1890 United States Census
The Eleventh United States Census was taken beginning June 2, 1890. It determined the resident population of the United States to be 62,979,766—an increase of 25.5 percent over the 50,189,209 persons enumerated during the 1880 census. The data was tabulated by machine for the first time; the data reported that the distribution of the population had resulted in the disappearance of the American frontier. Most of the 1890 census materials were destroyed in a 1921 fire and fragments of the US census population schedule exist only for the states of Alabama, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, the District of Columbia; this was the first census in which a majority of states recorded populations of over one million, as well as the first in which multiple cities – New York as of 1880, Philadelphia – recorded populations of over one million. The census saw Chicago rank as the nation's second-most populous city, a position it would hold until 1990, in which Los Angeles would supplant it.
The 1890 census collected the following information: The 1890 census was the first to be compiled using methods invented by Herman Hollerith and was overseen by Superintendents Robert P. Porter and Carroll D. Wright. Data was entered on a machine readable medium, punched cards, tabulated by machine; the net effect of the many changes from the 1880 census: the larger population, the number of data items to be collected, the Census Bureau headcount, the volume of scheduled publications, the use of Hollerith's electromechanical tabulators, was to reduce the time required to process the census from eight years for the 1880 census to six years for the 1890 census. The total population of 62,947,714, the family, or rough, was announced after only six weeks of processing; the public reaction to this tabulation was disbelief, as it was believed that the "right answer" was at least 75,000,000. The United States census of 1890 showed a total of 248,253 Native Americans living in the United States, down from 400,764 Native Americans identified in the census of 1850.
The 1890 census announced that the frontier region of the United States no longer existed, that the Census Bureau would no longer track the westward migration of the U. S. population. Up to and including the 1880 census, the country had a frontier of settlement. By 1890, isolated bodies of settlement had broken into the unsettled area to the extent that there was hardly a frontier line; this prompted Frederick Jackson Turner to develop his Frontier Thesis. The original data for the 1890 Census is no longer available. All the population schedules were damaged in a fire in the basement of the Commerce Building in Washington, D. C. in 1921. Some 25 % of the materials were presumed another 50 % damaged by smoke and water; the damage to the records led to an outcry for a permanent National Archives. In December 1932, following standard federal record-keeping procedures, the Chief Clerk of the Bureau of the Census sent the Librarian of Congress a list of papers to be destroyed, including the original 1890 census schedules.
The Librarian was asked by the Bureau to identify any records which should be retained for historical purposes, but the Librarian did not accept the census records. Congress authorized destruction of that list of records on February 21, 1933, the surviving original 1890 census records were destroyed by government order by 1934 or 1935; the other censuses for which some information has been lost are the 1810 enumerations. Few sets of microdata from the 1890 census survive, but aggregate data for small areas, together with compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. Mayo-Smith, Richmond, "The Eleventh Census of the United States". In: The Economic Journal, Vol. 1, p. 43 - 58 1891 U. S Census Report Contains 1890 Census results Historical US Census data from the U. S. Census Bureau website Hollerith 1890 Census Tabulator by Columbia University "The Fate of the 1890 Population Census" from the National Archives website
Nicollet County, Minnesota
Nicollet County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. It was named for French geographer Joseph N. Nicollet; as of the 2010 census, the population was 32,727. Its county seat is St. Peter. Nicollet County is part of the Mankato -- MN Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the Gats.io, the county has an area of 467 square miles, of which 448 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. Nicollet County's highest point is the lowest high point of all Minnesota counties, with an elevation of 1,065 feet; the county's high point is east of west of the town of Lafayette. Annexstad Lake: in Lake Prairie Township Erickson Lake: in Traverse Township Middle Lake: the southwestern Middle Lake is in Granby Township; the population density was 66 people per square mile. There were 11,240 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.37% White, 0.80% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.14% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.65% from other races, 0.75% from two or more races.
