Nara-Narayana is a Hindu deity pair. Nara-Narayana is the twin-brother avatar of the God Vishnu on earth, working for the preservation of dharma or righteousness. In the concept of Nara-Narayana, the human soul Nara is the eternal companion of the Divine Narayana; the Hindu epic Mahabharata identifies the God Krishna with Narayana and Arjuna - the chief hero of the epic - with Nara. The legend of Nara-Narayana is told in the scripture Bhagavata Purana. Hindus believe; the Nara-Narayana pair is worshipped in temples of the Swaminarayan Faith, as the followers of the sect believe that their founder Swaminarayan Bhagwan resides in the murti of Naranarayan Dev in Kalupur Mandir. The name "Nara-Narayana" can be broken into two Sanskrit terms and Narayana. Nara means human, Narayana refers to the name of the deity. Monier-Williams dictionary says Nara is "the primeval Man or eternal Spirit pervading the universe (always associated with Narayana, "son of the primeval man". In epic poetry, they are the sons of Dharma by Murti or Ahimsa and emanations of Lord Vishnu, Arjuna being identified with Nara, Lord Krishna with Narayana.- Mahabharata and Purana".
Narayana is Vishnu. Nara-Narayana are depicted separately in images; when depicted separately, Nara is portrayed with two hands and wearing deer skin while Narayana is shown on the right in the usual form of Vishnu. Sometimes, both of them are depicted identical to each other, they are depicted four-armed holding a discus, a conch and a lotus, resembling Lord Vishnu. Arjuna and Krishna are referred to as Nara-Narayana in the Mahabharata and are considered part incarnations of Nara and Narayana according to the Bhagavata Purana. In a previous life, the duo were born as the sages Nara and Narayana, who performed great penances at the holy spot of Badrinath. Nara and Narayana were the Fourth Avatar of Lord Vishnu; the twins were the son of Brahma and his wife Murti or Ahimsa. They live at Badrika performing severe austerities and meditation for the welfare of the world; these two inseparable sages took avatars on earth for the welfare of mankind. Legend has it that once Lord Shiva tried to bring the fame of Nara and Narayana before the entire world.
To do that, he hurled his own potent weapon Paashupathastra at the meditating rishis. The power of their meditation was so intense. Lord Shiva stated that this happened since the duo were jnanis of the first order in the state of Nirvikalpa Samadhi; the Bhagavata Purana tells the story of the birth of Urvashi from the sages Nara-Narayana. Once, sages Nara-Narayana were meditating in the holy shrine of Badrinath situated in the Himalayas, their penances and austerities alarmed the gods, so Indra, the King of Devas, sent Kamadeva and apsaras to inspire them with passion and disturb their devotions. The sage Narayana placed it on his thigh. There sprung from it a beautiful nymph whose charms far excelled those of the celestial nymphs, made them return to heaven filled with shame and vexation. Narayana sent this nymph to Indra with them, from her having been produced from the thigh of the sage, she was called Urvashi. Having sent back the nymphs back, the divine sages continued to meditate. According to the Bhagavata purana, "There in Badrikashram the Personality of Godhead, in his incarnation as the sages Nara and Narayana, had been undergoing great penance since time immemorial for the welfare of all living entities."
In Badrinath Temple's sanctorium, to the far right side of the stone image of Badri-Vishala, are the images of Nara and Narayana. The Nara and Narayana peaks tower over Badrinath. According to Bhandarkar, the gods Nara-Narayana must have been popular at the time of the composition of the Mahabharata, since in the opening stanzas of various parvas of the epic, obeisance is made to these two gods. In Vanaparvan, Krishna says to Arjuna,"O invincible one, you are Nara and I am Hari Narayana, we, the sages Nara-Narayana, have come to this world at the proper time.." In the same Parva, chapter 30. In the Swaminarayan sect and Narayana, are called Nara-Narayana Deva, they are believed to reside at Badrikashram and to be the prime controllers of the destiny of all beings, depending on their karma. Nara-Narayana Deva are believed to have manifested at Narayana Ghat on the banks of river Sabarmati at Ahmedabad. Therefore, their images were installed by Swaminarayan at the first Swaminarayan temple, Shri Swaminarayan Mandir, Ahmedabad.
