1.
Megatron
–
Megatron is a character from the Transformers franchise, created by Hasbro in 1984, based on a toy design by Takara. The original Megatron was the Decepticon Leader, which could transform into three different types of guns, a Walther P38 handgun, a beam cannon. He is a sentient robotic lifeform from the planet Cybertron and the leader of the villainous Decepticons as well as the archenemy of the Autobot leader Optimus Prime, Megatron is usually depicted as having risen up from the lowly worker to become a champion in gladiatorial combat. As a gladiator, he took the legendary name Megatronus as his own, Prime would later use his teachings against him when he became corrupt. He has the ability to transform between his robot shape and various weapons or vehicles, but these alternate-modes, his origins and even personality and this origin is considered the most consistent between the various incarnations. Further differences are listed in the sections below. The original Megatronus, better known as the Fallen, was one of the original Thirteen Primes created by Primus, Megatronus betrayed his creator by siding with Primus dark twin, the malevolent planet-eater Unicron. In the final battle between Primus and Unicron, Megatronus fell victim to the fate as his master, sucked through a black hole into another dimension. However, while Unicron emerged in another universe, the Fallen was not so fortunate, another being addressed simply as Megatron is an apocalyptic figure said to bring about death and destruction through alteration of the time stream. Possible interpretations in the book of him are Alpha and Omega, the Fallen made his first appearance in the second volume of Transformers, The War Within. The character appears as the main antagonist in the live action film, Transformers, Revenge of the Fallen. Director Michael Bay described him as apocalyptic and he has the ability to teleport and generate a shockwave upon reappearance. He wields a spear as his weapon and has the ability of telekinesis, Megatronus is also mentioned as one of Thirteen in Transformers, Exodus and later appeared as the main antagonist in the first-season finale of Transformers, Robots in Disguise, voiced by Gil Gerard. Megatronuss history would be retconned in Transformers, The Covenant of Primus, Megatronus was one of the original thirteen Primes. Megatronus commissioned Solus Prime to create the Requiem Blaster, following the War of the Primes, he exiled himself from Cybertron after unintentionally murdering Solus Prime. Megatron is the founder of the Decepticon uprising and their most feared leader, bob Budiansky, the writer for the Marvel Comics series, stated that originally Hasbro took issue with the name, saying it sounded too frightening. Budiansky responded that as the villain, that was the point. Hasbro later agreed with his reasoning, and approved the name Megatron, the name itself probably comes from the Greek word megas, although in one of his interviews Budiansky claimed that it is in fact a portmanteau of electronic and megaton
2.
Regular polygon
–
In Euclidean geometry, a regular polygon is a polygon that is equiangular and equilateral. Regular polygons may be convex or star, in the limit, a sequence of regular polygons with an increasing number of sides becomes a circle, if the perimeter is fixed, or a regular apeirogon, if the edge length is fixed. These properties apply to all regular polygons, whether convex or star, a regular n-sided polygon has rotational symmetry of order n. All vertices of a regular polygon lie on a common circle and that is, a regular polygon is a cyclic polygon. Together with the property of equal-length sides, this implies that every regular polygon also has a circle or incircle that is tangent to every side at the midpoint. Thus a regular polygon is a tangential polygon, a regular n-sided polygon can be constructed with compass and straightedge if and only if the odd prime factors of n are distinct Fermat primes. The symmetry group of a regular polygon is dihedral group Dn, D2, D3. It consists of the rotations in Cn, together with reflection symmetry in n axes that pass through the center, if n is even then half of these axes pass through two opposite vertices, and the other half through the midpoint of opposite sides. If n is odd then all pass through a vertex. All regular simple polygons are convex and those having the same number of sides are also similar. An n-sided convex regular polygon is denoted by its Schläfli symbol, for n <3 we have two degenerate cases, Monogon, degenerate in ordinary space. Digon, a line segment, degenerate in ordinary space. In certain contexts all the polygons considered will be regular, in such circumstances it is customary to drop the prefix regular. For instance, all the faces of uniform polyhedra must be regular, for n >2 the number of diagonals is n 2, i. e.0,2,5,9. for a triangle, square, pentagon, hexagon. The diagonals divide the polygon into 1,4,11,24, for a regular n-gon inscribed in a unit-radius circle, the product of the distances from a given vertex to all other vertices equals n. For a regular simple n-gon with circumradius R and distances di from a point in the plane to the vertices. For a regular n-gon, the sum of the distances from any interior point to the n sides is n times the apothem. This is a generalization of Vivianis theorem for the n=3 case, the sum of the perpendiculars from a regular n-gons vertices to any line tangent to the circumcircle equals n times the circumradius
3.
Edge (geometry)
–
For edge in graph theory, see Edge In geometry, an edge is a particular type of line segment joining two vertices in a polygon, polyhedron, or higher-dimensional polytope. In a polygon, an edge is a segment on the boundary. In a polyhedron or more generally a polytope, an edge is a segment where two faces meet. A segment joining two vertices while passing through the interior or exterior is not an edge but instead is called a diagonal. In graph theory, an edge is an abstract object connecting two vertices, unlike polygon and polyhedron edges which have a concrete geometric representation as a line segment. However, any polyhedron can be represented by its skeleton or edge-skeleton, conversely, the graphs that are skeletons of three-dimensional polyhedra can be characterized by Steinitzs theorem as being exactly the 3-vertex-connected planar graphs. Any convex polyhedrons surface has Euler characteristic V − E + F =2, where V is the number of vertices, E is the number of edges and this equation is known as Eulers polyhedron formula. Thus the number of edges is 2 less than the sum of the numbers of vertices and faces, for example, a cube has 8 vertices and 6 faces, and hence 12 edges. In a polygon, two edges meet at each vertex, more generally, by Balinskis theorem, at least d edges meet at every vertex of a convex polytope. Similarly, in a polyhedron, exactly two faces meet at every edge, while in higher dimensional polytopes three or more two-dimensional faces meet at every edge. Thus, the edges of a polygon are its facets, the edges of a 3-dimensional convex polyhedron are its ridges, archived from the original on 4 February 2007
4.
Vertex (geometry)
–
In geometry, a vertex is a point where two or more curves, lines, or edges meet. As a consequence of this definition, the point where two lines meet to form an angle and the corners of polygons and polyhedra are vertices. A vertex is a point of a polygon, polyhedron, or other higher-dimensional polytope. However, in theory, vertices may have fewer than two incident edges, which is usually not allowed for geometric vertices. However, a smooth approximation to a polygon will also have additional vertices. A polygon vertex xi of a simple polygon P is a principal polygon vertex if the diagonal intersects the boundary of P only at x and x, there are two types of principal vertices, ears and mouths. A principal vertex xi of a simple polygon P is called an ear if the diagonal that bridges xi lies entirely in P, according to the two ears theorem, every simple polygon has at least two ears. A principal vertex xi of a simple polygon P is called a mouth if the diagonal lies outside the boundary of P. Any convex polyhedrons surface has Euler characteristic V − E + F =2, where V is the number of vertices, E is the number of edges and this equation is known as Eulers polyhedron formula. Thus the number of vertices is 2 more than the excess of the number of edges over the number of faces, for example, a cube has 12 edges and 6 faces, and hence 8 vertices
5.
Dihedral group
–
In mathematics, a dihedral group is the group of symmetries of a regular polygon, which includes rotations and reflections. Dihedral groups are among the simplest examples of groups, and they play an important role in group theory, geometry. The notation for the group of order n differs in geometry. In geometry, Dn or Dihn refers to the symmetries of the n-gon, in abstract algebra, Dn refers to the dihedral group of order n. The geometric convention is used in this article, a regular polygon with n sides has 2 n different symmetries, n rotational symmetries and n reflection symmetries. Usually, we take n ≥3 here. The associated rotations and reflections make up the dihedral group D n, if n is odd, each axis of symmetry connects the midpoint of one side to the opposite vertex. If n is even, there are n/2 axes of symmetry connecting the midpoints of opposite sides, in either case, there are n axes of symmetry and 2 n elements in the symmetry group. Reflecting in one axis of symmetry followed by reflecting in another axis of symmetry produces a rotation through twice the angle between the axes, as with any geometric object, the composition of two symmetries of a regular polygon is again a symmetry of this object. With composition of symmetries to produce another as the binary operation, the following Cayley table shows the effect of composition in the group D3. R0 denotes the identity, r1 and r2 denote counterclockwise rotations by 120° and 240° respectively, for example, s2s1 = r1, because the reflection s1 followed by the reflection s2 results in a rotation of 120°. The order of elements denoting the composition is right to left, the composition operation is not commutative. In all cases, addition and subtraction of subscripts are to be performed using modular arithmetic with modulus n, if we center the regular polygon at the origin, then elements of the dihedral group act as linear transformations of the plane. This lets us represent elements of Dn as matrices, with composition being matrix multiplication and this is an example of a group representation. For example, the elements of the group D4 can be represented by the eight matrices. In general, the matrices for elements of Dn have the following form, rk is a rotation matrix, expressing a counterclockwise rotation through an angle of 2πk/n. Sk is a reflection across a line makes an angle of πk/n with the x-axis. Further equivalent definitions of Dn are, D1 is isomorphic to Z2, D2 is isomorphic to K4, the Klein four-group. D1 and D2 are exceptional in that, D1 and D2 are the only abelian dihedral groups, Dn is a subgroup of the symmetric group Sn for n ≥3
6.
Internal and external angles
–
In geometry, an angle of a polygon is formed by two sides of the polygon that share an endpoint. For a simple polygon, regardless of whether it is convex or non-convex, a polygon has exactly one internal angle per vertex. If every internal angle of a polygon is less than 180°. In contrast, an angle is an angle formed by one side of a simple polygon. The sum of the angle and the external angle on the same vertex is 180°. The sum of all the angles of a simple polygon is 180° where n is the number of sides. The formula can be proved using induction and starting with a triangle for which the angle sum is 180°. The sum of the angles of any simple convex or non-convex polygon is 360°. The interior angle concept can be extended in a consistent way to crossed polygons such as star polygons by using the concept of directed angles, in other words, 360k° represents the sum of all the exterior angles. For example, for convex and concave polygons k =1, since the exterior angle sum is 360°
7.