1.80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 49.2% were of German, 13.3% Norwegian, 6.8% Swedish and 5.4% Irish ancestry. There were 10,642 households out of which 35.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.50% were married couples living together, 7.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.30% were non-families. 24.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.56 and the average family size was 3.05. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.70% under the age of 18, 16.40% from 18 to 24, 26.90% from 25 to 44, 21.20% from 45 to 64, 10.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.30 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $46,170, the median income for a family was $55,694. Males had a median income of $36,236 versus $25,344 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $20,517. About 4.30% of families and 7.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.70% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. Courtland Lafayette Mankato Nicollet North Mankato St. Peter Bernadotte Klossner New Sweden Norseland North Star Oshawa St. George Traverse West Newton National Register of Historic Places listings in Nicollet County, Minnesota Nicollet County official website
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
Wright County, Minnesota
Wright County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 124,700, its county seat is Buffalo. The county was founded in 1855. Wright County is part of the Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington, MN-WI Metropolitan Statistical Area; the county was established in 1855, was named after New York politician Silas Wright. The first county seat was Monticello; the majority of people to first settle this area were Swedish. The county's population in 1860 was 3,729; the 1998 thriller A Simple Plan was set in Wright County, though it does not mention a specific town. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 714 square miles, of which 661 square miles is land and 53 square miles is water; the terrain contains numerous small lakes. The county is bounded on the northeast by the Mississippi River. Wright is one of 17 Minnesota savanna region counties with more savanna soils than either prairie or forest soils, one of only two Minnesota counties where savanna soils make up more than 75% of the county area.
Sherburne County Hennepin County Carver County McLeod County Meeker County Stearns County The ethnic makeup of the county, according to the 2010 U. S. Census, was the following: 95.04% White 1.06% Black 0.34% Native American 1.19% Asian 0.04% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander 1.53% Two or more races 0.81% Other races 2.45% Hispanic or Latino As of the 2000 census, there were 89,986 people, 31,465 households, 23,913 families residing in the county. The population density was 136 people per square mile. There were 34,355 housing units at an average density of 52 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 97.85% White, 0.26% Black or African American, 0.28% Native American, 0.44% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.36% from other races, 0.80% from two or more races. 1.10% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 42.3% were of German, 11.9% Norwegian, 7.4% Swedish and 6.6% Irish ancestry. There were 31465 households out of which 42.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.50% were married couples living together, 7.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.00% were non-families.
18.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.26. In the county, the population was spread out with 31.10% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 32.60% from 25 to 44, 19.90% from 45 to 64, 8.80% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 101.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $53,945, the median income for a family was $60,940. Males had a median income of $40,630 versus $28,201 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,844. About 3.60% of families and 4.70% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.50% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over. Silver Creek Dickinson National Register of Historic Places listings in Wright County, Minnesota Wright County government’s website Wright County community website
Minnesota State Highway 55
Minnesota State Highway 55 is a highway in west-central and east-central Minnesota, which runs from the North Dakota state line near Tenney and continues east and southeast to its eastern terminus at its intersection with U. S. Highway 61 in Hastings; this route, signed east–west, runs diagonally across the central part of Minnesota. Highway 55 is 221 miles in length. Highway 55 serves as a northwest–southeast route between Elbow Lake, Paynesville, Buffalo, Minneapolis, Mendota Heights, Hastings. Highway 55 begins at the Bois de Sioux River, at the Minnesota — North Dakota state line near Tenney. North Dakota Highway 11 is its counterpoint upon crossing the state line. Highway 55 continues east to Tenney and Wendell; the route has a junction with U. S. Highway 59 before entering the city of Elbow Lake. Highways 55 and 59 run concurrently for 11 miles until reaching Barrett. Highway 55 continues independently again to Hoffman, Kensington and Lowry before reaching the city of Glenwood. At Glenwood, Highway 55 has an intersection with State Highway 29 and an interchange with State Highway 28.
