an altitude of 16,000 ft in southeastern Tibet and the northern Himalayas, creating one of the highest tree-lines on earth. Junipers vary in size and shape from tall trees, 20–40 m tall, to columnar or low-spreading shrubs with long, trailing branches, they are evergreen with needle-like and/or scale-like leaves. They can be either dioecious; the female seed cones are distinctive, with fleshy, fruit-like coalescing scales which fuse together to form a "berry"-like structure, 4–27 mm long, with one to 12 unwinged, hard-shelled seeds. In some species, these "berries" are red-brown or orange; the seed maturation time varies between species from 6 to 18 months after pollination.
The male cones are similar to those of other Cupressaceae, with six to 20 scales. In zones 7 through 10, junipers can release pollen several times each year. A few species of junipers bloom in autumn, while most species pollinate from early winter until late spring. Many junipers have two types of leaves; when juvenile foliage occurs on mature plants, it is most found on shaded shoots, with adult foliage in full sunlight. Leaves on fast-growing'whip' shoots are intermediate between juvenile and adult. In some species, all the foliage is with no scale leaves. In some of these, the needles are jointed at the base, in others, the needles merge smoothly with the stem, not jointed; the needle-leaves of junipers are hard and sharp, making the juvenile foliage prickly to handle. This can be a valuable identification feature in seedlings, as the otherwise similar juvenile foliage of cypresses and other related genera is soft and not prickly. Juniper is the exclusive food plant of the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including Bucculatrix inusitata and juniper carpet, is eaten by the larvae of other Lepidoptera species such as Chionodes electella, Chionodes viduella, juniper pug, pine beauty.
Junipers are gymnosperms, which means they have no flowers or fruits. Depending on the species, the seeds they produce take 1 -- 3 years; the impermeable coat of the seed keeps water from getting in and protects the embryo when being dispersed. It can result in a long dormancy, broken by physically damaging the seed coat. Dispersal can occur from being swallowed whole by mammals; the resistance of the seed coat allows it to be passed down through the digestive system and out without being destroyed along the way. These seeds last a long time, as they can be dispersed long distances over the course of a few years; the number of juniper species is in dispute, with two recent studies giving different totals, Farjon accepting 52 species, Adams accepting 67 species. The junipers are divided into several sections, though which species belong to which sections is still far from clear, with research still on-going; the section Juniperus is an obvious monophyletic group though. Juniperus sect. Juniperus: Needle-leaf junipers.
The adult leaves are needle-like, in whorls of three, jointed at the base. Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Juniperus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus communis – Common juniper Juniperus communis subsp. Alpina – Alpine juniper Juniperus conferta – Shore juniper Juniperus rigida – Temple juniper or needle juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Oxycedrus: Cones with 3 separate seeds. Juniperus brevifolia – Azores juniper Juniperus cedrus – Canary Islands juniper Juniperus deltoides – Eastern prickly juniper Juniperus formosana – Chinese prickly juniper Juniperus lutchuensis – Ryukyu juniper Juniperus navicularis – Portuguese prickly juniper Juniperus oxycedrus – Western prickly juniper or cade juniper Juniperus macrocarpa – Large-berry juniper Juniperus sect. Juniperus subsect. Caryocedrus: Cones with 3 seeds fused together. Juniperus drupacea – Syrian juniperJuniperus sect. Sabina: Scale-leaf junipers; the adult leaves are scale-like, similar to those of Cupressus species, in opposite pairs or whorls of three, the juvenile needle-like leaves are not jointed at the base.
Provisionally, all the other junipers are included here. Old World species Juniperus chinensis – Chinese juniper Juniperus convallium – Mekong juniper Juniperus excelsa – Greek juniper Juniperus excelsa polycarpos – Persian juniper Juniperus foetidissima – Stinking juniper Juniperus indica – Black juniper Juniperus komarovii – Komarov's juniper Juniperus phoenicea – Phoenicean juniper Juniperus pingii – Ping juniper Juniperus procera – East African juniper Juniperus procumbens – Ibuki juniper Juniperu
Aspen is a common name for certain tree species. These species are called aspens: Populus adenopoda – Chinese aspen Populus davidiana – Korean aspen Populus grandidentata – Bigtooth aspen Populus sieboldii – Japanese aspen Populus tremula – Eurasian aspen Populus tremuloides – Quaking aspen or trembling aspen The aspens are all native to cold regions with cool summers, in the north of the Northern Hemisphere, extending south at high-altitude areas such as mountains or high plains, they are all medium-sized deciduous trees reaching 15–30 m tall. In North America, it is referred to as Quaking Aspen or Trembling Aspen because the leaves "quake" or tremble in the wind; this is due to their flattened petioles which reduces aerodynamic drag on branches. Aspens grow in environments that are otherwise dominated by coniferous tree species, which are lacking other large deciduous tree species. Aspens have evolved several adaptations. One is the flattened leaf petiole, which reduces aerodynamic drag during high winds and decreases the likelihood of trunk or branch damage.