Degree (angle)
–
A degree, usually denoted by °, is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees. It is not an SI unit, as the SI unit of measure is the radian. Because a full rotation equals 2π radians, one degree is equivalent to π/180 radians, the original motivation for choosing the degree as a unit of rotations and angles is unknown. One theory states that it is related to the fact that 360 is approximately the number of days in a year. Ancient astronomers noticed that the sun, which follows through the path over the course of the year. Some ancient calendars, such as the Persian calendar, used 360 days for a year, the use of a calendar with 360 days may be related to the use of sexagesimal numbers. The earliest trigonometry, used by the Babylonian astronomers and their Greek successors, was based on chords of a circle, a chord of length equal to the radius made a natural base quantity. One sixtieth of this, using their standard sexagesimal divisions, was a degree, Aristarchus of Samos and Hipparchus seem to have been among the first Greek scientists to exploit Babylonian astronomical knowledge and techniques systematically. Timocharis, Aristarchus, Aristillus, Archimedes, and Hipparchus were the first Greeks known to divide the circle in 360 degrees of 60 arc minutes, eratosthenes used a simpler sexagesimal system dividing a circle into 60 parts. Furthermore, it is divisible by every number from 1 to 10 except 7 and this property has many useful applications, such as dividing the world into 24 time zones, each of which is nominally 15° of longitude, to correlate with the established 24-hour day convention. Finally, it may be the case more than one of these factors has come into play. For many practical purposes, a degree is a small enough angle that whole degrees provide sufficient precision. When this is not the case, as in astronomy or for geographic coordinates, degree measurements may be written using decimal degrees, with the symbol behind the decimals. Alternatively, the sexagesimal unit subdivisions can be used. One degree is divided into 60 minutes, and one minute into 60 seconds, use of degrees-minutes-seconds is also called DMS notation. These subdivisions, also called the arcminute and arcsecond, are represented by a single and double prime. For example,40. 1875° = 40° 11′ 15″, or, using quotation mark characters, additional precision can be provided using decimals for the arcseconds component. The older system of thirds, fourths, etc. which continues the sexagesimal unit subdivision, was used by al-Kashi and other ancient astronomers, but is rarely used today
8.
Dual polygon
–
In geometry, polygons are associated into pairs called duals, where the vertices of one correspond to the edges of the other. The dual of a polygon is an isotoxal polygon. For example, the rectangle and rhombus are duals, in a cyclic polygon, longer sides correspond to larger exterior angles in the dual, and shorter sides to smaller angles. Further, congruent sides in the original polygon yields congruent angles in the dual, for example, the dual of a highly acute isosceles triangle is an obtuse isosceles triangle. In the Dorman Luke construction, each face of a polyhedron is the dual polygon of the corresponding vertex figure. As an example of the duality of polygons we compare properties of the cyclic. This duality is perhaps more clear when comparing an isosceles trapezoid to a kite. The simplest qualitative construction of a polygon is a rectification operation. New edges are formed between these new vertices and that is, the polygon generated by applying it twice is in general not similar to the original polygon. As with dual polyhedra, one can take a circle and perform polar reciprocation in it. Combinatorially, one can define a polygon as a set of vertices, a set of edges, then the dual polygon is obtained by simply switching the vertices and edges. Thus for the triangle with vertices and edges, the triangle has vertices, and edges, where B connects AB & BC. This is not a particularly fruitful avenue, as combinatorially, there is a family of polygons, geometric duality of polygons is more varied. Dual curve Dual polyhedron Self-dual polygon Dual Polygon Applet by Don Hatch
9.
Convex polygon
–
A convex polygon is a simple polygon in which no line segment between two points on the boundary ever goes outside the polygon. Equivalently, it is a polygon whose interior is a convex set. In a convex polygon, all angles are less than or equal to 180 degrees. A simple polygon which is not convex is called concave, the following properties of a simple polygon are all equivalent to convexity, Every internal angle is less than or equal to 180 degrees. Every point on line segment between two points inside or on the boundary of the polygon remains inside or on the boundary. The polygon is contained in a closed half-plane defined by each of its edges. For each edge, the points are all on the same side of the line that the edge defines. The angle at each vertex contains all vertices in its edges. The polygon is the hull of its edges. Additional properties of convex polygons include, The intersection of two convex polygons is a convex polygon, a convex polygon may br triangulated in linear time through a fan triangulation, consisting in adding diagonals from one vertex to all other vertices. Hellys theorem, For every collection of at least three convex polygons, if the intersection of three of them is nonempty, then the whole collection has a nonempty intersection. Krein–Milman theorem, A convex polygon is the hull of its vertices. Thus it is defined by the set of its vertices. Hyperplane separation theorem, Any two convex polygons with no points in common have a separator line, if the polygons are closed and at least one of them is compact, then there are even two parallel separator lines. Inscribed triangle property, Of all triangles contained in a convex polygon, inscribing triangle property, every convex polygon with area A can be inscribed in a triangle of area at most equal to 2A. Equality holds for a parallelogram.5 × Area ≤ Area ≤2 × Area, the mean width of a convex polygon is equal to its perimeter divided by pi. So its width is the diameter of a circle with the perimeter as the polygon. Every polygon inscribed in a circle, if not self-intersecting, is convex, however, not every convex polygon can be inscribed in a circle
10.
Circumscribed circle
–
In geometry, the circumscribed circle or circumcircle of a polygon is a circle which passes through all the vertices of the polygon. The center of circle is called the circumcenter and its radius is called the circumradius. A polygon which has a circle is called a cyclic polygon. All regular simple polygons, all isosceles trapezoids, all triangles, a related notion is the one of a minimum bounding circle, which is the smallest circle that completely contains the polygon within it. All triangles are cyclic, i. e. every triangle has a circumscribed circle and this can be proven on the grounds that the general equation for a circle with center and radius r in the Cartesian coordinate system is 2 +2 = r 2. Since this equation has three parameters only three points coordinate pairs are required to determine the equation of a circle, since a triangle is defined by its three vertices, and exactly three points are required to determine a circle, every triangle can be circumscribed. The circumcenter of a triangle can be constructed by drawing any two of the three perpendicular bisectors, the center is the point where the perpendicular bisectors intersect, and the radius is the length to any of the three vertices. This is because the circumcenter is equidistant from any pair of the triangles vertices, in coastal navigation, a triangles circumcircle is sometimes used as a way of obtaining a position line using a sextant when no compass is available. The horizontal angle between two landmarks defines the circumcircle upon which the observer lies, in the Euclidean plane, it is possible to give explicitly an equation of the circumcircle in terms of the Cartesian coordinates of the vertices of the inscribed triangle. Suppose that A = B = C = are the coordinates of points A, B, using the polarization identity, these equations reduce to the condition that the matrix has a nonzero kernel. Thus the circumcircle may alternatively be described as the locus of zeros of the determinant of this matrix, a similar approach allows one to deduce the equation of the circumsphere of a tetrahedron. A unit vector perpendicular to the containing the circle is given by n ^ = × | × |. An equation for the circumcircle in trilinear coordinates x, y, z is a/x + b/y + c/z =0, an equation for the circumcircle in barycentric coordinates x, y, z is a2/x + b2/y + c2/z =0. The isogonal conjugate of the circumcircle is the line at infinity, given in coordinates by ax + by + cz =0. Additionally, the circumcircle of a triangle embedded in d dimensions can be using a generalized method. Let A, B, and C be d-dimensional points, which form the vertices of a triangle and we start by transposing the system to place C at the origin, a = A − C, b = B − C. The circumcenter, p0, is given by p 0 = ×2 ∥ a × b ∥2 + C, the Cartesian coordinates of the circumcenter are U x =1 D U y =1 D with D =2. Without loss of generality this can be expressed in a form after translation of the vertex A to the origin of the Cartesian coordinate systems
11.
Equilateral polygon
–
In geometry, three or more than three straight lines make a polygon and an equilateral polygon is a polygon which has all sides of the same length. Except in the case, it need not be equiangular. If the number of sides is at least five, an equilateral polygon need not be a convex polygon, all regular polygons and isotoxal polygons are equilateral. An equilateral triangle is a triangle with 60° internal angles. An equilateral quadrilateral is called a rhombus, an isotoxal polygon described by an angle α and it includes the square as a special case. A convex equilateral pentagon can be described by two angles α and β, which determine the other angles. Concave equilateral pentagons exist, as do concave equilateral polygons with any number of sides. An equilateral polygon which is cyclic is a regular polygon, a tangential polygon is equilateral if and only if the alternate angles are equal. Thus if the number of n is odd, a tangential polygon is equilateral if. The principal diagonals of a hexagon each divide the hexagon into quadrilaterals, in any convex equilateral hexagon with common side a, there exists a principal diagonal d1 such that d 1 a ≤2 and a principal diagonal d2 such that d 2 a >3. Triambi are equilateral hexagons with trigonal symmetry, Equilateral triangle With interactive animation A Property of Equiangular Polygons, a discussion of Vivianis theorem at Cut-the-knot
12.
Isogonal figure
–
In geometry, a polytope is isogonal or vertex-transitive if, loosely speaking, all its vertices are equivalent. That implies that each vertex is surrounded by the kinds of face in the same or reverse order. Technically, we say that for any two vertices there exists a symmetry of the polytope mapping the first isometrically onto the second. Other ways of saying this are that the group of automorphisms of the polytope is transitive on its vertices, all vertices of a finite n-dimensional isogonal figure exist on an -sphere. The term isogonal has long used for polyhedra. Vertex-transitive is a synonym borrowed from modern ideas such as symmetry groups, all regular polygons, apeirogons and regular star polygons are isogonal. The dual of a polygon is an isotoxal polygon. Some even-sided polygons and apeirogons which alternate two edge lengths, for example a rectangle, are isogonal, all planar isogonal 2n-gons have dihedral symmetry with reflection lines across the mid-edge points. An isogonal polyhedron and 2D tiling has a kind of vertex. An isogonal polyhedron with all faces is also a uniform polyhedron. Geometrically distorted variations of uniform polyhedra and tilings can also be given the vertex configuration, isogonal polyhedra and 2D tilings may be further classified, Regular if it is also isohedral and isotoxal, this implies that every face is the same kind of regular polygon. Quasi-regular if it is also isotoxal but not isohedral, semi-regular if every face is a regular polygon but it is not isohedral or isotoxal. Uniform if every face is a polygon, i. e. it is regular, quasiregular or semi-regular. Noble if it is also isohedral and these definitions can be extended to higher-dimensional polytopes and tessellations. Most generally, all uniform polytopes are isogonal, for example, the dual of an isogonal polytope is called an isotope which is transitive on its facets. A polytope or tiling may be called if its vertices form k transitivity classes. A more restrictive term, k-uniform is defined as a figure constructed only from regular polygons. They can be represented visually with colors by different uniform colorings, edge-transitive Face-transitive Peter R. Cromwell, Polyhedra, Cambridge University Press 1997, ISBN 0-521-55432-2, p.369 Transitivity Grünbaum, Branko, Shephard, G. C
13.