Members of this group interpret the events that took place at Badarikashram, the abode of Nara Narayana, that led to the incarnation of Swaminarayan. They believe that Narayana took birth as Swaminarayan due to a curse of sage Durvasa which he accepted at his own will; the curse led to Narayana taking the form of an avatar on Earth to destroy evil and establish ekantik-dharma, religion based on morality, knowledge and devotion. Vishnu Narayana Bhandarkar, Ramkrishna Gopal. Vaisnavism Saivism and Minor Religious Systems. Asian Educational Services. P. 238. ISBN 81-206-0122-X. Vijnanananda, Swami; the Sri Mad Devi Bhagavatam: Books One Through Twelve Part 1. Kessinger Publishing. P. 624. ISBN 0
Lakshmi or Laxmi, is the Hindu goddess of wealth and prosperity. She is the wife and shakti of Vishnu, one of the principal deities of Hinduism and the Supreme Being in the Vaishnavism Tradition. With Parvati and Saraswati, she forms the holy trinity. Lakshmi is an important deity in Jainism and found in Jain temples. Lakshmi has been a goddess of abundance and fortune for Buddhists, was represented on the oldest surviving stupas and cave temples of Buddhism. In Buddhist sects of Tibet and southeast Asia, goddess Vasudhara mirrors the characteristics and attributes of the Hindu goddess Lakshmi with minor iconographic differences. Lakshmi is called Sri or Thirumagal because she is endowed with six auspicious and divine qualities, or gunas, is the divine strength of Vishnu. In Hindu religion, she was born from the churning of the primordial ocean and she chose Vishnu as her eternal consort; when Vishnu descended on the Earth as the avatars Rama and Krishna, Lakshmi descended as his respective consort as Sita and Rukmini.
In the ancient scriptures of India, all women are declared to be embodiments of Lakshmi. The marriage and relationship between Lakshmi and Vishnu as wife and husband is the paradigm for rituals and ceremonies for the bride and groom in Hindu weddings. Lakshmi is considered another aspect of the same supreme goddess principle in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism. Lakshmi is depicted in Indian art as an elegantly dressed, prosperity-showering golden-coloured woman with an owl as her vehicle, signifying the importance of economic activity in maintenance of life, her ability to move and prevail in confusing darkness, she stands or sits like a yogin on a lotus pedestal and holds lotus in her hand, a symbolism for fortune, self-knowledge and spiritual liberation. Her iconography shows her with four hands, which represent the four goals of human life considered important to the Hindu way of life: dharma, kāma, artha and moksha, she is depicted as part of the trinity consisting of Saraswati and Parvati.
Archaeological discoveries and ancient coins suggest the recognition and reverence for Lakshmi by the 1st millennium BCE. Lakshmi's iconography and statues have been found in Hindu temples throughout southeast Asia, estimated to be from the second half of the 1st millennium CE; the festivals of Diwali and Sharad Purnima are celebrated in her honor. Lakshmi is one of many Hindu deities whose meaning and significance evolved in ancient Sanskrit texts. Lakshmi is mentioned once in Rigveda, where it means kindred sign of auspicious fortune. भद्रैषां लक्ष्मीर्निहिताधि वाचिbhadraiṣāṁ lakṣmīrnihitādhi vāci"an auspicious fortune is attached to their words" In Atharvaveda, transcribed about 1000 BCE, Lakshmi evolves into a complex concept with plural manifestations. Book 7, Chapter 115 of Atharva Veda describes the plurality, asserting that a hundred Lakshmis are born with the body of a mortal at birth, some good and auspicious, while others bad and unfortunate; the good are welcomed. The concept and spirit of Lakshmi and her association with fortune and the good is significant enough that Atharva Veda mentions it in multiple books: for example, in Book 12, Chapter 5 as punya Lakshmi.
In some chapters of Atharva Veda, Lakshmi connotes the good, an auspicious sign, good luck, good fortune, prosperity and happiness. Lakshmi is referred to as the goddess of fortune, identified with Sri and regarded as wife of Viṣṇu. For example, in Shatapatha Brahmana, variously estimated to be composed between 800 BCE and 300 BCE, Sri is part of one of many theories, in ancient India, about the creation of universe. In Book 9 of Shatapatha Brahmana, Sri emerges from Prajapati, after his intense meditation on creation of life and nature of universe. Sri is described as a trembling woman at her birth with immense energy and powers; the gods were bewitched, desire her and become covetous of her. The gods approach Prajapati and request permission to kill her and take her powers and gifts. Prajapati refuses, tells the gods that males should not kill females and that they can seek her gifts without violence; the gods approach Lakshmi, deity Agni gets food, Soma gets kingly authority, Varuna gets imperial authority, Mitra acquires martial energy, Indra gets force, Brihaspati gets priestly authority, Savitri acquires dominion, Pushan gets splendour, Saraswati takes nourishment and Tvashtri gets forms.