Dropping leaves in the winter helps to prevent damage from heavy winter snow. Additionally, the bark is photosynthetic, meaning that growth is still possible after the leaves have been dropped; the bark contains lenticels that serve as pores for gas exchange. Aspens are aided by the rhizomatic nature of their root systems. Most aspens grow in large clonal colonies, derived from a single seedling, spread by means of root suckers; each individual tree can live for 40–150 years above ground, but the root system of the colony is long-lived. In some cases, this is for thousands of years, sending up new trunks as the older trunks die off above ground. For this reason, it is considered to be an indicator of ancient woodlands. One such colony in Utah, given the nickname of "Pando", is estimated to be 80,000 years old, making it the oldest living colony of aspens; some aspen colonies become large with time, spreading about 1 m per year covering many hectares. They are able to survive forest fires, because the roots are below the heat of the fire, new sprouts appear after the fire burns out.
The high stem turnover rate combined with the clonal growth leads to proliferation in aspen colonies. The high stem turnover regime supports a diverse herbaceous understory. Aspens do not thrive in the shade, it is difficult for seedlings to grow in an mature aspen stand. Fire indirectly benefits aspen trees, since it allows the saplings to flourish in open sunlight in the burned landscape, devoid of other competing tree species. Aspens have increased in popularity as a forestry cultivation species because of their fast growth rate and ability to regenerate from sprouts; this lowers the cost of reforestation after harvesting since no sowing is required. Aspen populations have been declining in some areas; this may be due to several different factors, such as climate change, which exacerbates drought and modifies precipitation patterns. Recruitment failure from herbivory or grazing prevents new trees from coming up. Additionally, successional replacement by conifers due to fire suppression alters forest diversity and creates conditions where aspen may be at less of an advantage.
Sudden aspen death is occurring more as a result of drought stress. In contrast with many trees, aspen bark is base-rich, meaning aspens are important hosts for bryophytes and act as food plants for the larvae of butterfly species—see List of Lepidoptera that feed on poplars. Young aspen bark is an important seasonal forage for the European hare and other animals in early spring. Aspen is a preferred food of the European beaver. Elk and moose not only eat the leaves but strip the bark with their front teeth. Aspen wood is white and soft, but strong, has low flammability, it has a number of uses, notably for making matches and paper where its low flammability makes it safer to use than most other woods. Shredded aspen wood is used for stuffing, sometimes called excelsior. Aspen flakes are the most common species of wood used to make oriented strand boards, it is a popular animal bedding, since it lacks the phenols associated with pine and juniper, which are thought to cause respiratory system ailments in some animals.
Heat-treated aspen is a popular material for the interiors of saunas. While standing trees sometimes tend to rot from the heart outward, the dry timber weathers well, becoming silvery-grey and resistant to rotting and warping, has traditionally been used for rural construction in the northwestern regions of Russia. Fox, Linda E. Tackaberry, Pascal Drouin, Yves Bergeron, Robert L. Bradley, Hughes B. Massicotte, Han Chen. "Microbial community structure of soils under four productivity classes of aspen forests in Northern British Columbia". Ecoscience 20:264–275. Doi:10.2980/20-3-3611. Aspen Information Resource, U. K. Quaking Aspen Forests of the Colorado Plateau Bioimages: Populus grandidentata bigtooth aspen Aspen Research Bibliography Aspen Photo Gallery Aspen Compounds, Medicinal Benefits and Uses Loyola Medicine: Aspen Dosage, Interaction and Side Effects Steens Aspen V
History of wood carving
Wood carving is one of the oldest arts of humankind. Wooden spears from the Middle Paleolithic, such as the Clacton Spear, show that people have engaged in utilitarian woodwork for millennia. Indeed the beginnings of the craft go so far back that, at least where timber is present, the use of wood exists as a universal in human culture as both a means to create or enhance technology and as a medium for artistry; the North American Indian carves his wooden fish-hook or his pipe stem just as the Polynesian works patterns on his paddle. The native of Guyana decorates his cavassa grater with a well-conceived scheme of incised scrolls, while the native of Loango Bay distorts his spoon with a design of figures standing up in full relief carrying a hammock. Wood carving is present in architecture. Figure-work seems to have been universal. To carve a figure/design in wood may be not only more difficult but less satisfactory than sculpting with marble, owing to the tendency of wood to crack, to be damaged by insects, or to suffer from changes in the atmosphere.