Isotoxal figure
–
In geometry, a polytope, or a tiling, is isotoxal or edge-transitive if its symmetries act transitively on its edges. The term isotoxal is derived from the Greek τοξον meaning arc, an isotoxal polygon is an equilateral polygon, but not all equilateral polygons are isotoxal. The duals of isotoxal polygons are isogonal polygons, in general, an isotoxal 2n-gon will have Dn dihedral symmetry. A rhombus is a polygon with D2 symmetry. All regular polygons are isotoxal, having double the symmetry order. A regular 2n-gon is a polygon and can be marked with alternately colored vertices. An isotoxal polyhedron or tiling must be either isogonal or isohedral or both, regular polyhedra are isohedral, isogonal and isotoxal. Quasiregular polyhedra are isogonal and isotoxal, but not isohedral, their duals are isohedral and isotoxal, not every polyhedron or 2-dimensional tessellation constructed from regular polygons is isotoxal. An isotoxal polyhedron has the dihedral angle for all edges. There are nine convex isotoxal polyhedra formed from the Platonic solids,8 formed by the Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra, cS1 maint, Multiple names, authors list Coxeter, Harold Scott MacDonald, Longuet-Higgins, M. S. Miller, J. C. P. Uniform polyhedra, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, mathematical and Physical Sciences,246, 401–450, doi,10. 1098/rsta.1954.0003, ISSN 0080-4614, JSTOR91532, MR0062446
14.
Polygon
–
In elementary geometry, a polygon /ˈpɒlɪɡɒn/ is a plane figure that is bounded by a finite chain of straight line segments closing in a loop to form a closed polygonal chain or circuit. These segments are called its edges or sides, and the points where two edges meet are the vertices or corners. The interior of the polygon is called its body. An n-gon is a polygon with n sides, for example, a polygon is a 2-dimensional example of the more general polytope in any number of dimensions. The basic geometrical notion of a polygon has been adapted in various ways to suit particular purposes, mathematicians are often concerned only with the bounding closed polygonal chain and with simple polygons which do not self-intersect, and they often define a polygon accordingly. A polygonal boundary may be allowed to intersect itself, creating star polygons and these and other generalizations of polygons are described below. The word polygon derives from the Greek adjective πολύς much, many and it has been suggested that γόνυ knee may be the origin of “gon”. Polygons are primarily classified by the number of sides, Polygons may be characterized by their convexity or type of non-convexity, Convex, any line drawn through the polygon meets its boundary exactly twice. As a consequence, all its interior angles are less than 180°, equivalently, any line segment with endpoints on the boundary passes through only interior points between its endpoints. Non-convex, a line may be found which meets its boundary more than twice, equivalently, there exists a line segment between two boundary points that passes outside the polygon. Simple, the boundary of the polygon does not cross itself, there is at least one interior angle greater than 180°. Star-shaped, the interior is visible from at least one point. The polygon must be simple, and may be convex or concave, self-intersecting, the boundary of the polygon crosses itself. Branko Grünbaum calls these coptic, though this term does not seem to be widely used, star polygon, a polygon which self-intersects in a regular way. A polygon cannot be both a star and star-shaped, equiangular, all corner angles are equal. Cyclic, all lie on a single circle, called the circumcircle. Isogonal or vertex-transitive, all lie within the same symmetry orbit. The polygon is cyclic and equiangular
15.
Earth
–
Earth, otherwise known as the World, or the Globe, is the third planet from the Sun and the only object in the Universe known to harbor life. It is the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest of the four terrestrial planets, according to radiometric dating and other sources of evidence, Earth formed about 4.54 billion years ago. Earths gravity interacts with objects in space, especially the Sun. During one orbit around the Sun, Earth rotates about its axis over 365 times, thus, Earths axis of rotation is tilted, producing seasonal variations on the planets surface. The gravitational interaction between the Earth and Moon causes ocean tides, stabilizes the Earths orientation on its axis, Earths lithosphere is divided into several rigid tectonic plates that migrate across the surface over periods of many millions of years. About 71% of Earths surface is covered with water, mostly by its oceans, the remaining 29% is land consisting of continents and islands that together have many lakes, rivers and other sources of water that contribute to the hydrosphere. The majority of Earths polar regions are covered in ice, including the Antarctic ice sheet, Earths interior remains active with a solid iron inner core, a liquid outer core that generates the Earths magnetic field, and a convecting mantle that drives plate tectonics. Within the first billion years of Earths history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect the Earths atmosphere and surface, some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as much as 4.1 billion years ago. Since then, the combination of Earths distance from the Sun, physical properties, in the history of the Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinction events. Over 99% of all species that lived on Earth are extinct. Estimates of the number of species on Earth today vary widely, over 7.4 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and minerals for their survival. Humans have developed diverse societies and cultures, politically, the world has about 200 sovereign states, the modern English word Earth developed from a wide variety of Middle English forms, which derived from an Old English noun most often spelled eorðe. It has cognates in every Germanic language, and their proto-Germanic root has been reconstructed as *erþō, originally, earth was written in lowercase, and from early Middle English, its definite sense as the globe was expressed as the earth. By early Modern English, many nouns were capitalized, and the became the Earth. More recently, the name is simply given as Earth. House styles now vary, Oxford spelling recognizes the lowercase form as the most common, another convention capitalizes Earth when appearing as a name but writes it in lowercase when preceded by the. It almost always appears in lowercase in colloquial expressions such as what on earth are you doing, the oldest material found in the Solar System is dated to 4. 5672±0.0006 billion years ago. By 4. 54±0.04 Gya the primordial Earth had formed, the formation and evolution of Solar System bodies occurred along with the Sun
16.
Circle
–
A circle is a simple closed shape in Euclidean geometry. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius, a circle is a simple closed curve which divides the plane into two regions, an interior and an exterior. Annulus, the object, the region bounded by two concentric circles. Arc, any connected part of the circle, centre, the point equidistant from the points on the circle. Chord, a segment whose endpoints lie on the circle. Circumference, the length of one circuit along the circle, or the distance around the circle and it is a special case of a chord, namely the longest chord, and it is twice the radius. Disc, the region of the bounded by a circle. Lens, the intersection of two discs, passant, a coplanar straight line that does not touch the circle. Radius, a line segment joining the centre of the circle to any point on the circle itself, or the length of such a segment, sector, a region bounded by two radii and an arc lying between the radii. Segment, a region, not containing the centre, bounded by a chord, secant, an extended chord, a coplanar straight line cutting the circle at two points. Semicircle, an arc that extends from one of a diameters endpoints to the other, in non-technical common usage it may mean the diameter, arc, and its interior, a two dimensional region, that is technically called a half-disc. A half-disc is a case of a segment, namely the largest one. Tangent, a straight line that touches the circle at a single point. The word circle derives from the Greek κίρκος/κύκλος, itself a metathesis of the Homeric Greek κρίκος, the origins of the words circus and circuit are closely related. The circle has been known since before the beginning of recorded history, natural circles would have been observed, such as the Moon, Sun, and a short plant stalk blowing in the wind on sand, which forms a circle shape in the sand. The circle is the basis for the wheel, which, with related inventions such as gears, in mathematics, the study of the circle has helped inspire the development of geometry, astronomy and calculus. Some highlights in the history of the circle are,1700 BCE – The Rhind papyrus gives a method to find the area of a circular field. The result corresponds to 256/81 as a value of π.300 BCE – Book 3 of Euclids Elements deals with the properties of circles
17.
Truncation (geometry)
–
In geometry, a truncation is an operation in any dimension that cuts polytope vertices, creating a new facet in place of each vertex. The term originates from Keplers names for the Archimedean solids, in general any polyhedron can also be truncated with a degree of freedom as to how deep the cut is, as shown in Conway polyhedron notation truncation operation. A special kind of truncation, usually implied, is a uniform truncation, there are no degrees of freedom, and it represents a fixed geometric, just like the regular polyhedra. In general all single ringed uniform polytopes have a uniform truncation, for example, the icosidodecahedron, represented as Schläfli symbols r or, and Coxeter-Dynkin diagram or has a uniform truncation, the truncated icosidodecahedron, represented as tr or t. In the Coxeter-Dynkin diagram, the effect of a truncation is to ring all the adjacent to the ringed node. A truncated n-sided polygon will have 2n sides, a regular polygon uniformly truncated will become another regular polygon, t is. A complete truncation, r, is another regular polygon in its dual position, a regular polygon can also be represented by its Coxeter-Dynkin diagram, and its uniform truncation, and its complete truncation. Star polygons can also be truncated, a truncated pentagram will look like a pentagon, but is actually a double-covered decagon with two sets of overlapping vertices and edges. A truncated great heptagram gives a tetradecagram and this sequence shows an example of the truncation of a cube, using four steps of a continuous truncating process between a full cube and a rectified cube. The final polyhedron is a cuboctahedron, the middle image is the uniform truncated cube. It is represented by a Schläfli symbol t, a bitruncation is a deeper truncation, removing all the original edges, but leaving an interior part of the original faces. The truncated octahedron is a cube, 2t is an example. A complete bitruncation is called a birectification that reduces original faces to points, for polyhedra, this becomes the dual polyhedron. An octahedron is a birectification of the cube, = 2r is an example, another type of truncation is called cantellation, cuts edge and vertices, removing original edges and replacing them with rectangles. Higher dimensional polytopes have higher truncations, runcination cuts faces, edges, in 5-dimensions sterication cuts cells, faces, and edges. Edge-truncation is a beveling or chamfer for polyhedra, similar to cantellation but retains original vertices, in 4-polytopes edge-truncation replaces edges with elongated bipyramid cells. Alternation or partial truncation only removes some of the original vertices, a partial truncation or alternation - Half of the vertices and connecting edges are completely removed. The operation only applies to polytopes with even-sided faces, faces are reduced to half as many sides, and square faces degenerate into edges
18.
