The Don is one of the major Eurasian rivers of Russia and the fifth-longest river in Europe. The Don basin is between the Dnieper basin to the west, the Volga basin to the east, the Oka basin to the north; the Don rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast of Tula, flows for a distance of about 1,870 kilometres to the Sea of Azov. From its source, the river first flows southeast to Voronezh southwest to its mouth; the main city on the river is Rostov on Don. Its main tributary is the Seversky Donets. According to the Kurgan hypothesis, the Volga-Don river region was the homeland of the Proto-Indo-Europeans c. 4000BC. The Don river functioned as a fertile cradle of civilization where the Neolithic farmer culture of the Near East fused with the hunter-gatherer culture of Siberian groups, resulting in the nomadic pastoralism of the Proto-Indo-Europeans. In antiquity, the river was viewed as the border between Europe and Asia by some ancient Greek geographers. In the Book of Jubilees, it is mentioned as being part of the border, beginning with its easternmost point up to its mouth, between the allotments of sons of Noah, that of Japheth to the north and that of Shem to the south.
During the times of the old Scythians it was known in Greek as the Tanaïs and has been a major trading route since. Tanais appears in ancient Greek sources as both the name of the river and of a city on it, situated in the Maeotian marshes. Pliny gives the Scythian name of the Tanais as Silys. According to Plutarch, the Don River was home to the legendary Amazons of Greek mythology; the area around the estuary is speculated to be the source of the Black Death. While the lower Don was well known to ancient geographers, its middle and upper reaches were not mapped with any accuracy before the gradual conquest of the area by Muscovy in the 16th century; the Don Cossacks, who settled the fertile valley of the river in the 16th and 17th centuries, were named after the river. The fort of Donkov was founded by the princes of Ryazan in the late 14th century; the fort stood on the left bank of the Don, about 34 kilometers from the modern town of Dankov, until 1568, when it was destroyed by the Crimean Tatars, but soon restored at a better fortified location.
It is shown as Donko in Mercator's Atlas, Donkov was again relocated in 1618, appearing as Donkagorod in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Both Blaeu and Mercator follow the 16th-century cartographic tradition of letting the Don originate in a great lake, labelled Resanskoy ozera by Blaeu. Mercator still follows Giacomo Gastaldo in showing a waterway connecting this lake to Ryazan and the Oka River. Mercator shows Mtsensk as a great city on this waterway, suggesting a system of canals connecting the Don with the Zusha and Upa centered on a settlement Odoium, reported as Odoium lacum in the map made by Baron Augustin von Mayerberg, leader of an embassy to Muscovy in 1661. In modern literature, the Don region was featured in the work And Quiet Flows the Don by Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov, a Nobel-prize winning writer from the stanitsa of Veshenskaya. At its easternmost point, the Don comes near the Volga, the Volga-Don Canal, connecting the two rivers, is a major waterway; the water level of the Don in this area is raised by the Tsimlyansk Dam, forming the Tsimlyansk Reservoir.
For the next 130 kilometres below the Tsimlyansk Dam, the sufficient water depth in the Don River is maintained by the sequence of three dam-and-ship-lock complexes: the Nikolayevsky Ship Lock, Konstantinovsk Ship Lock, the best known of the three, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock. The Kochetovsky Lock, built in 1914–1919 and doubled in 2004–2008, is 7.5 kilometres below the fall of the Seversky Donets into the Don, 131 kilometres upstream of Rostov-on-Don, the Kochetovsky Ship Lock is located. This facility, with its dam, maintains sufficient water level both in its section of the Don and in the lowermost stretch of the Seversky Donets; this is presently the last lock on the Don. In order to improve shipping conditions in the lower reaches of the Don, the waterway authorities support the proposals for the construction of one or two more low dams with locks, in Bagayevsky District and also in Aksaysky District. Main tributaries from source to mouth: Krasivaya Mecha Bystraya Sosna Veduga Voronezh Tikhaya Sosna Bityug Black Kalitva Khopyor – 1,010 kilometres Medveditsa Ilovlya Chir Seversky Donets – 1,053 kilometres Aidar – 264 kilometres Sal Manych Aksay Temernik Don goat And Quiet Flows The Don Rostov railway drawbridge Don at GEOnet Names Server
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
A river mouth is the part of a river where the river debouches into another river, a lake, a reservoir, a sea, or an ocean. The water from a river can enter the receiving body in a variety of different ways; the motion of a river is influenced by the relative density of the river compared to the receiving water, the rotation of the earth, any ambient motion in the receiving water, such as tides or seiches. If the river water has a higher density than the surface of the receiving water, the river water will plunge below the surface; the river water will either form an underflow or an interflow within the lake. However, if the river water is lighter than the receiving water, as is the case when fresh river water flows into the sea, the river water will float along the surface of the receiving water as an overflow. Alongside these advective transports, inflowing water will diffuse. At the mouth of a river, the change in flow condition can cause the river to drop any sediment it is carrying; this sediment deposition can generate a variety of landforms, such as deltas, sand bars and tie channels.