The texture of the material, too proves challenging to the expression of features in the classic type of youthful face. On the other hand, magnificent examples exist of the more rugged features of age: the beetling brows, the furrows and lines neutralizing the defects of the grain of the wood. In ancient work the surface may not have been of such consequence, for figures as a rule being painted for protection and color, it is not always realized at the present day to what extent color has from the most ancient times been used to enhance the effect of wood-carving and sculpture. The modern colour prejudice against gold and other tints is because painted work has been vulgarized; the arrangement of a proper and harmonious scheme of colour is not the work of the house painter, but of the specially trained artist. In the early 20th century, the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, on which much of this entry is based, commented, "Of late years carving has gone out of fashion; the work is slow and requires substantial skill, making the works expensive.
Other and cheaper methods of decoration have driven carving from its former place. Machine work has much to answer for, the endeavor to popularize the craft by means of the village class has not always achieved its own end; the gradual disappearance of the individual artist, elbowed out as he has been, by the contractor, is fatal to the continuance of an art which can never flourish when done at so much a yard." This statement has proven untrue, as the continued survival of the art and craft of woodcarving can be demonstrated by the large number of woodcarvers who have carried on or advanced the tradition in different parts of the world. The extreme dryness of the climate of Egypt accounts for the existence of a number of woodcarvings from this remote period; some wood panels from the tomb of Hosul Egypt, at Sakkarah are of the III. Dynasty; the carving consists of Egyptian hieroglyphs and figures in low relief, the style is delicate and fine. A stool shown on one of the panels has the legs shaped like the fore and hind limbs of an animal, a form common in Egypt for thousands of years.
In the Cairo museum may be seen the statue of a man from the period of the Great Pyramid of Giza 4000 B. C; the expression of the face and the realism of the carriage have never been surpassed by any Egyptian sculptor of this or any other period. The figure is carved out of a solid block of sycamore, in accordance with the Egyptian custom the arms are joined on; the eyes are inlaid with pieces of opaque white quartz, with a line of bronze surrounding to imitate the lid. The IV. V. and VI. dynasties cover the finest period of Egyptian sculpture. The statues found in the tombs show a freedom of treatment, never reached in times, they are all portraits, which the artist strove his utmost to render like his model. For these are not, like mere modern statues works of art, but had a religious signification; as the spirits of the deceased might inhabit, these Ka statues, the features and proportions were copied. There are to be found in the principal museums of Europe many Egyptian examples: mummy cases of human beings with the face alone carved, animal mummy cases, sometimes boxes, with the figure of a lizard carved in full Mummy relief standing on the lid.
Sometimes the animal would be carved in its hollowed body used as the case itself. Of furniture, folding seats like the modern camp stool, chairs with legs terminating in the heads of beasts or the feet of animals, Furniture still exist. Beds supported by lions paws XI. and XII. dynasties, from Gebelein, now in the Cairo Museum), headrests, 6 or 8 in. High, shaped like a crutch on a foot like those used by the native of New Guinea today, are carved with scenes, etc. in outline. In the British Museum may be seen a tiny little coffer, 4 in. by 21/2 in. with delicate figures carved in low relief. This little box stands on cabriole legs 3/4 of an inch long with claw feet, quite Louis Quinze in character. There are incense ladles, the handle representing a bouquet of lotus flowers, the bowl formed like the leaf of an aquatic plant with serrated edges from Gurnah during the XVIII. Dynasty.