Area
–
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane. Surface area is its analog on the surface of a three-dimensional object. It is the analog of the length of a curve or the volume of a solid. The area of a shape can be measured by comparing the shape to squares of a fixed size, in the International System of Units, the standard unit of area is the square metre, which is the area of a square whose sides are one metre long. A shape with an area of three square metres would have the area as three such squares. In mathematics, the square is defined to have area one. There are several formulas for the areas of simple shapes such as triangles, rectangles. Using these formulas, the area of any polygon can be found by dividing the polygon into triangles, for shapes with curved boundary, calculus is usually required to compute the area. Indeed, the problem of determining the area of plane figures was a motivation for the historical development of calculus. For a solid such as a sphere, cone, or cylinder. Formulas for the areas of simple shapes were computed by the ancient Greeks. Area plays an important role in modern mathematics, in addition to its obvious importance in geometry and calculus, area is related to the definition of determinants in linear algebra, and is a basic property of surfaces in differential geometry. In analysis, the area of a subset of the plane is defined using Lebesgue measure, in general, area in higher mathematics is seen as a special case of volume for two-dimensional regions. Area can be defined through the use of axioms, defining it as a function of a collection of certain plane figures to the set of real numbers and it can be proved that such a function exists. An approach to defining what is meant by area is through axioms, area can be defined as a function from a collection M of special kind of plane figures to the set of real numbers which satisfies the following properties, For all S in M, a ≥0. If S and T are in M then so are S ∪ T and S ∩ T, if S and T are in M with S ⊆ T then T − S is in M and a = a − a. If a set S is in M and S is congruent to T then T is also in M, every rectangle R is in M. If the rectangle has length h and breadth k then a = hk, let Q be a set enclosed between two step regions S and T
19.
Perimeter
–
A perimeter is a path that surrounds a two-dimensional shape. The term may be used either for the path or its length—it can be thought of as the length of the outline of a shape, the perimeter of a circle or ellipse is called its circumference. Calculating the perimeter has several practical applications, a calculated perimeter is the length of fence required to surround a yard or garden. The perimeter of a wheel describes how far it will roll in one revolution, similarly, the amount of string wound around a spool is related to the spools perimeter. The perimeter is the distance around a shape, perimeters for more general shapes can be calculated, as any path, with ∫0 L d s, where L is the length of the path and d s is an infinitesimal line element. Both of these must be replaced with by algebraic forms in order to be practically calculated, the first mathematician known to have used this kind of reasoning is Archimedes, who approximated the perimeter of a circle by surrounding it with regular polygons. The perimeter of a polygon equals the sum of the lengths of its sides, in particular, the perimeter of a rectangle of width w and length ℓ equals 2 w +2 ℓ. An equilateral polygon is a polygon which has all sides of the same length, to calculate the perimeter of an equilateral polygon, one must multiply the common length of the sides by the number of sides. A regular polygon may be characterized by the number of its sides and by its circumradius, that is to say, the length of its sides can be calculated using trigonometry. If R is a regular polygons radius and n is the number of its sides, a splitter of a triangle is a cevian that divides the perimeter into two equal lengths, this common length being called the semiperimeter of the triangle. The three splitters of a triangle all intersect each other at the Nagel point of the triangle, a cleaver of a triangle is a segment from the midpoint of a side of a triangle to the opposite side such that the perimeter is divided into two equal lengths. The three cleavers of a triangle all intersect each other at the triangles Spieker center, the perimeter of a circle, often called the circumference, is proportional to its diameter and its radius. That is to say, there exists a constant number pi, π, such that if P is the perimeter and D its diameter then. In terms of the r of the circle, this formula becomes. To calculate a circles perimeter, knowledge of its radius or diameter, the problem is that π is not rational, nor is it algebraic. So, obtaining an approximation of π is important in the calculation. The computation of the digits of π is relevant to many fields, such as mathematical analysis, algorithmics, the perimeter and the area are two main measures of geometric figures. Confusing them is an error, as well as believing that the greater one of them is
20.
Circumference
–
The circumference of a closed curve or circular object is the linear distance around its edge. The circumference of a circle is of importance in geometry and trigonometry. Informally circumference may also refer to the edge rather than to the length of the edge. The circumference of a circle is the distance around it, the term is used when measuring physical objects, as well as when considering abstract geometric forms. The circumference of a circle relates to one of the most important mathematical constants in all of mathematics and this constant, pi, is represented by the Greek letter π. The numerical value of π is 3.141592653589793, pi is defined as the ratio of a circles circumference C to its diameter d, π = C d Or, equivalently, as the ratio of the circumference to twice the radius. The above formula can be rearranged to solve for the circumference, the use of the mathematical constant π is ubiquitous in mathematics, engineering, and science. The constant ratio of circumference to radius C / r =2 π also has uses in mathematics, engineering. These uses include but are not limited to radians, computer programming, the Greek letter τ is sometimes used to represent this constant, but is not generally accepted as proper notation. The circumference of an ellipse can be expressed in terms of the elliptic integral of the second kind. In graph theory the circumference of a graph refers to the longest cycle contained in that graph, arc length Area Caccioppoli set Isoperimetric inequality Pythagorean theorem Volume Numericana - Circumference of an ellipse Circumference of a circle With interactive applet and animation
21.
Neusis construction
–
The neusis is a geometric construction method that was used in antiquity by Greek mathematicians. The neusis construction consists of fitting a line element of length in between two given lines, in such a way that the line element, or its extension. That is, one end of the element has to lie on l. A neusis construction might be performed by means of a neusis ruler, in the figure one end of the ruler is marked with a yellow eye with crosshairs, this is the origin of the scale division on the ruler. A second marking on the ruler indicates the distance a from the origin, the yellow eye is moved along line l, until the blue eye coincides with line m. The position of the element thus found is shown in the figure as a dark blue bar. Point P is called the pole of the neusis, line l the directrix, or guiding line, length a is called the diastema. Neuseis have been important because they provide a means to solve geometric problems that are not solvable by means of compass. Examples are the trisection of any angle in three parts, the doubling of the cube, and the construction of a regular heptagon, nonagon. Mathematicians such as Archimedes of Syracuse and Pappus of Alexandria freely used neuseis, Sir Isaac Newton followed their line of thought, nevertheless, gradually the technique dropped out of use. Modified by the recent finding by Benjamin and Snyder that the regular hendecagon is neusis-constructible, T. L. Heath, the historian of mathematics, has suggested that the Greek mathematician Oenopides was the first to put compass-and-straightedge constructions above neuseis. One hundred years after him Euclid too shunned neuseis in his influential textbook. The next attack on the neusis came when, from the fourth century BC, under its influence a hierarchy of three classes of geometrical constructions was developed. In the end the use of neusis was deemed acceptable only when the two other, higher categories of constructions did not offer a solution, Neusis became a kind of last resort that was invoked only when all other, more respectable, methods had failed. Using neusis where other methods might have been used was branded by the late Greek mathematician Pappus of Alexandria as a not inconsiderable error. R. Boeker, Neusis, in, Paulys Realencyclopädie der Classischen Altertumswissenschaft, the most comprehensive survey, however, the author sometimes has rather curious opinions. T. L. Heath, A history of Greek Mathematics, H. G. Zeuthen, Die Lehre von den Kegelschnitten im Altertum. MathWorld page Angle Trisection by Paper Folding
22.
Pierpont prime
–
A Pierpont prime is a prime number of the form 2 u 3 v +1 for some nonnegative integers u and v. That is, they are the prime numbers p for which p −1 is 3-smooth. They are named after the mathematician James Pierpont, who introduced them in the study of regular polygons that can be constructed using conic sections. It is possible to prove that if v =0 and u >0, then u must be a power of 2, if v is positive then u must also be positive, and the Pierpont prime is of the form 6k +1. Empirically, the Pierpont primes do not seem to be rare or sparsely distributed. There are 36 Pierpont primes less than 106,59 less than 109,151 less than 1020, there are few restrictions from algebraic factorisations on the Pierpont primes, so there are no requirements like the Mersenne prime condition that the exponent must be prime. As there are Θ numbers of the form in this range. Andrew M. Gleason made this explicit, conjecturing there are infinitely many Pierpont primes. According to Gleasons conjecture there are Θ Pierpont primes smaller than N, when 2 u >3 v, the primality of 2 u 3 v +1 can be tested by Proths theorem. As part of the ongoing search for factors of Fermat numbers. The following table gives values of m, k, and n such that k ⋅2 n +1 divides 22 m +1, the left-hand side is a Pierpont prime when k is a power of 3, the right-hand side is a Fermat number. As of 2017, the largest known Pierpont prime is 3 ×210829346 +1, whose primality was discovered by Sai Yik Tang, in the mathematics of paper folding, the Huzita axioms define six of the seven types of fold possible. It has been shown that these folds are sufficient to allow the construction of the points that solve any cubic equation. It follows that they allow any regular polygon of N sides to be formed, as long as N >3 and of the form 2m3nρ and this is the same class of regular polygons as those that can be constructed with a compass, straightedge, and angle-trisector. Regular polygons which can be constructed with compass and straightedge are the special case where n =0 and ρ is a product of distinct Fermat primes, themselves a subset of Pierpont primes. In 1895, James Pierpont studied the same class of regular polygons, Pierpont generalized compass and straightedge constructions in a different way, by adding the ability to draw conic sections whose coefficients come from previously constructed points. As he showed, the regular N-gons that can be constructed with these operations are the ones such that the totient of N is 3-smooth. Since the totient of a prime is formed by subtracting one from it, however, Pierpont did not describe the form of the composite numbers with 3-smooth totients. As Gleason later showed, these numbers are exactly the ones of the form 2m3nρ given above, the smallest prime that is not a Pierpont prime is 11, therefore, the hendecagon is the smallest regular polygon that cannot be constructed with compass, straightedge and angle trisector
23.