The hymns of Shatapatha Brahmana thus describe Sri as a goddess born with and personifying a diverse range of talents and powers. According to another legend, she emerges during the creation of universe, floating over the water on the expanded petals of a lotus flower. In the Epics of Hinduism, such as in Mahabharata, Lakshmi personifies wealth, happiness, grace and splendour. In another Hindu legend, about the creation of universe as described in Ramayana, Lakshmi springs with other precious things from the foam of the ocean of milk when it is churned by the gods and demons for the recovery of Amṛta, she appeared with a lotus in her hand and so she is called Padmā. Root of the wordLakshmi in Sanskrit is derived from the root word lakṣ and lakṣa, meaning to perceive, know and goal, objective respectively; these roots give Lakshmi the symbolism: know and understand
Sita or Seeta, is the consort of Lord Rama and an avatar of Sri Lakshmi, the Hindu goddess that denotes good character, good fortune, prosperity and happiness. She is esteemed as the paragon of feminine virtues for all women. Sita is one of the central figures in the Hindu epic, the Ramayana, she is described as the daughter of the earth goddess, Bhūmi and the adopted daughter of King Janaka of Videha and his wife, Queen Sunaina. She has a younger sister and the female cousins Mandavi and Shrutakirti. Sita is known for her dedication, self-sacrifice and purity. Sita, in her youth, marries the prince of Ayodhya. After marriage, she goes to exile with brother-in-law Lakshmana. While in exile, the trio settle in the Dandaka forest from where she is abducted by Ravana, the Rakshasa king of Lanka, she is imprisoned in Ashoka Vatika in Lanka. After the war, Rama asks Sita to undergo Agni Pariksha by which she proves her purity before she is accepted by Rama, which for the first time makes his brother Lakshmana get angry at him.
In some versions of the epic, the fire-god Agni creates Maya Sita, who takes Sita's place and is abducted by Ravana and suffers his captivity, while the real Sita hides in the fire. During the Agni Pariksha, Maya Sita and the real Sita exchange places again. While some texts say that Maya Sita is destroyed in the flames of Agni Pariksha, others narrate how she is blessed and reborn as the epic heroine Draupadi or the goddess Padmavati; some scriptures mention her previous birth being Vedavati, a woman Ravana tries to molest. After proving her purity and Sita return to Ayodhya, where they are crowned as king and queen. After few months, Sita becomes pregnant. Rama sends Sita away on exile. Lakshmana is the one who leaves Sita in the forests near sage Valmiki's ashrama after Rama banishes her from the kingdom. Years Sita returns to the womb of her mother, the Earth, for release from a cruel world as a testimony of her purity after she reunites her two sons Kusha and Lava with their father Rama; the goddess is derived from the Sanskrit word sīta, furrow.
According to Ramayana, Janaka adopted her. The word Sīta was a poetic term, its imagery redolent of fecundity and the many blessings coming from settled agriculture; the Sita of the Ramayana may have been named after a more ancient Vedic goddess Sita, mentioned once in the Rigveda as an earth goddess who blesses the land with good crops. In the Vedic period, she was one of the goddesses associated with fertility. A Vedic hymn recites: In Harivamsa, Sita is invoked as one of the names of the goddess Arya: The Kausik-sutra and the Paraskara-sutra associate her as the wife of Parjanya and Indra. Sita is known by many epithets, she is called Jānaki as the daughter of Maithili as the princess of Mithila. As the wife of Rama, she is called Ramā, her father Janaka had earned the sobriquet Videha due to his ability to transcend body consciousness. Devi Sita while playing with her sisters in childhood had unknowingly lifted the table over which the bow had been placed; this incident was however observed by Janaka and he decided to make it a backdrop for Swayamvara because he wanted a son-in-law, as strong as his daughter.