A cabinet is a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers for storing miscellaneous items. Some cabinets stand alone while others are built in to a wall or are attached to it like a medicine cabinet. Cabinets are made of wood, coated steel, or synthetic materials. Commercial grade cabinets, which differ in the materials used, are called casework, casegoods, or case furniture. Cabinets have one or more doors on the front, which are mounted with door hardware, a lock. Cabinets may have one or more doors, and/or shelves. Short cabinets have a finished surface on top that can be used for display, or as a working surface, such as the countertops found in kitchens. A cabinet intended to be used in a bedroom and with several drawers placed one above another in one or more columns intended for clothing and small articles is called a chest of drawers. A small bedside cabinet is more called a nightstand or night table. A tall cabinet intended for clothing storage including hanging of clothes is called a wardrobe or an armoire, or a closet if built-in.
Before the advent of industrial design, cabinet makers were responsible for the conception and the production of any piece of furniture. In the last half of the 18th century, cabinet makers, such as Thomas Sheraton, Thomas Chippendale and Wormley Bros. Cabinet Constructors, George Hepplewhite published books of furniture forms; these books were those of other cabinet makers. The most famous cabinetmaker before the advent of industrial design is André-Charles Boulle and his legacy is known as "Boulle Work" and the École Boulle, a college of fine arts and crafts and applied arts in Paris, today bears testimony to his Art. With the industrial revolution and the application of steam power to cabinet making tools, mass production techniques were applied to nearly all aspects of cabinet making, the traditional cabinet shop ceased to be the main source of furniture, domestic or commercial. In parallel to this evolution there came a growing demand by the rising middle class in most industrialised countries for finely made furniture.
This resulted in a growth in the total number of traditional cabinet makers. Before 1650, fine furniture was a rarity in North America. People did not need it and for the most part could not afford it, they made do with serviceable pieces. The arts and craft movement which started in the United Kingdom in the middle of the 19th century spurred a market for traditional cabinet making, other craft goods, it spread to the United States and to all the countries in the British Empire. This movement exemplified the reaction to the eclectic historicism of the Victorian era and to the'soulless' machine-made production, starting to become widespread. After World War II woodworking became a popular hobby among the middle classes; the more serious and skilled amateurs in this field now turn out pieces of furniture which rival the work of professional cabinet makers. Together, their work now represents but a small percentage of furniture production in any industrial country, but their numbers are vastly greater than those of their counterparts in the 18th century and before.
This style of design is typified by clean vertical lines. Compared to other designs there is a distinct absence of ornamentation. While Scandinavian design is easy to identify, it is much more about the materials than the design; this style of design is ornate. French Provincial objects are stained or painted, leaving the wood concealed. Corners and bevels are decorated with gold leaf or given some other kind of gilding. Flat surfaces have artwork such as landscapes painted directly on them; the wood used in French provincial varied, but was originally beech. This design emphasises materials. Early American chairs and tables are constructed with turned spindles and chair backs constructed using steaming to bend the wood. Wood choices tend to be deciduous hardwoods with a particular emphasis on the wood of edible or fruit-bearing trees such as cherry or walnut; the rustic style of design sometimes called "log cabin" is the least finished. Design is utilitarian yet seeks to feature not only the materials used but in, as much as possible, how they existed in their natural state.
For example, a table top may have what is considered a "live edge" that allows you to see the original contours of the tree that it came from. It often uses whole logs or branches including the bark of the tree. Rustic furniture is made from pine, cedar and spruce. See Adirondack Architecture. Mission Design is characterized by flat panels; the most common material used in Mission furniture is oak. For early mission cabinetmakers, the material of choice was white oak, which they darkened through a process known as "fuming". Hardware is visible on the outside of the pieces and made of black iron, it is a style. Known as Asian Design, this style of furniture is characterized by its use of materials such as bamboo and rattan. Red is a frequent color choice along with landscape art and Chinese or other Asian language characters on the pieces. Shaker furniture design is focused on symmetry; because it is so influenced by an egalitarian religious community and tradition it is rooted in the needs of the community versus the creat
Bow and arrow
The bow and arrow is a ranged weapon system consisting of an elastic launching device and long-shafted projectiles. Archery is the practice, or skill of using bows to shoot arrows. A person who shoots arrows with a bow is called an archer. Someone who makes bows is known as a bowyer, one who makes arrows is a fletcher, one who manufactures metal arrowheads is an arrowsmith; the use of bows and arrows by humans for hunting predates recorded history and was common to many prehistoric cultures. They were important weapons of war from ancient history until the early modern period, where they were rendered obsolete by the development of the more powerful and accurate firearms, were dropped from warfare. Today and arrows are used for hunting and sports. A bow consists of a semi-rigid but elastic arc with a high-tensile bowstring joining the ends of the two limbs of the bow. An arrow is a projectile with a pointed tip and a long shaft with stabilizer fins towards the back, with a narrow notch at the end to contact the bowstring.