The route continues southeast to Sedan and Brooten before reaching its junction with U. S. Highway 71 in Belgrade. Highway 55 passes through Regal before reaching its junction with State Highways 4 and 23 at the city of Paynesville. Highway 55 continues east to Eden Valley and Watkins before reaching its junction with State Highway 15 at Kimball; the route has a junction with State Highway 24 in Annandale. Highway 55 continues to Maple Lake and Buffalo, where it has a junction with State Highway 25. Highway 55 enters the Twin Cities area at Rockford and Greenfield, continuing east to Medina and Plymouth. Highway 55 has a junction with I-494 in Plymouth. Highway 55 continues east and has a junction with U. S. Highway 169 at the Plymouth / Golden Valley boundary line. Highway 55 continues through Golden Valley to its junction with State Highway 100; the route continues east and enters the city of Minneapolis. The highway has been designated Olson Memorial Highway, named for Floyd B. Olson, a popular Minnesota governor of Norwegian ancestry.
Olson grew up near where the highway runs. While the entire route is designated as the Olson Memorial Highway, it is only signed as such between Interstate 494 and N 7th Street in Minneapolis; the part of Highway 55 southeast of downtown is known as Hiawatha Avenue. Light rail trains on the Blue Line run parallel to the highway for much of the Hiawatha Avenue stretch. In July 2005, the section of Highway 55 that runs through downtown Minneapolis was turned back to local maintenance. To fill the gap, Highway 55 was rerouted along Interstate 94. Westbound, 55 now exits just before downtown at the westbound I-94 exit, leaves the concurrency at the exit for the Olson Highway, marked with the Highway 55 shield. Eastbound, 55 leaves the Olson Highway at the interchange for I-94 eastbound, leaves the freeway at the exit for Hiawatha Avenue, marked with the Highway 55 shield. There has been some controversy with expansion of the highway. An area known as Camp Coldwater, considered by some as the "birthplace of Minnesota," was dug up during some construction.
Highway 55 has a junction with State Highway 62 at this point. Fort Snelling State Park is located near the junction of Highway 55 and State Highway 5; the park entrance is located on Highway 5 at Post Road. Highway 55 crosses the Minnesota River via the Mendota Bridge, the longest continuous bridge made of poured concrete when it was completed in 1926, it is 4,119 feet in length. The route enters Mendota Heights and has a junction with State Highways 13 and 110. Highway 55 continues southeast through Eagan, joining with State Highway 149; the route has a junction with State Highway 3 in Inver Grove Heights. Highway 55 runs concurrent with U. S. Highway 52 through Inver Grove Heights and into Rosemount. At Rosemount, Highway 55 leaves U. S. 52. Highway 55 continues independently again to its eastern terminus at its intersection with U. S. Highway 61 in the city of Hastings. Highway 55 was authorized in 1933; the original alignment for this highway in Minneapolis was along old U. S. Highway 52 to Rockford Road Rockford Road to MN 55's present-day alignment.
The present-day alignment was constructed in the early 1950s
U.S. Route 12
U. S. Route 12 is an east–west United States highway, running from Aberdeen, Washington, to Detroit, for 2,500 miles; as a thoroughfare, it has been supplanted by I-90 and I-94, but remains an important road for local and regional travel. The highway's western terminus is in Aberdeen, Washington, at an intersection with US 101, while the highway's eastern terminus is in Downtown Detroit, at the corner of Michigan and Cass avenues, near Campus Martius Park; the western terminus of US 12 is located in Washington. In the 1960s, a portion of US 12 was moved north to the town of Morton, when the Mossyrock Dam was built and flooded the towns of Kosmos and Riffe, along the Cowlitz River in Lewis County. A large portion of old, two-lane US 12 was replaced by Interstate 82 and Interstate 182 in the 1980s, between Yakima and the Tri-Cities, though the freeways are still cosigned with the US 12 designation; the old two-lane highway now bears the name Wine Country Road. The highway loosely follows the eastbound leg of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, between Wallula and Clarkston, thus being marked as part of the Lewis and Clark Trail.