The birthplace of Sita is disputed. The Sita Kund pilgrimage site, located in present-day Sitamarhi district,Bihar, India is viewed as the birthplace of Sita. Apart from Sitamarhi, Janakpur, located in the present-day Province No. 2, Nepal, is described as Sita's birthplace. Valmiki's Ramayana: In Valmiki's Ramayana and Kamban's Tamil epic Ramavataram, Sita is said to have been discovered in a furrow in a ploughed field, believed to be Sitamarhi in Mithila region of present-day Bihar, for that reason is regarded as a daughter of Bhūmi Devi, she was discovered and brought up by Janaka, king of Mithila and his wife Sunaina. Ramayana Manjari: In Ramayana Manjari, North-western and Bengal recensions of Valmiki Ramayana, it has been described as on hearing a voice from the sky and seeing Menaka, Janaka expresses his wish to obtain a child and when he finds the child, he hears the same voice again telling him the infant is his spiritual child, born of Menaka. Janka's real daughter: In Ramopkhyana of the Mahabharata and in Paumachariya of Vimala Suri, Sita has been depicted as Janaka's real daughter.
According to Rev. Fr. Camille Bulcke, this motif that Sita was the real daughter of Janaka, as described in Ramopkhyana Mahabharata was based on the authentic version of Valmiki Ramayana; the story of Sita miraculously appearing in a furrow was inserted in Valmiki Ramayana. Reincarnation of Vedavati: Some versions of the Ramayana suggest that Sita was a reincarnation of Vedavati. Ravana tried to molest Vedavati and her chastity was sullied beyond Ravana's redemption when she was performing penance to become consort of Vishnu. Vedavati immolated herself on a pyre to escape Ravana's lust, vowing to return in another age and be the cause of Ravana's destruction, she was duly reborn as Sita. Reincarnation of Manivati: According to Gunabhadra's Uttara Purana of the ninth century BCE, Ravana disturbs the asceticism of Manivati, daughter of Amitavega of Alkapuri and she pledges to take revenge on Ravana. Manivati is reborn as the daughter of Ravana and Mandodari. But, astrolo
In Hinduism, Shesha known as Sheshanaga or Adishesha, is the nagaraja or king of all nāgas and one of the primal beings of creation. In the Puranas, Shesha is said to hold all the planets of the universe on his hoods and to sing the glories of the God Vishnu from all his mouths, he is sometimes referred to as Ananta Shesha, which translates as endless-Shesha or Adishesha "first Shesha". It is said that creation takes place, he is described in Buddhism as Vasuki. Vishnu is depicted as resting on Shesha. Shesha is considered a manifestation of Vishnu, he is said to have descended to avatars: Lakshmana, brother of Rama. "Shesha" in Sanskrit texts those relating to mathematical calculation, implies the "remainder"—that which remains when all else ceases to exist. Shesha is depicted with a massive form that floats coiled in space, or on the ocean of bliss, to form the bed on which Vishnu lies. Sometimes he is shown as five-headed or seven-headed, but more as a many thousand-headed serpent, sometimes with each head wearing an ornate crown.
His name means "that which remains", from the Sanskrit root śiṣ, because when the world is destroyed at the end of the kalpa, Shesha remains as he is. In the Bhagavadgita of Chapter 10, verse 29, Shri Krishna while describing 75 of his common manifestations, declares, "anantaś ca asmi nāgānāṁ": Of the nagas, I am Ananta; as per the Mahabharata, Shesha was born to his wife Kadru. Kadru gave birth to a thousand snakes. After Shesha, Vasuki and Takshaka were born, in order. A lot of Shesha's brothers were bent upon inflicting harm on others, they were unkind to Garuda, Kashyapa's son through Vinatha, sister of Kadru.. Shesha, disgusted by the cruel acts of his brothers, left his mother and kin, took to austere penances, he lived on air and meditated in places including Gandhamadhana, Gokarna and Himalayas. His penances were so severe that his flesh and muscles dried up and merged with his frame. Brahma, convinced of his Shesha's will, asked Shesha to request a boon. Shesha asked that he be able to keep his mind under control so that he could continue to perform ascetic penances.