Many places in the United Kingdom take their names from their positions at the mouths of rivers, such as Plymouth and Great Yarmouth. Confluence River delta Estuary Liman
Saratov Oblast is a federal subject of Russia, located in the Volga Federal District. Its administrative center is the city of Saratov; as of the 2010 Census, its population was 2,521,892. The oblast is located in the southeast of European Russia, in the northern part of the Lower Volga region. From west to east its territory stretches for 575 kilometers, from north to south for 330 kilometers; the oblast borders on: Volgograd Oblast to the south Voronezh and Tambov oblasts to the west Penza and Ulyanovsk oblasts to the north. The oblast has many water resources: besides the river Volga there are many identified sources and mineral-water deposits. More than 40 small oil and gas fields have been explored in the region, with the unexplored part of the promising areas being unexplored. Explored a lot of oil shale deposits, including a large Ozinskoye, deposits of quality cement raw materials, construction and glass sands, construction clay and stone; the climate in the region is temperate: a long dry hot summer, on the left bank of Volga river a considerable number of days with a temperature above +30 °C.
Winter is frosty, the average number of days with precipitation is 12-15 per month, with fogs an average of 4–10 days per month, With snowstorms - an average of 4–10 days a month. Spring is short. In March, drifts on roads, an average of 5–7 days are possible. Days with fogs in March averaged 5–9. In the spring with the last decade of March to the third decade of April, a limit is imposed on the roads with a hard surface on the movement of heavy vehicles, the beginning of, timed to the transition of the average daily temperature through 0. Autumn does not differ from year to year by the constancy of the weather. A stable snow cover is created in the northern regions by November 25, in the central and southern regions - from November 29 to December 8; the region crosses the climatic separating and wind-destroying Voeykov axis, it passes on average through the eastern and northern regions of the region, sometimes falling to the south, to the border of the forest and forest-steppe zones, which goes northwards in the spring, which affects the climate of the region.
The modern ecological state of the Saratov oblast is critical. Continued intensive pollution of the environment as production increases; the fuel and petrochemical industries are developing more dynamically than the average for Russia. The foreign trade turnover of the Saratov region in 2011 increased by 36.8%. The basis of exports is the products of energy and petrochemical complex. Products of machine building continue to be delivered to the countries of the near abroad. With the economic growth of the region, environmental damage is increasing. To date, the ecological state of the Saratov oblast is not improving. Measures are not taken to prevent uncontrolled impacts. All marked negative manifestations occur against the background of dangerous natural processes: landslides, earthquakes, flooding. To solve a whole range of environmental problems, the Committee for Environmental Protection and Nature Management of the Saratov oblast developed the "Program for Stabilization and Improvement of the Ecological Situation in the Territory of the Saratov oblast", based on the proposals of the administrations of cities and districts of the region, city district environmental committees and organizations Region.