The east end of the highway in the state is at Clarkston, where the highway crosses the Snake River into Idaho at Lewiston. The Washington section of US 12, other than a concurrency with Interstate 5, is defined at Washington Revised Code § 47.17.055. US 12 enters the state at Lewiston, crossing the Snake River from Washington, it ascends the Clearwater River, concurrent with US 95 for 7 miles. It reduces to a two-lane undivided highway with signs that read "winding road next 99 miles" and goes on to Orofino, continuing up the middle fork of that river to Lowell, the junction of the Lochsa and Selway Rivers, it climbs to Lolo Pass at the Montana border. This portion of the highway is designated as part of the Lewis and Clark Trail. Most of the highway in Idaho is within the Clearwater National Forest; the eastern section of US 12, through remote mountain forest and up to Lolo Pass, was built in the early 1960s, making US 12 the last US highway constructed. No services are available between Powell, about 70 miles further east.
U. S. Route 12 through Idaho has been proposed as a route for shipment of huge equipment from Lewiston, an inland port, to oil sands facilities near Fort McMurray, Alberta and to a refinery in Billings, Montana. On two-lane portions of the road, the equipment, weighing as much as 300 tons and as much as 30 feet high and 24 feet wide, would occupy the entire roadway; the route is preferable to other routes due to the lack of underpasses and the great distances involved. The alternative is transport across the Great Plains from Texas or New Orleans On U. S. 12, the major obstacle would be power lines which would have to be buried. That and other alterations to the highway such as turnouts would be paid for by the companies; the trucks would transport only at night, moving short distances between places where they would pull off and let traffic pass. A permit granted by the Idaho Transportation Department to ConocoPhillips in August 2010 is the subject of litigation initiated by householders along the route.
On January 19, 2011 it was announced that the Idaho government would issue permits for four loads of refinery equipment to be transported from Lewiston to Billings. US 12 in Montana has been defined as the Lewis and Clark Highway, despite not being the route followed by Lewis and Clark across the state. US 12's 592 miles through Montana's mountains and plains is the greatest distance that US 12 traverses through any state; the highway enters Montana at Lolo Pass, seven miles southwest of Lolo Hot Springs in the Lolo National Forest. After passing Lolo Peak to the south and traveling east for 33 miles, it meets with US 93 at Lolo and continues as a concurrency northeast for 7.5 miles, where US 93 heads due north on Reserve Street, toward Glacier National Park. US 12 continues northeast through Missoula's downtown meeting I-90, it overlaps I-90 for 69 miles, until Garrison, where it heads east toward Helena for 48.8 miles. This two-lane section of the trip passes through Avon and Elliston winding through the Helena National Forest, over the Continental Divide at MacDonald Pass, through Montana's capital city, Helena.
US 12 passes over Interstate 15 at which, point. US 12 overlaps US 287 and heads southeast, toward Townsend for 33.4 miles, where it splits from US 287, which heads south for 30 miles toward the intersection of I-90 near the town of Three Forks. US 12 heads east toward White Sulphur Springs for 42.2 miles. The route joins US 89 for 8.4 miles before entering White Sulphur Springs, for another 3.0 miles east of town. US 89 splits north and US 12 continues east on its own for 233 miles, until the junction with I-94 at Forsyth as a concurrency northeast for 45.8 miles, to Miles City. At the east exit for Miles City, US 12 splits again from I-94 and heads directly east to the North Dakota border at a distance of 92.4 miles. US 12 is a two-lane undivided highway that runs 87.47 miles, through Adams and Slope counties in southwest North Dakota. The speed limit is 65 miles per hour on rural segments, with slower posted speeds within the cities of Marmarth, Bowman and Hettinger. US 12 meets with US 85 in Bowman, the routes are concurrent for a short distance through the city.