Chiliagon
–
In geometry, a chiliagon or 1000-gon is a polygon with 1000 sides. Philosophers commonly refer to chiliagons to illustrate ideas about the nature and workings of thought, meaning, a regular chiliagon is represented by Schläfli symbol and can be constructed as a truncated 500-gon, t, or a twice-truncated 250-gon, tt, or a thrice-truncated 125-gon, ttt. The measure of each internal angle in a regular chiliagon is 179. 64°, because 1000 =23 ×53, the number of sides is neither a product of distinct Fermat primes nor a power of two. Thus the regular chiliagon is not a constructible polygon, indeed, it is not even constructible with the use of neusis or an angle trisector, as the number of sides is neither a product of distinct Pierpont primes, nor a product of powers of two and three. René Descartes uses the chiliagon as an example in his Sixth Meditation to demonstrate the difference between pure intellection and imagination. He says that, when one thinks of a chiliagon, he does not imagine the thousand sides or see them as if they were present before him – as he does when one imagines a triangle, for example. The imagination constructs a confused representation, which is no different from that which it constructs of a myriagon, however, he does clearly understand what a chiliagon is, just as he understands what a triangle is, and he is able to distinguish it from a myriagon. Therefore, the intellect is not dependent on imagination, Descartes claims, as it is able to entertain clear, the example of a chiliagon is also referenced by other philosophers, such as Immanuel Kant. David Hume points out that it is impossible for the eye to determine the angles of a chiliagon to be equal to 1996 right angles, or make any conjecture, that approaches this proportion. Gottfried Leibniz comments on a use of the chiliagon by John Locke, noting that one can have an idea of the polygon without having an image of it, inspired by Descartess chiliagon example, Roderick Chisholm and other 20th-century philosophers have used similar examples to make similar points. Chisholms speckled hen, which need not have a number of speckles to be successfully imagined, is perhaps the most famous of these. The regular chiliagon has Dih1000 dihedral symmetry, order 2000, represented by 1000 lines of reflection. Dih100 has 15 dihedral subgroups, Dih500, Dih250, Dih125, Dih200, Dih100, Dih50, Dih25, Dih40, Dih20, Dih10, Dih5, Dih8, Dih4, Dih2, and Dih1. It also has 16 more cyclic symmetries as subgroups, Z1000, Z500, Z250, Z125, Z200, Z100, Z50, Z25, Z40, Z20, Z10, Z5, Z8, Z4, Z2, and Z1, with Zn representing π/n radian rotational symmetry. John Conway labels these symmetries with a letter and order of the symmetry follows the letter. He gives d with mirror lines through vertices, p with mirror lines through edges and these lower symmetries allows degrees of freedom in defining irregular chiliagons. Only the g1000 subgroup has no degrees of freedom but can seen as directed edges, a chiliagram is a 1000-sided star polygon. There are 199 regular forms given by Schläfli symbols of the form, there are also 300 regular star figures in the remaining cases
24.
Cyclic group
–
In algebra, a cyclic group or monogenous group is a group that is generated by a single element. Each element can be written as a power of g in multiplicative notation and this element g is called a generator of the group. Every infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to the group of Z. Every finite cyclic group of n is isomorphic to the additive group of Z/nZ. Every cyclic group is a group, and every finitely generated abelian group is a direct product of cyclic groups. A group G is called if there exists an element g in G such that G = ⟨g⟩ =. Since any group generated by an element in a group is a subgroup of that group, for example, if G = is a group of order 6, then g6 = g0, and G is cyclic. In fact, G is essentially the same as the set with addition modulo 6, for example,1 +2 ≡3 corresponds to g1 · g2 = g3, and 2 +5 ≡1 corresponds to g2 · g5 = g7 = g1, and so on. One can use the isomorphism χ defined by χ = i, the name cyclic may be misleading, it is possible to generate infinitely many elements and not form any literal cycles, that is, every gn is distinct. A group generated in this way is called a cyclic group. The French mathematicians known as Nicolas Bourbaki referred to a group as a monogenous group. The set of integers, with the operation of addition, forms a group and it is an infinite cyclic group, because all integers can be written as a finite sum or difference of copies of the number 1. In this group,1 and −1 are the only generators, every infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to this group. For every positive n, the set of integers modulo n, again with the operation of addition, forms a finite cyclic group. An element g is a generator of this group if g is relatively prime to n, thus, the number of different generators is φ, where φ is the Euler totient function, the function that counts the number of numbers modulo n that are relatively prime to n. Every finite cyclic group is isomorphic to a group Z/n, where n is the order of the group, the integer and modular addition operations, used to define the cyclic groups, are both the addition operations of commutative rings, also denoted Z and Z/n. If p is a prime, then Z/p is a finite field, every field with p elements is isomorphic to this one. For every positive n, the subset of the integers modulo n that are relatively prime to n, with the operation of multiplication
25.
John Horton Conway
–
John Horton Conway FRS is an English mathematician active in the theory of finite groups, knot theory, number theory, combinatorial game theory and coding theory. He has also contributed to many branches of mathematics, notably the invention of the cellular automaton called the Game of Life. Conway is currently Professor Emeritus of Mathematics at Princeton University in New Jersey, Conway was born in Liverpool, the son of Cyril Horton Conway and Agnes Boyce. He became interested in mathematics at an early age, his mother has recalled that he could recite the powers of two when he was four years old. By the age of eleven his ambition was to become a mathematician, after leaving secondary school, Conway entered Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge to study mathematics. Conway, who was a terribly introverted adolescent in school, interpreted his admission to Cambridge as an opportunity to transform himself into a new person and he was awarded his Bachelor of Arts degree in 1959 and began to undertake research in number theory supervised by Harold Davenport. Having solved the problem posed by Davenport on writing numbers as the sums of fifth powers. It appears that his interest in games began during his years studying the Cambridge Mathematical Tripos and he was awarded his doctorate in 1964 and was appointed as College Fellow and Lecturer in Mathematics at the University of Cambridge. After leaving Cambridge in 1986, he took up the appointment to the John von Neumann Chair of Mathematics at Princeton University, Conway is especially known for the invention of the Game of Life, one of the early examples of a cellular automaton. His initial experiments in that field were done with pen and paper, since the game was introduced by Martin Gardner in Scientific American in 1970, it has spawned hundreds of computer programs, web sites, and articles. It is a staple of recreational mathematics, there is an extensive wiki devoted to curating and cataloging the various aspects of the game. From the earliest days it has been a favorite in computer labs, at times Conway has said he hates the game of life–largely because it has come to overshadow some of the other deeper and more important things he has done. Nevertheless, the game did help launch a new branch of mathematics, the Game of Life is now known to be Turing complete. Conways career is intertwined with mathematics popularizer and Scientific American columnist Martin Gardner, when Gardner featured Conways Game of Life in his Mathematical Games column in October 1970, it became the most widely read of all his columns and made Conway an instant celebrity. Gardner and Conway had first corresponded in the late 1950s, for instance, he discussed Conways game of Sprouts, Hackenbush, and his angel and devil problem. In the September 1976 column he reviewed Conways book On Numbers and Games, Conway is widely known for his contributions to combinatorial game theory, a theory of partisan games. This he developed with Elwyn Berlekamp and Richard Guy, and with them also co-authored the book Winning Ways for your Mathematical Plays and he also wrote the book On Numbers and Games which lays out the mathematical foundations of CGT. He is also one of the inventors of sprouts, as well as philosophers football and he developed detailed analyses of many other games and puzzles, such as the Soma cube, peg solitaire, and Conways soldiers
26.
Directed graph
–
In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a directed graph is a graph that is a set of vertices connected by edges, where the edges have a direction associated with them. It differs from an ordinary or undirected graph, in that the latter is defined in terms of unordered pairs of vertices, more specifically, these entities are addressed as directed multigraphs. On the other hand, the definition allows a directed graph to have loops. More specifically, directed graphs without loops are addressed as directed graphs. Symmetric directed graphs are directed graphs where all edges are bidirected, simple directed graphs are directed graphs that have no loops and no multiple arrows with same source and target nodes. As already introduced, in case of arrows the entity is usually addressed as directed multigraph. Some authors describe digraphs with loops as loop-digraphs. Complete directed graphs are directed graphs where each pair of vertices is joined by a symmetric pair of directed arrows. It follows that a complete digraph is symmetric, oriented graphs are directed graphs having no bidirected edges. It follows that a graph is an oriented graph iff it hasnt any 2-cycle. Tournaments are oriented graphs obtained by choosing a direction for each edge in undirected complete graphs. Directed acyclic graphs are directed graphs with no directed cycles, multitrees are DAGs in which no two directed paths from a single starting vertex meet back at the same ending vertex. Oriented trees or polytrees are DAGs formed by orienting the edges of undirected acyclic graphs, rooted trees are oriented trees in which all edges of the underlying undirected tree are directed away from the roots. Rooted directed graphs are digraphs in which a vertex has been distinguished as the root, control flow graphs are rooted digraphs used in computer science as a representation of the paths that might be traversed through a program during its execution. Signal-flow graphs are directed graphs in which nodes represent system variables and branches represent functional connections between pairs of nodes, flow graphs are digraphs associated with a set of linear algebraic or differential equations. State diagrams are directed multigraphs that represent finite state machines, representations of a quiver label its vertices with vector spaces and its edges compatibly with linear transformations between them, and transform via natural transformations. If a path leads from x to y, then y is said to be a successor of x and reachable from x, the arrow is called the inverted arrow of. The adjacency matrix of a graph is unique up to identical permutation of rows. Another matrix representation for a graph is its incidence matrix. For a vertex, the number of head ends adjacent to a vertex is called the indegree of the vertex, the indegree of v is denoted deg− and its outdegree is denoted deg+
27.
Star polygon
–
In geometry, a star polygon is a type of non-convex polygon. Only the regular polygons have been studied in any depth. The first usage is included in polygrams which includes polygons like the pentagram, star polygon names combine a numeral prefix, such as penta-, with the Greek suffix -gram. The prefix is normally a Greek cardinal, but synonyms using other prefixes exist, for example, a nine-pointed polygon or enneagram is also known as a nonagram, using the ordinal nona from Latin. The -gram suffix derives from γραμμή meaning a line, alternatively for integers p and q, it can be considered as being constructed by connecting every qth point out of p points regularly spaced in a circular placement. A regular star polygon is denoted by its Schläfli symbol, where p and q are relatively prime, the symmetry group of is dihedral group Dn of order 2n, independent of k. A regular star polygon can also be obtained as a sequence of stellations of a regular core polygon. Regular star polygons were first studied systematically by Thomas Bradwardine, if p and q are not coprime, a degenerate polygon will result with coinciding vertices and edges. For example will appear as a triangle, but can be labeled with two sets of vertices 1-6 and this should be seen not as two overlapping triangles, but a double-winding of a single unicursal hexagon. For |n/d|, the vertices have an exterior angle, β. These polygons are often seen in tiling patterns, the parametric angle α can be chosen to match internal angles of neighboring polygons in a tessellation pattern. The interior of a polygon may be treated in different ways. Three such treatments are illustrated for a pentagram, branko Grunbaum and Geoffrey Shephard consider two of them, as regular star polygons and concave isogonal 2n-gons. These include, Where a side occurs, one side is treated as outside and this is shown in the left hand illustration and commonly occurs in computer vector graphics rendering. The number of times that the polygonal curve winds around a given region determines its density, the exterior is given a density of 0, and any region of density >0 is treated as internal. This is shown in the illustration and commonly occurs in the mathematical treatment of polyhedra. Where a line may be drawn between two sides, the region in which the line lies is treated as inside the figure and this is shown in the right hand illustration and commonly occurs when making a physical model. When the area of the polygon is calculated, each of these approaches yields a different answer, star polygons feature prominently in art and culture
28.
