Furniture refers to movable objects intended to support various human activities such as seating and sleeping. Furniture is used to hold objects at a convenient height for work, or to store things. Furniture is considered a form of decorative art. In addition to furniture's functional role, it can serve a religious purpose, it can be made from many materials, including metal and wood. Furniture can be made using a variety of woodworking joints which reflect the local culture. People have been using natural objects, such as tree stumps and moss, as furniture since the beginning of human civilisation. Archaeological research shows that from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones. Early furniture from this period is known from artwork such as a Venus figurine found in Russia, depicting the goddess on a throne; the first surviving extant furniture is in the homes of Skara Brae in Scotland, includes cupboards and beds all constructed from stone.
Complex construction techniques such as joinery began in the early dynastic period of ancient Egypt. This era saw constructed wooden pieces, including stools and tables, sometimes decorated with valuable metals or ivory; the evolution of furniture design continued in ancient Greece and ancient Rome, with thrones being commonplace as well as the klinai, multipurpose couches used for relaxing and sleeping. The furniture of the Middle Ages was heavy and ornamented. Furniture design expanded during the Italian Renaissance of the fifteenth century; the seventeenth century, in both Southern and Northern Europe, was characterized by opulent gilded Baroque designs. The nineteenth century is defined by revival styles; the first three-quarters of the twentieth century are seen as the march towards Modernism. One unique outgrowth of post-modern furniture design is a return to natural textures; the English word furniture is derived from the French word fourniture, the noun form of fournir, which means to supply or provide.
Thus fourniture in French means provisions. The English usage, referring to household objects, is specific to that language; the practice of using natural objects as rudimentary pieces of furniture dates to the beginning of human civilisation. Early humans are to have used tree stumps as seats, rocks as rudimentary tables, mossy areas for sleeping. During the late palaeolithic or early neolithic period, from around 30,000 years ago, people began constructing and carving their own furniture, using wood and animal bones; the earliest evidence for the existence of constructed furniture is a Venus figurine found at the Gagarino site in Russia, which depicts the goddess in a sitting position, on a throne. A similar statue of a Mother Goddess was found in Catal Huyuk in Turkey, dating to between 6000 and 5500 BCE; the inclusion of such a seat in the figurines implies that these were common artefacts of that age. A range of unique stone furniture has been excavated in Skara Brae, a Neolithic village in Orkney, Scotland.
The site dates from 3100–2500 BCE and due to a shortage of wood in Orkney, the people of Skara Brae were forced to build with stone, a available material that could be worked and turned into items for use within the household. Each house shows a high degree of sophistication and was equipped with an extensive assortment of stone furniture, ranging from cupboards and beds to shelves, stone seats, limpet tanks; the stone dresser was regarded as the most important as it symbolically faces the entrance in each house and is therefore the first item seen when entering displaying symbolic objects, including decorative artwork such as several Neolithic Carved Stone Balls found at the site. Ancient furniture has been excavated from the 8th-century BCE Phrygian tumulus, the Midas Mound, in Gordion, Turkey. Pieces found here inlaid serving stands. There are surviving works from the 9th-8th-century BCE Assyrian palace of Nimrud; the earliest surviving carpet, the Pazyryk Carpet was discovered in a frozen tomb in Siberia and has been dated between the 6th and 3rd century BCE.
Civilisation in ancient Egypt began with the clearance and irrigation of land along the banks of the River Nile, which began in about 6000 BCE. By that time, society in the Nile Valley was engaged in organized agriculture and the construction of large buildings. At this period, Egyptians in the southwestern corner of Egypt were herding cattle and constructing large buildings. Mortar was in use by around 4000 BCE The inhabitants of the Nile Valley and delta were self-sufficient and were raising barley and emmer and stored it in pits lined with reed mats, they raised cattle and pigs and they wove linens and baskets. Evidence of furniture from the predynastic period is scarce, but samples from First Dynasty tombs indicate an advanced use of furnishings in the houses of the age. During the dynastic period, which began in around 3200 BCE, Egyptian art developed and this included furniture design. Egyptian furniture was constructed using wood, but other materials were sometimes used, such as leather, pieces were adorned with gold, silver and ebony, for decoration.