The program is financed from budgets of different levels, funds of environmental funds and organizations of the region. As a result, the volume of capital expenditures aimed at protecting the environment of the region increased due to all sources of financing. Objects of the public are unknown. In the dumps and storehouses of enterprises in the Saratov oblast is located 24 million tons of industrial waste: 1 class of danger - 3,5 thousand tons. In 1998, about 1.5 million tons of industrial wastes of 1-4 hazard classes were formed in the region, about 2 million tons of solid household waste. Compared to 1997, there was a decrease in the gross volume of industrial waste generation by 11%, associated with a fall in production volumes. A dangerous enterprise in Saratov is the AIT plant, which pollutes not only its own territory, but the adjacent residential area; this enterprise for a long time exported to the dump of the Alexander Village Soviet production waste containing nickel and cadmium. In dumps in the amount of more than 19 million tons phosphogypsum from the production activity of Irgiz OJSC in Balakovo has been accumulated.
Here the pollution is tens of times higher than the maximum permissible concentration for phosphates, iron and nitrates. One of the most pressing problems is the problem of collection and disposal of technical and domestic garbage; the number of unauthorized landfills is growing. For today, the administrations of municipal entities and the Government of the Saratov oblast are not controlled or monitored in any way; the only measure is a one-time garbage collection in the territories of
Mikhaylovka, Volgograd Oblast
Mikhaylovka is a town in Volgograd Oblast, located on the right bank of the Medveditsa River, 210 kilometers northwest of Volgograd. Population: 59,132 , it was named for its owner Mikhail Sebryakov. It was granted town status in 1948. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Mikhaylovka serves as the administrative center of Mikhaylovsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is, together with one urban-type settlement, incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Mikhaylovka—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, territories of the town of oblast significance of Mikhaylovka and of Mikhaylovsky District are incorporated as Mikhaylovka Urban Okrug. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №139-ОД от 7 октября 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №107-ОД от 10 июля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Волгоградской области в связи с приведением их в соответствие с Уставом Волгоградской области».
Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №207, 1 ноября 1997 г.. Волгоградская областная Дума. Закон №1033-ОД от 25 марта 2005 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении статусом города Михайловки Волгоградской области», в ред. Закона №65-ОД от 28 июня 2012 г «Об объединении сельских поселений, входящих в состав Михайловского муниципального района Волгоградской области, с городским округом Михайловка Волгоградской области, внесении изменений в Закон Волгоградской области от 25 марта 2005 г. №1033-ОД "Об установлении границ и наделении статусом города Михайловки Волгоградской области" и признании утратившими силу отдельных законодательных актов Волгоградской области». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волгоградская правда", №60, 6 апреля 2005 г
Atkarsk is a town in Saratov Oblast, located at the confluence of the Atkara and Medveditsa Rivers, 92 kilometers northwest of Saratov, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 25,624 , it was founded in place of a Tatar settlement at the mouth of the Atkara River. Town status was granted to it in 1781. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Atkarsk serves as the administrative center of Atkarsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Atkarsk Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Atkarsk Town Under Oblast Jurisdiction is incorporated within Atkarsky Municipal District as Atkarsk Urban Settlement. Russian pop singer Valeriya was born here in 1968. Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №46-ЗСО от 2 июня 2005 г. «Устав Саратовской области», в ред. Закона №54-ЗСО от 28 апреля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав Саратовской области».
Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Неделя области", Спецвыпуск, №38, 4 июня 2005 г.. Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №79-ЗСО от 23 декабря 2004 г «О городских округах». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Саратов — столица Поволжья", №264, 24 декабря 2004 г.. Саратовская областная Дума. Закон №99-ЗСО от 27 декабря 2004 г. «О муниципальных образованиях, входящих в состав Аткарского муниципального района», в ред. Закона №48-ЗСО от 25 апреля 2014 г. «О преобразовании Земляно-Хуторского и Лопуховского муниципальных образований Аткарского муниципального района Саратовской области и о внесении изменений в Закон Саратовской области "О муниципальных образованиях, входящих в состав Аткарского муниципального района"». Вступил в силу с 1 января 2005 г. Опубликован: "Саратов — столица Поволжья", №7–8, 18 января 2005 г