To load an arrow for shooting, the archer places an arrow across the middle of the bow with the bowstring in the arrow's nock. To shoot, the archer pulls back the arrow and the bowstring, which in turn flexes the bow limbs, storing elastic energy. While maintaining the draw, the archer sights along the arrow to aim it; the archer releases the arrow, allowing the limbs' stored potential energy to convert into kinetic energy, transmitted via the bowstring to the arrow, propelling it to fly forward with high velocity. A container or bag for additional arrows for quick reloading is called a quiver; when not in use, bows are kept unstrung, meaning one or both ends of the bowstring are detached from the bow. This removes all residual tension on the bow, can help prevent it from losing strength or elasticity over time. For many bow designs, this lets it straighten out more reducing the space needed to store the bow. Returning the bowstring to its ready-to-use position is called stringing the bow; the bow and arrow appears around the transition from the Upper Paleolithic to the Mesolithic.
After the end of the last glacial period, use of the bow seems to have spread to every inhabited region, except for Australasia and most of Oceania. The earliest definite remains of bow and arrow are from Europe. Possible fragments from Germany were found at Mannheim-Vogelstang dated 17,500-18,000 years ago, at Stellmoor dated 11,000 years ago. Azilian points found in Grotte du Bichon, alongside the remains of both a bear and a hunter, with flint fragments found in the bear's third vertebra, suggest the use of arrows at 13,500 years ago. At the site of Nataruk in Turkana County, obsidian bladelets found embedded in a skull and within the thoracic cavity of another skeleton, suggest the use of stone-tipped arrows as weapons about 10,000 years ago. Microliths discovered on the south coast of Africa suggest that projectile weapons of some sort may be at least 71,000 years old; the oldest extant bows in one piece are the elm Holmegaard bows from Denmark which were dated to 9,000 BCE. Several bows from Holmegaard, date 8,000 years ago.
High-performance wooden bows are made following the Holmegaard design. The Stellmoor bow fragments from northern Germany were dated to about 8,000 BCE, but they were destroyed in Hamburg during the Second World War, before carbon 14 dating was available; the bow was an important weapon for both hunting and warfare from prehistoric times until the widespread use of gunpowder in the 16th century. Organised warfare with bows ended in the mid 17th century in Europe, but it persisted into the early 19th century in Eastern cultures and in hunting and tribal warfare in the New World. In the Canadian Arctic bows were made until the end of the 20th century for hunting caribou, for instance at Igloolik; the bow has more been used as a weapon of tribal warfare in some parts of Sub-Saharan Africa. The British upper class led a revival of archery from the late 18th century. Sir Ashton Lever, an antiquarian and collector, formed the Toxophilite Society in London in 1781, under the patronage of George Prince of Wales.
The basic elements of a bow are a pair of curved elastic limbs, traditionally made from wood, joined by a riser. Both ends of the limbs are connected by a string known as the bow string. By pulling the string backwards the archer exerts compressive force on the string-facing section, or belly, of the limbs as well as placing the outer section, or back, under tension. While the string is held, this stores the energy released in putting the arrow to flight; the force required to hold the string stationary at full draw is used to express the power of a bow, is known as its draw weight, or weight. Other things being equal, a higher draw weight means a more powerful bow, able to project heavier arrows at the same velocity or the same arrow at a greater velocity; the various parts of the bow can be subdivided into further sections. The topmost limb is known as the upper limb. At the tip of each limb is a nock, used to attach the bowstring to the limbs; the riser is divided into the grip, held by the archer, as well as the arrow rest and the bow window.
The arrow rest is a small ledge or extension above the grip which the arrow rests upon while being aimed. The bow window is that part of the