Coprime integers
–
In number theory, two integers a and b are said to be relatively prime, mutually prime, or coprime if the only positive integer that divides both of them is 1. That is, the common positive factor of the two numbers is 1. This is equivalent to their greatest common divisor being 1, the numerator and denominator of a reduced fraction are coprime. In addition to gcd =1 and =1, the notation a ⊥ b is used to indicate that a and b are relatively prime. For example,14 and 15 are coprime, being divisible by only 1. The numbers 1 and −1 are the only integers coprime to every integer, a fast way to determine whether two numbers are coprime is given by the Euclidean algorithm. The number of integers coprime to an integer n, between 1 and n, is given by Eulers totient function φ. A set of integers can also be called if its elements share no common positive factor except 1. A set of integers is said to be pairwise coprime if a and b are coprime for every pair of different integers in it, a number of conditions are individually equivalent to a and b being coprime, No prime number divides both a and b. There exist integers x and y such that ax + by =1, the integer b has a multiplicative inverse modulo a, there exists an integer y such that by ≡1. In other words, b is a unit in the ring Z/aZ of integers modulo a, the least common multiple of a and b is equal to their product ab, i. e. LCM = ab. As a consequence of the point, if a and b are coprime and br ≡ bs. That is, we may divide by b when working modulo a, as a consequence of the first point, if a and b are coprime, then so are any powers ak and bl. If a and b are coprime and a divides the product bc and this can be viewed as a generalization of Euclids lemma. In a sense that can be made precise, the probability that two randomly chosen integers are coprime is 6/π2, which is about 61%, two natural numbers a and b are coprime if and only if the numbers 2a −1 and 2b −1 are coprime. As a generalization of this, following easily from the Euclidean algorithm in base n >1, a set of integers S = can also be called coprime or setwise coprime if the greatest common divisor of all the elements of the set is 1. For example, the integers 6,10,15 are coprime because 1 is the positive integer that divides all of them. If every pair in a set of integers is coprime, then the set is said to be pairwise coprime, pairwise coprimality is a stronger condition than setwise coprimality, every pairwise coprime finite set is also setwise coprime, but the reverse is not true
29.
Polygram (geometry)
–
A regular polygram can either be in a set of regular polygons or in a set of regular polygon compounds. The polygram names combine a numeral prefix, such as penta-, the prefix is normally a Greek cardinal, but synonyms using other prefixes exist. The -gram suffix derives from γραμμῆς meaning a line, a regular polygram, as a general regular polygon, is denoted by its Schläfli symbol, where p and q are relatively prime and q ≥2. For integers p and q, it can be considered as being constructed by connecting every qth point out of p points regularly spaced in a circular placement. In other cases where n and m have a factor, a polygram is interpreted as a lower polygon, with k = gcd. These figures are called regular compound polygons, list of regular polytopes and compounds#Stars Cromwell, P. Polyhedra, CUP, Hbk. P.175 Grünbaum, B. and G. C, shephard, Tilings and Patterns, New York, W. H. Freeman & Co. Polyhedra with Hollow Faces, Proc of NATO-ASI Conference on Polytopes, etc. ed T. Bisztriczky et al. John H. Conway, Heidi Burgiel, Chaim Goodman-Strass, The Symmetries of Things 2008, ISBN 978-1-56881-220-5 Robert Lachlan, london, Macmillan,1893, p.83 polygrams. Branko Grünbaum, Metamorphoses of polygons, published in The Lighter Side of Mathematics, Proceedings of the Eugène Strens Memorial Conference on Recreational Mathematics and its History
30.
International Standard Book Number
–
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces. Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
31.
Monogon
–
In geometry a monogon is a polygon with one edge and one vertex. Since a monogon has only one side and only one vertex, in Euclidean geometry a monogon is a degenerate polygon because its endpoints must coincide, unlike any Euclidean line segment. Most definitions of a polygon in Euclidean geometry do not admit the monogon, in spherical geometry, a monogon can be constructed as a vertex on a great circle. This forms a dihedron, with two hemispherical monogonal faces which share one 360° edge and one vertex and its dual, a hosohedron, has two antipodal vertices at the poles, one 360 degree lune face, and one edge between the two vertices. Digon Herbert Busemann, The geometry of geodesics, new York, Academic Press,1955 Coxeter, H. S. M, Regular Polytopes
32.
Digon
–
In geometry, a digon is a polygon with two sides and two vertices. Its construction is degenerate in a Euclidean plane because either the two sides would coincide or one or both would have to be curved, a regular digon has both angles equal and both sides equal and is represented by Schläfli symbol. It may be constructed on a sphere as a pair of 180 degree arcs connecting antipodal points, the digon is the simplest abstract polytope of rank 2. A truncated digon, t is a square, an alternated digon, h is a monogon. A straight-sided digon is regular even though it is degenerate, because its two edges are the length and its two angles are equal. As such, the regular digon is a constructible polygon, some definitions of a polygon do not consider the digon to be a proper polygon because of its degeneracy in the Euclidean case. A digon as a face of a polyhedron is degenerate because it is a degenerate polygon, but sometimes it can have a useful topological existence in transforming polyhedra. A spherical lune is a digon whose two vertices are antipodal points on the sphere, a spherical polyhedron constructed from such digons is called a hosohedron. The digon is an important construct in the theory of networks such as graphs. Topological equivalences may be established using a process of reduction to a set of polygons. The digon represents a stage in the simplification where it can be removed and substituted by a line segment. The cyclic groups may be obtained as rotation symmetries of polygons, monogon Demihypercube Herbert Busemann, The geometry of geodesics. New York, Academic Press,1955 Coxeter, Regular Polytopes, Dover Publications Inc,1973 ISBN 0-486-61480-8 Weisstein, a. B. Ivanov, Digon, in Hazewinkel, Michiel, Encyclopedia of Mathematics, Springer, ISBN 978-1-55608-010-4 Media related to Digons at Wikimedia Commons
33.
Triangle
–
A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices. It is one of the shapes in geometry. A triangle with vertices A, B, and C is denoted △ A B C, in Euclidean geometry any three points, when non-collinear, determine a unique triangle and a unique plane. This article is about triangles in Euclidean geometry except where otherwise noted, triangles can be classified according to the lengths of their sides, An equilateral triangle has all sides the same length. An equilateral triangle is also a polygon with all angles measuring 60°. An isosceles triangle has two sides of equal length, some mathematicians define an isosceles triangle to have exactly two equal sides, whereas others define an isosceles triangle as one with at least two equal sides. The latter definition would make all equilateral triangles isosceles triangles, the 45–45–90 right triangle, which appears in the tetrakis square tiling, is isosceles. A scalene triangle has all its sides of different lengths, equivalently, it has all angles of different measure. Hatch marks, also called tick marks, are used in diagrams of triangles, a side can be marked with a pattern of ticks, short line segments in the form of tally marks, two sides have equal lengths if they are both marked with the same pattern. In a triangle, the pattern is no more than 3 ticks. Similarly, patterns of 1,2, or 3 concentric arcs inside the angles are used to indicate equal angles, triangles can also be classified according to their internal angles, measured here in degrees. A right triangle has one of its interior angles measuring 90°, the side opposite to the right angle is the hypotenuse, the longest side of the triangle. The other two sides are called the legs or catheti of the triangle, special right triangles are right triangles with additional properties that make calculations involving them easier. One of the two most famous is the 3–4–5 right triangle, where 32 +42 =52, in this situation,3,4, and 5 are a Pythagorean triple. The other one is a triangle that has 2 angles that each measure 45 degrees. Triangles that do not have an angle measuring 90° are called oblique triangles, a triangle with all interior angles measuring less than 90° is an acute triangle or acute-angled triangle. If c is the length of the longest side, then a2 + b2 > c2, a triangle with one interior angle measuring more than 90° is an obtuse triangle or obtuse-angled triangle. If c is the length of the longest side, then a2 + b2 < c2, a triangle with an interior angle of 180° is degenerate
34.
Equilateral triangle
–
In geometry, an equilateral triangle is a triangle in which all three sides are equal. In the familiar Euclidean geometry, equilateral triangles are also equiangular and they are regular polygons, and can therefore also be referred to as regular triangles. Thus these are properties that are unique to equilateral triangles, the three medians have equal lengths. The three angle bisectors have equal lengths, every triangle center of an equilateral triangle coincides with its centroid, which implies that the equilateral triangle is the only triangle with no Euler line connecting some of the centers. For some pairs of triangle centers, the fact that they coincide is enough to ensure that the triangle is equilateral, in particular, A triangle is equilateral if any two of the circumcenter, incenter, centroid, or orthocenter coincide. It is also equilateral if its circumcenter coincides with the Nagel point, for any triangle, the three medians partition the triangle into six smaller triangles. A triangle is equilateral if and only if any three of the triangles have either the same perimeter or the same inradius. A triangle is equilateral if and only if the circumcenters of any three of the triangles have the same distance from the centroid. Morleys trisector theorem states that, in any triangle, the three points of intersection of the adjacent angle trisectors form an equilateral triangle, a version of the isoperimetric inequality for triangles states that the triangle of greatest area among all those with a given perimeter is equilateral. That is, PA, PB, and PC satisfy the inequality that any two of them sum to at least as great as the third. By Eulers inequality, the triangle has the smallest ratio R/r of the circumradius to the inradius of any triangle, specifically. The triangle of largest area of all those inscribed in a circle is equilateral. The ratio of the area of the incircle to the area of an equilateral triangle, the ratio of the area to the square of the perimeter of an equilateral triangle,1123, is larger than that for any other triangle. If a segment splits an equilateral triangle into two regions with equal perimeters and with areas A1 and A2, then 79 ≤ A1 A2 ≤97, in no other triangle is there a point for which this ratio is as small as 2. For any point P in the plane, with p, q, and t from the vertices A, B. For any point P on the circle of an equilateral triangle, with distances p, q. There are numerous triangle inequalities that hold with equality if and only if the triangle is equilateral, an equilateral triangle is the most symmetrical triangle, having 3 lines of reflection and rotational symmetry of order 3 about its center. Its symmetry group is the group of order 6 D3
35.