Brahma gladly accepted the request. Brahma asked a favour of Shesha: to go beneath the unstable earth and stabilize it. Shesha went to the netherworld and stabilized her with his hood, he is known to support her today, thus making Patala his perennial residence. Shesha is depicted as floating in the ocean of the changing world, forming the bed of Maha Vishnu. Since he is known as Adishesha and because he is Anantashesha or Ananta. In the Bhagavata Purana Shesha is named Sankarshana, the tamasic energy of Lord Narayana himself, is said to live deep within the inner layers of patala, where there are many serpents with gems on their heads and where Sankarshana is the ruler, he is said to live since before the creation of the universe. When the universe is towards its end, he creates 11 Rudras from Them to destroy the universe for a new one to be created. Sankarshana is one of the four vyuha forms of Vishnu or Krishna, the other three being Vāsudeva and Aniruddha. Sankarshana expands himself as Garbhodakshayi-Vishnu in the beginning of the universe to create Brahma.
In other words, Lord Sankarshana is Lord Narayana himself. In previous chapters of the Purana it is said that Lord Sankarshana spoke the Bhagavata to the Four Kumaras, who in their turn passed this message of the Bhagavata. At some point the message was passed to sage Maitreya. Lakshmana and Balarama are considered avatara of Sheshanaga, it is considered in Vaishnavism, that Lord Balarama is the first manifestation from Lord Krishna, that Lord Balarama incarnates into Sesha to serve Krishna as Vishnu. In a story from the Puranas, Shesha's younger brother Vasuki loosens Mount Mandara, to enable it to be used in the churning of the ocean by the devas and asuras. According to the Mahabharata, his father was his mother Kadru; the city of Thiruvananthapuram is named after him as the "City of Lord Anantapadmanabha." "The foremost manifestation of Lord Vishnu is Sankarṣana, known as Ananta. He is the origin of all incarnations within this material world. Previous to the appearance of Lord Shri Krishna, this original Sankarsana will appear as Baladeva, just to please the Supreme Lord Shri Krishna in His transcendental pastimes."
Bhāgavata Purāṇa 10.1.24 "Sri Anantadeva has thousands of faces and is independent. Always ready to serve the Supreme Personality of Godhead, He waits upon him constantly. Sankarsana is the first expansion of Vasudeva and because he appears by his own will, He is called svarat independent, he is therefore transcendental to all limits of time and space. He Himself appears as the thousand-headed Shesha." Srila Jiva Gosvami, in his Krishna-Sandarbha "Sankarsana of the quadruple form descends with Lord Shri Rama as Lakshmana. When Lord Shri Rama disappears, Shesha again separates himself from the personality of Lakshmana. Shesha returns to his own abode in the Patala regions and Lakshmana returns to His abode in Vaikuntha." A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada In the Bhagavad-Gita, when in the middle of the battlefield Kurukshetra, Shri Krishna explaining his omnipresence
Mohini in Hindu mythology is a goddess and the only female avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu. She is portrayed as a"femme fatale", an enchantress, who maddens lovers, sometimes leading them to their doom. Mohini is introduced into the Hindu mythology in the narrative epic of the Mahabharata. Here, she appears as a form of Vishnu, acquires the pot of Amrita from the thieving asuras, gives it back to the devas, helping them retain their immortality. Many different legends tell including union with Shiva; these tales relate, among other things, the birth of the god Shasta and the destruction of Bhasmasura, the ash-demon. Mohini's main modus operandi is to beguile those she encounters, she is worshipped throughout Indian culture, but in Western India, where temples are devoted to her depicted as Mahalasa, the consort of Khandoba, a regional avatar of Shiva. The name Mohini comes from the verb root moha, meaning "to enchant, perplex, or disillusion," and means "delusion personified." In the Baiga culture of Central India, the word mohini means "erotic magic or spell."
The name has an implied connotation of "the essence of female beauty and allurement." The earliest reference to a Mohini-type goddess appears in the Samudra manthan episode of the 5th century BCE Hindu epic Mahabharata. The Amrita, or nectar of immortality, is produced by the churning of the Ocean of Milk; the Devas and the Asuras fight over its possession. The Asuras contrive to keep the Amrita for themselves. Vishnu, wise to their plan, assumes the form of an "enchanting damsel", she uses her allure to trick the Asuras into giving her the Amrita, distributes it amongst the Devas. Rahu, an Asura, tries to drink some Amrita himself. Surya and Chandra inform Vishnu, he uses the Sudarshana Chakra to decapitate Rahu, leaving the head immortal; the other major Hindu epic, narrates the Mohini story in the Bala Kanda chapter. This same tale is recounted in the Vishnu Purana four centuries later. In the original text, Mohini is referred to as an enchanting, female form of Vishnu. In versions, Mohini is described as the maya of Vishnu.