Wood found in Egypt was not suitable for furniture construction
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of matter that has a property of electric charge. In early days, electricity was considered as being not related to magnetism. On, many experimental results and the development of Maxwell's equations indicated that both electricity and magnetism are from a single phenomenon: electromagnetism. Various common phenomena are related to electricity, including lightning, static electricity, electric heating, electric discharges and many others; the presence of an electric charge, which can be either positive or negative, produces an electric field. The movement of electric charges produces a magnetic field; when a charge is placed in a location with a non-zero electric field, a force will act on it. The magnitude of this force is given by Coulomb's law. Thus, if that charge were to move, the electric field would be doing work on the electric charge, thus we can speak of electric potential at a certain point in space, equal to the work done by an external agent in carrying a unit of positive charge from an arbitrarily chosen reference point to that point without any acceleration and is measured in volts.
Electricity is at the heart of many modern technologies, being used for: electric power where electric current is used to energise equipment. Electrical phenomena have been studied since antiquity, though progress in theoretical understanding remained slow until the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Practical applications for electricity were few, it would not be until the late nineteenth century that electrical engineers were able to put it to industrial and residential use; the rapid expansion in electrical technology at this time transformed industry and society, becoming a driving force for the Second Industrial Revolution. Electricity's extraordinary versatility means it can be put to an limitless set of applications which include transport, lighting and computation. Electrical power is now the backbone of modern industrial society. Long before any knowledge of electricity existed, people were aware of shocks from electric fish. Ancient Egyptian texts dating from 2750 BCE referred to these fish as the "Thunderer of the Nile", described them as the "protectors" of all other fish.
Electric fish were again reported millennia by ancient Greek and Arabic naturalists and physicians. Several ancient writers, such as Pliny the Elder and Scribonius Largus, attested to the numbing effect of electric shocks delivered by catfish and electric rays, knew that such shocks could travel along conducting objects. Patients suffering from ailments such as gout or headache were directed to touch electric fish in the hope that the powerful jolt might cure them; the earliest and nearest approach to the discovery of the identity of lightning, electricity from any other source, is to be attributed to the Arabs, who before the 15th century had the Arabic word for lightning ra‘ad applied to the electric ray. Ancient cultures around the Mediterranean knew that certain objects, such as rods of amber, could be rubbed with cat's fur to attract light objects like feathers. Thales of Miletus made a series of observations on static electricity around 600 BCE, from which he believed that friction rendered amber magnetic, in contrast to minerals such as magnetite, which needed no rubbing.
Thales was incorrect in believing the attraction was due to a magnetic effect, but science would prove a link between magnetism and electricity. According to a controversial theory, the Parthians may have had knowledge of electroplating, based on the 1936 discovery of the Baghdad Battery, which resembles a galvanic cell, though it is uncertain whether the artifact was electrical in nature. Electricity would remain little more than an intellectual curiosity for millennia until 1600, when the English scientist William Gilbert wrote De Magnete, in which he made a careful study of electricity and magnetism, distinguishing the lodestone effect from static electricity produced by rubbing amber, he coined the New Latin word electricus to refer to the property of attracting small objects after being rubbed. This association gave rise to the English words "electric" and "electricity", which made their first appearance in print in Thomas Browne's Pseudodoxia Epidemica of 1646. Further work was conducted in the 17th and early 18th centuries by Otto von Guericke, Robert Boyle, Stephen Gray and C. F. du Fay.
In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin conducted extensive research in electricity, selling his possessions to fund his work. In June 1752 he is reputed to have attached a metal key to the bottom of a dampened kite string and flown the kite in a storm-threatened sky. A succession of sparks jumping from the key to the back of his hand showed that lightning was indeed electrical in nature, he explained the paradoxical behavior of the Leyden jar as a device for storing large amounts of electrical charge in terms of electricity consisting of both positive and negative charges. In 1791, Luigi Galvani published his discovery of bioelectromagnetics, demonstrating that electricity was the medium by which neurons passed signals to the muscles. Alessandro Volta's battery, or voltaic pile, of 1800, made from alternating layers of zinc and copper, provided scientists with a more reliable source of electrical energy than the electrostatic machines used; the recognition of electromagnetism, the unity of electric
Harvey Norman is a large Australian-based, multi-national retailer of furniture, computers and consumer electrical products. It operates as a franchise, with the main brand and all company-operated stores owned by ASX-listed Harvey Norman Holdings Limited; as of 2016, there are 280 company-owned and franchised stores in Australia, New Zealand and South-East Asia operating under the Harvey Norman and Joyce Mayne brands in Australia, under the Harvey Norman brand overseas. Gerry Harvey and Ian Norman opened their first store in 1961, which specialised in electrical goods and appliances. Harvey and Norman had first met; the store's success prompted Harvey and Norman to expand the business and conduct talks with retailer Keith Lord, who sought to expand his own retail group. They could not settle on a name for the new business, with Harvey and Lord reluctant to take on the other's name, they decided to retain Norman's name and that of its first store manager, Peter Ross. This spawned the retail chain Norman Ross.