Isosceles triangle
–
In geometry, an isosceles triangle is a triangle that has two sides of equal length. By the isosceles triangle theorem, the two angles opposite the sides are themselves equal, while if the third side is different then the third angle is different. By the Steiner–Lehmus theorem, every triangle with two angle bisectors of equal length is isosceles, in an isosceles triangle that has exactly two equal sides, the equal sides are called legs and the third side is called the base. The angle included by the legs is called the vertex angle, the vertex opposite the base is called the apex. In the equilateral triangle case, since all sides are equal, any side can be called the base, if needed, and the term leg is not generally used. A triangle with two equal sides has exactly one axis of symmetry, which goes through the vertex angle. Thus the axis of symmetry coincides with the bisector of the vertex angle, the median drawn to the base, the altitude drawn from the vertex angle. Whether the isosceles triangle is acute, right or obtuse depends on the vertex angle, in Euclidean geometry, the base angles cannot be obtuse or right because their measures would sum to at least 180°, the total of all angles in any Euclidean triangle. The Euler line of any triangle goes through the orthocenter, its centroid. In an isosceles triangle with two equal sides, the Euler line coincides with the axis of symmetry. This can be seen as follows, if the vertex angle is acute, then the orthocenter, the centroid, and the circumcenter all fall inside the triangle. In an isosceles triangle the incenter lies on the Euler line, the Steiner inellipse of any triangle is the unique ellipse that is internally tangent to the triangles three sides at their midpoints. For any isosceles triangle with area T and perimeter p, we have 2 p b 3 − p 2 b 2 +16 T2 =0. By substituting the height, the formula for the area of a triangle can be derived from the general formula one-half the base times the height. This is what Herons formula reduces to in the isosceles case, if the apex angle and leg lengths of an isosceles triangle are known, then the area of that triangle is, T =2 = a 2 sin cos . This is derived by drawing a line from the base of the triangle. The bases of two right triangles are both equal to the hypotenuse times the sine of the bisected angle by definition of the term sine. For the same reason, the heights of these triangles are equal to the times the cosine of the bisected angle
36.
Quadrilateral
–
In Euclidean plane geometry, a quadrilateral is a polygon with four edges and four vertices or corners. Sometimes, the quadrangle is used, by analogy with triangle. The origin of the quadrilateral is the two Latin words quadri, a variant of four, and latus, meaning side. Quadrilaterals are simple or complex, also called crossed, simple quadrilaterals are either convex or concave. The interior angles of a simple quadrilateral ABCD add up to 360 degrees of arc and this is a special case of the n-gon interior angle sum formula × 180°. All non-self-crossing quadrilaterals tile the plane by repeated rotation around the midpoints of their edges, any quadrilateral that is not self-intersecting is a simple quadrilateral. In a convex quadrilateral, all angles are less than 180°. Irregular quadrilateral or trapezium, no sides are parallel, trapezium or trapezoid, at least one pair of opposite sides are parallel. Isosceles trapezium or isosceles trapezoid, one pair of sides are parallel. Alternative definitions are a quadrilateral with an axis of symmetry bisecting one pair of opposite sides, parallelogram, a quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. Equivalent conditions are that opposite sides are of length, that opposite angles are equal. In other words, parallelograms include all rhombi and all rhomboids, rhombus or rhomb, all four sides are of equal length. An equivalent condition is that the diagonals bisect each other. Rhomboid, a parallelogram in which adjacent sides are of unequal lengths, not all references agree, some define a rhomboid as a parallelogram which is not a rhombus. Rectangle, all four angles are right angles, an equivalent condition is that the diagonals bisect each other and are equal in length. Square, all four sides are of length, and all four angles are right angles. An equivalent condition is that opposite sides are parallel, that the diagonals bisect each other. A quadrilateral is a if and only if it is both a rhombus and a rectangle
37.
Square
–
In geometry, a square is a regular quadrilateral, which means that it has four equal sides and four equal angles. It can also be defined as a rectangle in which two adjacent sides have equal length, a square with vertices ABCD would be denoted ◻ ABCD. e. A rhombus with equal diagonals a convex quadrilateral with sides a, b, c, d whose area is A =12 =12. Opposite sides of a square are both parallel and equal in length, all four angles of a square are equal. All four sides of a square are equal, the diagonals of a square are equal. The square is the n=2 case of the families of n-hypercubes and n-orthoplexes, a truncated square, t, is an octagon. An alternated square, h, is a digon, the perimeter of a square whose four sides have length ℓ is P =4 ℓ and the area A is A = ℓ2. In classical times, the power was described in terms of the area of a square. This led to the use of the square to mean raising to the second power. The area can also be calculated using the diagonal d according to A = d 22. In terms of the circumradius R, the area of a square is A =2 R2, since the area of the circle is π R2, in terms of the inradius r, the area of the square is A =4 r 2. Because it is a polygon, a square is the quadrilateral of least perimeter enclosing a given area. Dually, a square is the quadrilateral containing the largest area within a given perimeter. Indeed, if A and P are the area and perimeter enclosed by a quadrilateral, then the isoperimetric inequality holds,16 A ≤ P2 with equality if. The diagonals of a square are 2 times the length of a side of the square and this value, known as the square root of 2 or Pythagoras constant, was the first number proven to be irrational. A square can also be defined as a parallelogram with equal diagonals that bisect the angles, if a figure is both a rectangle and a rhombus, then it is a square. If a circle is circumscribed around a square, the area of the circle is π /2 times the area of the square, if a circle is inscribed in the square, the area of the circle is π /4 times the area of the square. A square has an area than any other quadrilateral with the same perimeter
38.
Rectangle
–
In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles. It can also be defined as a quadrilateral, since equiangular means that all of its angles are equal. It can also be defined as a parallelogram containing a right angle, a rectangle with four sides of equal length is a square. The term oblong is occasionally used to refer to a non-square rectangle, a rectangle with vertices ABCD would be denoted as ABCD. The word rectangle comes from the Latin rectangulus, which is a combination of rectus and angulus, a crossed rectangle is a crossed quadrilateral which consists of two opposite sides of a rectangle along with the two diagonals. It is a case of an antiparallelogram, and its angles are not right angles. Other geometries, such as spherical, elliptic, and hyperbolic, have so-called rectangles with sides equal in length. Rectangles are involved in many tiling problems, such as tiling the plane by rectangles or tiling a rectangle by polygons, a convex quadrilateral with successive sides a, b, c, d whose area is 12. A rectangle is a case of a parallelogram in which each pair of adjacent sides is perpendicular. A parallelogram is a case of a trapezium in which both pairs of opposite sides are parallel and equal in length. A trapezium is a quadrilateral which has at least one pair of parallel opposite sides. A convex quadrilateral is Simple, The boundary does not cross itself, star-shaped, The whole interior is visible from a single point, without crossing any edge. De Villiers defines a more generally as any quadrilateral with axes of symmetry through each pair of opposite sides. This definition includes both right-angled rectangles and crossed rectangles, quadrilaterals with two axes of symmetry, each through a pair of opposite sides, belong to the larger class of quadrilaterals with at least one axis of symmetry through a pair of opposite sides. These quadrilaterals comprise isosceles trapezia and crossed isosceles trapezia, a rectangle is cyclic, all corners lie on a single circle. It is equiangular, all its corner angles are equal and it is isogonal or vertex-transitive, all corners lie within the same symmetry orbit. It has two lines of symmetry and rotational symmetry of order 2. The dual polygon of a rectangle is a rhombus, as shown in the table below, the figure formed by joining, in order, the midpoints of the sides of a rectangle is a rhombus and vice versa
39.
Rhombus
–
In Euclidean geometry, a rhombus is a simple quadrilateral whose four sides all have the same length. Another name is equilateral quadrilateral, since equilateral means that all of its sides are equal in length, every rhombus is a parallelogram and a kite. A rhombus with right angles is a square, the word rhombus comes from Greek ῥόμβος, meaning something that spins, which derives from the verb ῥέμβω, meaning to turn round and round. The word was used both by Euclid and Archimedes, who used the term solid rhombus for two right circular cones sharing a common base, the surface we refer to as rhombus today is a cross section of this solid rhombus through the apex of each of the two cones. This is a case of the superellipse, with exponent 1. Every rhombus has two diagonals connecting pairs of vertices, and two pairs of parallel sides. Using congruent triangles, one can prove that the rhombus is symmetric across each of these diagonals and it follows that any rhombus has the following properties, Opposite angles of a rhombus have equal measure. The two diagonals of a rhombus are perpendicular, that is, a rhombus is an orthodiagonal quadrilateral, the first property implies that every rhombus is a parallelogram. Thus denoting the common side as a and the diagonals as p and q, not every parallelogram is a rhombus, though any parallelogram with perpendicular diagonals is a rhombus. In general, any quadrilateral with perpendicular diagonals, one of which is a line of symmetry, is a kite, every rhombus is a kite, and any quadrilateral that is both a kite and parallelogram is a rhombus. A rhombus is a tangential quadrilateral and that is, it has an inscribed circle that is tangent to all four sides. As for all parallelograms, the area K of a rhombus is the product of its base, the base is simply any side length a, K = a ⋅ h. The inradius, denoted by r, can be expressed in terms of the p and q as. The dual polygon of a rhombus is a rectangle, A rhombus has all sides equal, a rhombus has opposite angles equal, while a rectangle has opposite sides equal. A rhombus has a circle, while a rectangle has a circumcircle. A rhombus has an axis of symmetry through each pair of opposite vertex angles, the diagonals of a rhombus intersect at equal angles, while the diagonals of a rectangle are equal in length. The figure formed by joining the midpoints of the sides of a rhombus is a rectangle, a rhombohedron is a three-dimensional figure like a cube, except that its six faces are rhombi instead of squares. The rhombic dodecahedron is a polyhedron with 12 congruent rhombi as its faces
40.