Still, the name of the avatar becomes Mohini from the original phrase describing his deliberate false appearance. Once the Mohini legend became popular, it was retold and expanded in several texts; the tales of Mohini-Vishnu increased among devotional circles in various regions. The same expanded Mahabharata version of the story is recounted in the Bhagavata Purana in the 10th century CE. Here, Mohini becomes a formal avatar of Vishnu; this legend is retold in the Padma Purana and Brahmanda Purana. In the Brahmanda Purana, Vishnu-Mohini after meditation upon the Great Goddess Maheshvari, acquires her form to trick the thieving asuras. Mohini has an active history in the destruction of demons throughout Hindu texts. In the Vishnu Purana, Mohini defeats Bhasmasura, the "ash-demon". Bhasmasura invokes the god Shiva by performing severe penances. Shiva, pleased with Bhasmasura, grants him the power to turn anyone into ashes by touching their head; the demon decides to try the power on Shiva himself. Shiva runs terrified.
Vishnu, witnessing the unfortunate turn of events, transforms into charms Bhasmasura. Bhasmasura is so taken by Mohini. Mohini agrees, but only on the condition. In the course of the dance, she places her hand on her head. Bhasmasura mimics the action, in turn, reduces himself to ashes; the legend of Bhasmasura is retold in the Buddhist text Satara Dewala Devi Puvata, with a slight variation. In this tale, Vishnu charms Bhasmasura; the female Vishnu asks Bhasmasura to promise never to leave her by placing his hand on his head as per the usual practice to swear on one's head. On doing so, Bhasmasura is reduced to ashes. In a similar legend related to the birth of Ayyappa, the demon Surpanaka earns the power to turn anyone into ashes by his austerities; the tale mirrors all other aspects of the Buddhist version of the Bhasmasura tale, where he is forced by Mohini to severe fidelity by keeping his hand on his head and is burnt. The prelude of the Ramakien, the Thai version of the Ramayana, the demon Nontok is charmed and killed by Mohini-Vishnu.
Nontok misuses a divine weapon given to him by Shiva. The four-armed Mohini-Vishnu enchants Nontok and attacks him. In his last moments, the demon accuses Vishnu of foul play saying that Vishnu first seduced him and attacked him. Vishnu decrees that in his next birth, Nontok will be born as the ten-headed demon Ravana and Vishnu will be a mortal man called Rama, he will fight him and defeat him. In a lesser-known tale in the Ganesha Purana the wise asura king Virochana is rewarded a magical crown by the sun-god Surya; the crown shields him against all harm. Vishnu as Mohini enchants Virochana and steals his crown; the demon, thus unprotected, is killed by Vishnu. Another South Indian legend about the demon Araka associates Mohini with Krishna rather than the god himself; the demon Araka had become invincible because he had never laid eyes on a woman. Krishna marries him. After three days of marriage, Araka's bonds of chastity are broken, Krishna kills him in battle. Transgender Hijras consider Krishna-Mohini to be a transsexual deity.
Stories about Mohini and Shiva have been po
Rajasthan is a state in northern India. The state covers an area of 342,239 square kilometres or 10.4 percent of the total geographical area of India. It is the seventh largest by population. Rajasthan is located on the northwestern side of India, where it comprises most of the wide and inhospitable Thar Desert and shares a border with the Pakistani provinces of Punjab to the northwest and Sindh to the west, along the Sutlej-Indus river valley. Elsewhere it is bordered by five other Indian states: Punjab to the north. Major features include the ruins of the Indus Valley Civilisation at Balathal. Rajasthan is home to three national tiger reserves, the Ranthambore National Park in Sawai Madhopur, Sariska Tiger Reserve in Alwar and Mukundra Hill Tiger Reserve in Kota; the state was formed on 30 March 1949 when Rajputana – the name adopted by the British Raj for its dependencies in the region – was merged into the Dominion of India. Its capital and largest city is Jaipur. Other important cities are Jodhpur, Bikaner and Udaipur.