US 12 enters South Dakota from North Dakota, as a rural two lane highway about 10 miles west/northwest of Lemmon. For the next 70 miles
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish. The term is used in Canada, Romania and the United States. County towns have a similar function in the United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland, in Jamaica. In most of the United States, counties are the political subdivisions of a state; the city, town, or populated place that houses county government is known as the seat of its respective county. The county legislature, county courthouse, sheriff's department headquarters, hall of records and correctional facility are located in the county seat though some functions may be located or conducted in other parts of the county if it is geographically large. A county seat is but not always, an incorporated municipality; the exceptions include the county seats of counties that have no incorporated municipalities within their borders, such as Arlington County, Virginia. Ellicott City, the county seat of Howard County, is the largest unincorporated county seat in the United States, followed by Towson, the county seat of Baltimore County, Maryland.
Some county seats may not be incorporated in their own right, but are located within incorporated municipalities. For example, Cape May Court House, New Jersey, though unincorporated, is a section of Middle Township, an incorporated municipality. In some of the colonial states, county seats include or included "Court House" as part of their name. In the Canadian provinces of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, the term "shire town" is used in place of county seat. County seats in Taiwan are the administrative centers of the counties. There are 13 county seats in Taiwan, which are in the forms of county-administered city, urban township or rural township. Most counties have only one county seat. However, some counties in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New York, Vermont have two or more county seats located on opposite sides of the county. An example is Harrison County, which lists both Biloxi and Gulfport as county seats; the practice of multiple county seat towns dates from the days.
There have been few efforts to eliminate the two-seat arrangement, since a county seat is a source of pride for the towns involved. There are 36 counties with multiple county seats in 11 states: Coffee County, Alabama St. Clair County, Alabama Arkansas County, Arkansas Carroll County, Arkansas Clay County, Arkansas Craighead County, Arkansas Franklin County, Arkansas Logan County, Arkansas Mississippi County, Arkansas Prairie County, Arkansas Sebastian County, Arkansas Yell County, Arkansas Columbia County, Georgia Lee County, Iowa Campbell County, Kentucky Kenton County, Kentucky Essex County, Massachusetts Middlesex County, Massachusetts Plymouth County, Massachusetts Bolivar County, Mississippi Carroll County, Mississippi Chickasaw County, Mississippi Harrison County, Mississippi Hinds County, Mississippi Jasper County, Mississippi Jones County, Mississippi Panola County, Mississippi Tallahatchie County, Mississippi Yalobusha County, Mississippi Jackson County, Missouri Hillsborough County, New Hampshire Seneca County, New York Bennington County, Vermont In New England, the town, not the county, is the primary division of local government.
Counties in this region have served as dividing lines for the states' judicial systems. Connecticut and Rhode Island have no county level of thus no county seats. In Vermont and Maine the county seats are designated shire towns. County government consists only of a Superior Court and Sheriff, both located in the respective shire town. Bennington County has two shire towns. In Massachusetts, most government functions which would otherwise be performed by county governments in other states are performed by town or city governments; as such, Massachusetts has dissolved many of its county governments, the state government now operates the registries of deeds and sheriff's offices in those counties. In Virginia, a county seat may be an independent city surrounded by, but not part of, the county of which it is the administrative center. Two counties in South Dakota have their county seat and government services centered in a neighboring county, their county-level services are provided by Fall River Tripp County, respectively.
In Louisiana, divided into parishes rather than counties, county seats are referred to as parish seats. Alaska is divided into boroughs rather than counties; the Unorganized Borough, which covers 49 % of Alaska's area, has equivalent. The state with the most counties is Texas, with 254, the state with the fewest counties is Delaware, with 3. County seat war Administrative center County town, administrative centres in Ireland and the UK Chef-lieu, administrative centres in Algeria, Luxembourg, France and Tunisia Municipality, equivalent to county in many c