Parallelogram
–
In Euclidean geometry, a parallelogram is a simple quadrilateral with two pairs of parallel sides. The opposite or facing sides of a parallelogram are of equal length, by comparison, a quadrilateral with just one pair of parallel sides is a trapezoid in American English or a trapezium in British English. The three-dimensional counterpart of a parallelogram is a parallelepiped, rhomboid – A quadrilateral whose opposite sides are parallel and adjacent sides are unequal, and whose angles are not right angles Rectangle – A parallelogram with four angles of equal size. Rhombus – A parallelogram with four sides of equal length, square – A parallelogram with four sides of equal length and angles of equal size. A simple quadrilateral is a if and only if any one of the following statements is true. Two pairs of opposite angles are equal in measure, one pair of opposite sides are parallel and equal in length. Each diagonal divides the quadrilateral into two congruent triangles, the sum of the squares of the sides equals the sum of the squares of the diagonals. It has rotational symmetry of order 2, the sum of the distances from any interior point to the sides is independent of the location of the point. Thus all parallelograms have all the properties listed above, and conversely, if just one of statements is true in a simple quadrilateral. Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel and so will never intersect, the area of a parallelogram is twice the area of a triangle created by one of its diagonals. The area of a parallelogram is also equal to the magnitude of the cross product of two adjacent sides. Any line through the midpoint of a parallelogram bisects the area, any non-degenerate affine transformation takes a parallelogram to another parallelogram. A parallelogram has rotational symmetry of order 2, if it also has exactly two lines of reflectional symmetry then it must be a rhombus or an oblong. If it has four lines of symmetry, it is a square. The perimeter of a parallelogram is 2 where a and b are the lengths of adjacent sides, unlike any other convex polygon, a parallelogram cannot be inscribed in any triangle with less than twice its area. The centers of four squares all constructed either internally or externally on the sides of a parallelogram are the vertices of a square. If two lines parallel to sides of a parallelogram are constructed concurrent to a diagonal, then the parallelograms formed on opposite sides of that diagonal are equal in area, the diagonals of a parallelogram divide it into four triangles of equal area. All of the formulas for general convex quadrilaterals apply to parallelograms
41.
Trapezoid
–
The parallel sides are called the bases of the trapezoid and the other two sides are called the legs or the lateral sides. A scalene trapezoid is a trapezoid with no sides of equal measure, the first recorded use of the Greek word translated trapezoid was by Marinus Proclus in his Commentary on the first book of Euclids Elements. This article uses the term trapezoid in the sense that is current in the United States, in many other languages using a word derived from the Greek for this figure, the form closest to trapezium is used. A right trapezoid has two adjacent right angles, right trapezoids are used in the trapezoidal rule for estimating areas under a curve. An acute trapezoid has two adjacent acute angles on its longer base edge, while an obtuse trapezoid has one acute, an acute trapezoid is also an isosceles trapezoid, if its sides have the same length, and the base angles have the same measure. An obtuse trapezoid with two pairs of sides is a parallelogram. A parallelogram has central 2-fold rotational symmetry, a Saccheri quadrilateral is similar to a trapezoid in the hyperbolic plane, with two adjacent right angles, while it is a rectangle in the Euclidean plane. A Lambert quadrilateral in the plane has 3 right angles. A tangential trapezoid is a trapezoid that has an incircle, there is some disagreement whether parallelograms, which have two pairs of parallel sides, should be regarded as trapezoids. Some define a trapezoid as a quadrilateral having one pair of parallel sides. Others define a trapezoid as a quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel sides, the latter definition is consistent with its uses in higher mathematics such as calculus. The former definition would make such concepts as the trapezoidal approximation to a definite integral ill-defined and this article uses the inclusive definition and considers parallelograms as special cases of a trapezoid. This is also advocated in the taxonomy of quadrilaterals, under the inclusive definition, all parallelograms are trapezoids. Rectangles have mirror symmetry on mid-edges, rhombuses have mirror symmetry on vertices, while squares have mirror symmetry on both mid-edges and vertices. Four lengths a, c, b, d can constitute the sides of a non-parallelogram trapezoid with a and b parallel only when | d − c | < | b − a | < d + c. The quadrilateral is a parallelogram when d − c = b − a =0, the angle between a side and a diagonal is equal to the angle between the opposite side and the same diagonal. The diagonals cut each other in mutually the same ratio, the diagonals cut the quadrilateral into four triangles of which one opposite pair are similar. The diagonals cut the quadrilateral into four triangles of which one pair have equal areas
42.
Kite (geometry)
–
In Euclidean geometry, a kite is a quadrilateral whose four sides can be grouped into two pairs of equal-length sides that are adjacent to each other. In contrast, a parallelogram also has two pairs of sides, but they are opposite to each other rather than adjacent. Kite quadrilaterals are named for the wind-blown, flying kites, which often have this shape, kites are also known as deltoids, but the word deltoid may also refer to a deltoid curve, an unrelated geometric object. A kite, as defined above, may be convex or concave. A concave kite is called a dart or arrowhead, and is a type of pseudotriangle. If all four sides of a kite have the same length, if a kite is equiangular, meaning that all four of its angles are equal, then it must also be equilateral and thus a square. A kite with three equal 108° angles and one 36° angle forms the hull of the lute of Pythagoras. The kites that are cyclic quadrilaterals are exactly the ones formed from two congruent right triangles. That is, for these kites the two angles on opposite sides of the symmetry axis are each 90 degrees. These shapes are called right kites and they are in fact bicentric quadrilaterals, among all the bicentric quadrilaterals with a given two circle radii, the one with maximum area is a right kite. The tiling that it produces by its reflections is the deltoidal trihexagonal tiling, among all quadrilaterals, the shape that has the greatest ratio of its perimeter to its diameter is an equidiagonal kite with angles π/3, 5π/12, 5π/6, 5π/12. Its four vertices lie at the three corners and one of the midpoints of the Reuleaux triangle. In non-Euclidean geometry, a Lambert quadrilateral is a kite with three right angles. A quadrilateral is a if and only if any one of the following conditions is true. One diagonal is the bisector of the other diagonal. One diagonal is a line of symmetry, one diagonal bisects a pair of opposite angles. The kites are the quadrilaterals that have an axis of symmetry along one of their diagonals, if crossings are allowed, the list of quadrilaterals with axes of symmetry must be expanded to also include the antiparallelograms. Every kite is orthodiagonal, meaning that its two diagonals are at angles to each other
43.
Pentagon
–
In geometry, a pentagon is any five-sided polygon or 5-gon. The sum of the angles in a simple pentagon is 540°. A pentagon may be simple or self-intersecting, a self-intersecting regular pentagon is called a pentagram. A regular pentagon has Schläfli symbol and interior angles are 108°, a regular pentagon has five lines of reflectional symmetry, and rotational symmetry of order 5. The diagonals of a regular pentagon are in the golden ratio to its sides. The area of a regular convex pentagon with side length t is given by A = t 225 +1054 =5 t 2 tan 4 ≈1.720 t 2. A pentagram or pentangle is a regular star pentagon and its sides form the diagonals of a regular convex pentagon – in this arrangement the sides of the two pentagons are in the golden ratio. The area of any polygon is, A =12 P r where P is the perimeter of the polygon. Substituting the regular pentagons values for P and r gives the formula A =12 ×5 t × t tan 2 =5 t 2 tan 4 with side length t, like every regular convex polygon, the regular convex pentagon has an inscribed circle. The apothem, which is the r of the inscribed circle. Like every regular polygon, the regular convex pentagon has a circumscribed circle. For a regular pentagon with successive vertices A, B, C, D, E, the regular pentagon is constructible with compass and straightedge, as 5 is a Fermat prime. A variety of methods are known for constructing a regular pentagon, one method to construct a regular pentagon in a given circle is described by Richmond and further discussed in Cromwells Polyhedra. The top panel shows the construction used in Richmonds method to create the side of the inscribed pentagon, the circle defining the pentagon has unit radius. Its center is located at point C and a midpoint M is marked halfway along its radius and this point is joined to the periphery vertically above the center at point D. Angle CMD is bisected, and the bisector intersects the axis at point Q. A horizontal line through Q intersects the circle at point P, to determine the length of this side, the two right triangles DCM and QCM are depicted below the circle. Using Pythagoras theorem and two sides, the hypotenuse of the triangle is found as 5 /2
44.
Hexagon
–
In geometry, a hexagon is a six sided polygon or 6-gon. The total of the angles of any hexagon is 720°. A regular hexagon has Schläfli symbol and can also be constructed as an equilateral triangle, t. A regular hexagon is defined as a hexagon that is both equilateral and equiangular and it is bicentric, meaning that it is both cyclic and tangential. The common length of the sides equals the radius of the circumscribed circle, all internal angles are 120 degrees. A regular hexagon has 6 rotational symmetries and 6 reflection symmetries, the longest diagonals of a regular hexagon, connecting diametrically opposite vertices, are twice the length of one side. Like squares and equilateral triangles, regular hexagons fit together without any gaps to tile the plane, the cells of a beehive honeycomb are hexagonal for this reason and because the shape makes efficient use of space and building materials. The Voronoi diagram of a triangular lattice is the honeycomb tessellation of hexagons. It is not usually considered a triambus, although it is equilateral, the maximal diameter, D is twice the maximal radius or circumradius, R, which equals the side length, t. The minimal diameter or the diameter of the circle, d, is twice the minimal radius or inradius. If a regular hexagon has successive vertices A, B, C, D, E, F, the regular hexagon has Dih6 symmetry, order 12. There are 3 dihedral subgroups, Dih3, Dih2, and Dih1, and 4 cyclic subgroups, Z6, Z3, Z2 and these symmetries express 9 distinct symmetries of a regular hexagon. John Conway labels these by a letter and group order, r12 is full symmetry, and a1 is no symmetry. These two forms are duals of each other and have half the order of the regular hexagon. The i4 forms are regular hexagons flattened or stretched along one symmetry direction and it can be seen as an elongated rhombus, while d2 and p2 can be seen as horizontally and vertically elongated kites. G2 hexagons, with sides parallel are also called hexagonal parallelogons. Each subgroup symmetry allows one or more degrees of freedom for irregular forms, only the g6 subgroup has no degrees of freedom but can seen as directed edges. Hexagons of symmetry g2, i4, and r12, as parallelogons can tessellate the Euclidean plane by translation, other hexagon shapes can tile the plane with different orientations