Rajasthan means "Land of Kings" or "King's Abode". The oldest reference to Rajasthan is found in a stone inscription dated back to 625 A. D; the print mention of the name "Rajasthan" appears in the 1829 publication Annals and Antiquities of Rajast'han or the Central and Western Rajpoot States of India, while the earliest known record of "Rajputana" as a name for the region is in George Thomas's 1800 memoir Military Memories. John Keay, in his book India: A History, stated that "Rajputana" was coined by the British in 1829, John Briggs, translating Ferishta's history of early Islamic India, used the phrase "Rajpoot princes" rather than "Indian princes". Parts of what is now Rajasthan were part of the Vedic Civilisation and Indus Valley Civilization. Kalibangan, in Hanumangarh district, was a major provincial capital of the Indus Valley Civilization.. Another archeological excavation at Balathal site in Udaipur district shows a settlement contemporary with the Harrapan civilization dating back to 3000 - 1500 BC. Stone Age tools dating from 5,000 to 200,000 years were found in Bundi and Bhilwara districts of the state.
Matsya Kingdom of the Vedic civilisation of India, is said to corresponded to the former state of Jaipur in Rajasthan and included the whole of Alwar with portions of Bharatpur. The capital of Matsya was at Viratanagar, said to have been named after its founder king Virata. Bhargava identifies the two districts of Jhunjhunu and Sikar and parts of Jaipur district along with Haryana districts of Mahendragarh and Rewari as part of Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Bhargava locates the present day Sahibi River as the Vedic Drishadwati River, which along with Saraswati River formed the borders of the Vedic state of Brahmavarta. Manu and Bhrigu narrated the Manusmriti to a congregation of seers in this area only. Ashrams of Vedic seers Bhrigu and his son Chayvan Rishi, for whom Chyawanprash was formulated, were near Dhosi Hill part of which lies in Dhosi village of Jhunjhunu district of Rajasthan and part lies in Mahendragarh district of Haryana; the Western Kshatrapas, the Saka rulers of the western part of India, were successors to the Indo-Scythians, were contemporaneous with the Kushans, who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent.
The Indo-Scythians invaded the area of Ujjain and established the Saka era, marking the beginning of the long-lived Saka Western Satraps state. Gurjars ruled for many dynasties in this part of the country, the region was known as Gurjaratra. Up to the 10th century AD all of North India acknowledged the supremacy of the Gurjars, with their seat of power at Kannauj; the Gurjar Pratihar Empire acted as a barrier for Arab invaders from the 8th to the 11th century. The chief accomplishment of the Gurjara-Pratihara Empire lies in its successful resistance to foreign invasions from the west, starting in the days of Junaid. Historian R. C. Majumdar says that this was acknowledged by the Arab writers, he further notes that historians of India have wondered at the slow progress of Muslim invaders in India, as compared with their rapid advance in other parts of the world. Now there seems little doubt that it was the power of the Gurjara Pratihara army that barred the progress of the Arabs beyond the confines of Sindh, their only conquest for nearly 300 years.
Traditionally the Rajputs, Jats, Bhils, Charans, Bishnois, Sermals, PhulMali and other tribes made a great contribution in building the state of Rajasthan. All these tribes suffered great difficulties in protecting the land. Millions of them were killed trying to protect their land. Bhils once ruled Kota. Meenas were rulers of Bundi and the Dhundhar region. Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, the Hindu Emperor, was born in the village of Machheri in Alwar District in 1501, he won 22 battles against Afghans, from Punjab to Bengal including states of Ajmer and Alwar in Rajasthan, defeated Akbar's forces twice at Agra and Delhi in 1556 at Battle of Delhi before acceding to the throne of Delhi and establishing the "Hindu Raj" in North India, albeit for
Narayana is known as Nirguna Bhrama and is the creator of Tridevas - Bhrama and Mahesh. He is sometimes considered same as God Vishnu but is different as he is Nirguna and God Vishnu has Divya Satva Guna, he is known as "The Purusha" and is considered Supreme in Yogic Tradition. He is "Guru of the Universe"; the Bhagavata Purana and Veda declare Narayana as a part of the Trimurti who creates unlimited universes and enters each one of them.. Narayana engages in the creation of 14 worlds within the universe as Brahma when he deliberately accepts rajas guna according to Brahmanism. Narayana himself sustains and preserves the universe as Vishnu by accepting sattva guna. In Shaivism, Narayana annihilates the universe at the end of maha-kalpa as Shiva or Rudra when he accepts tamas guna. Bhagavata Purana Canto 2 Chapter 5 Verse Bhagavata Purana Canto 11 Chapter 4 Verse 5 Vishnu Purana. According to the Bhagavata Purana, Narayana Sukta, Purusha Sukta and Sri Sukta from Vedas, the ultimate soul, he is called as Surya Narayana, one who shines like the brilliant sun.
Bhagavata Purana: "Narayanam Devam adevam isam - Lord Narayana,: Just as the river Ganges is the greatest of all rivers, Lord Achyuta the supreme among deities and Lord Shambhu the greatest of Vaishnavas, so Bhagavata Purana is the greatest of all Puranas. He is said to pervade whatever is heard in this universe from inside and outside alike. "Narayana Sukta". Sanskrit Documents. Retrieved 2018-12-05, he is mainly associated with the cosmic waters of creation. According to Madhvacharya, Narayana is one of the five vyuhas of Vishnu, which are cosmic emanations of God in contrast to his incarnate avatars. Bryant, Edwin F. Krishna: a Sourcebook. P.359 "Madhvacharya separates Vishnu’s manifestations into two groups: Vishnu’s vyuhas and His avataras. The vyuhas have their basis in the Pancharatra agamas, a sectarian text, accepted as authoritative by both the Vishishtadvaita and Madhva schools of Vedanta, they are mechanisms by which the universe is ordered, was created, evolves. According to Madhvacharya, Vishnu has either four or five vyuhas, named Narayana, Sankarshana and Aniruddha, which evolve one after the other in the development of the universe.
In the Vedas and Puranas, Lord Narayana is described as having the divine blue colour of water-filled clouds, four-armed, holding a padma, Panchajanya shankha and the Sudarshana Chakra. Lord Narayana is often identified as Sharangapani, Hari, Purushottama or Purusha and Jagannath in the Hindu sacred texts such as the Bhagavad Gita, the Vedas and the Puranas. Narayana is venerated as Mukunda. In the Mahabharata, Krishna is referred to as Narayana and Arjuna as Nara; the epic identifies them both in plural'Krishnas', or as part incarnations of the earlier incarnations of Vishnu, recalling their mystical identity as Nara-Narayana. Narayana is described in the Bhagavad Gita as having a universal form, beyond the ordinary limits of human perception or imagination. Narayana's eternal and supreme abode beyond the material universe is Vaikuntha, a realm of bliss and happiness called Paramapadha, which means final or highest place for liberated souls, where they enjoy bliss and happiness for eternity in the company of supreme lord.
Vaikuntha is situated beyond the material universe and hence, cannot be perceived or measured by material science or logic. Sometimes, Ksheera Sagara where Narayana or Vishnu rests on Ananta Shesha is perceived as Vaikuntha within the material universe. There are seven weapons and symbols of Narayana, namely: conch, club, sword, jewel and a garland of flowers. Balabhadra and Narayana are mighty half brothers, who appear nine times in each half of the time cycles of the Jain cosmology and jointly rule half the earth as half-chakravarti. Prati-naryana is killed by Narayana for his unrighteousness and immorality. Narayana are powerful and are as powerful as 2 Balabhadras. Chakravartins are as powerful as 2 Narayanas. Hence Narayanas become half-chakravartins. Tirthankaras are much more powerful than Chakravartins. In Jain Mahabharta, there is a friendly duel between cousin brothers Neminatha and Krishna in which Neminath defeats Krishna without any effort at all. There is a story of Neminath lifting Conch of Krishna and blowing it without any effort.
In Jain Mahabharat, the main fight between Krishna and Jarasandha is described, killed by Krishna. Lord Narayana is hailed in each and every part of Vedas like, Purusha Suktam, Narayana Suktam, Hiranyagarbha Suktam, Vishnu Suktam, Rudra Suktam. Lord Narayana is hailed in the Upanishads like, Narayana Upanishad, Chandogya Upanishad, Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, Mundaka Upanishad, Mandukya Upanishad, Katha Upanishad, Prasna Upanishad, Svetasvatara Upanishad, Maha Narayana Upanishad, Narasimha Tapani Upanishad. There are multiple variations of Lord Narayana's name; the word'Narayana' means "The one who rests on waters of creation". The Manusmriti states, The waters are called "narah", for the waters are, produced by Nara-Narayana. Narayana means, "The Supreme Being, the foundation of all men". Another interpretation sees, Nara means "human" and Ayana as "direction/goal"; some view Narayana as meaning "son of man." Hence, Narayana refers to the "d