Norman Ross became one of the largest appliance retail chains and by 1979 controlled 42 stores with sales exceeding A$240 million. In the early 1980s, Alan Bond and Grace Bros. sought to acquire the chain, spawning a bidding war that saw Grace Bros incorporate the chain in 1982. Three weeks however, a determined Alan Bond convinced the Grace Bros. director Michael Grace to sell the chain to Bond. Shortly after and Norman were given notice and redundancy package of six months pay. Reasons for their sacking were not publicised, although Harvey told The Daily Telegraph: "I said I wished Alan Bond would pack up his marbles and go back to Perth. I got a telegram telling me I was sacked". Norman Ross went into liquidation in 1992. In October 1982, Harvey and Norman purchased a new shopping centre in the outer Sydney suburb of Auburn for A$3 million, opened the first Harvey Norman store; the enterprise was intended to be a single store but its success led to the opening of others. Harvey Norman Holdings Limited was listed on the Australian stock market on 3 September 1987.
In the early 1990s, Harvey Norman adopted the superstore format successful in the United States, entered the computer and furniture markets. The first computer superstore was opened at Bennetts Green, Newcastle in late 1993 with much fanfare; that was followed several weeks by the opening of a larger superstore at Auburn. Many stores expanded their computer sections. Strong support was provided to the chain by distributors such as Merisel, Tech Pacific, Marketing Results. Extra support and funding was supplied by vendors such as Microsoft, Corel and WordPerfect. Staff received weekly training from companies in order to have better product knowledge than similar larger retailers. Harvey Norman sold Apple Computer products for several years; the launch of Windows 95 was a huge success, with a few Sydney stores opening at midnight, some regional areas opening at 6 a.m. The products came with a bonus pack featuring Harvard Graphics on CD and an introductory internet offer from OzEmail. Apple decided to stop supplying the chain in the late 1990s, but returned in 2004 with the iPod range, which expanded into iPads, iPhones and iMacs.
A Norman Ross store was opened at Bennetts Green in 1995, with the purpose of being a clearance centre. That had mixed results, was closed within 12 months. However, the Bennetts Green store expanded into larger premises in 1996. Part of the relocation was a dedicated educational centre, named Kidscape. Specialist employees from Dataflow provided advice to parents on which software was best for their child. Kidscape was installed at a number of stores, but it was discontinued at a number of them within two years; some stores opened early for the Windows 98 launch, which included a number of offers, including an SPC CD with Harvard Graphics and Quicken. Other products, such as modems and printers, were promoted at $98. Harvey Norman has relied on ` mortar' stores as its strength; when suppliers such as Compaq and IBM started supplying direct, Harvey Norman stopped selling those products in-store. After Compaq stopped selling direct, Harvey Norman returned to selling Compaq PC products. Harvey Norman's growth occurred organically until it acquired Joyce Mayne in 1998.
A number of electrical stores in Western Australia, some of which were owned by Wesfarmers, were purchased. Further acquisitions followed and by 2000 the chain had 100 stores. In 2006, Retravision was struggling, a number of Retravision stores were acquired by Harvey Norman. Many were converted to either Harvey Norman or Joyce Mayne stores, but those that were not successful were closed down. Harvey Norman's operating structure is unusual in that each store department is operated by a separate entity of management, thus many superstores are a combination of three or four separate businesses managed independently contributing revenue to Harvey Norman Holdings Ltd. through lease payments and a portion of sales. Overseas, Harvey Norman stores are directly owned and operated by the ASX-listed, Sydney-based parent company, Harvey Norman Holdings Limited. However, sales commissions are still used across all departments of the store to motivate salespeople, drive sales and improve service. Retail marketing consultant Kevin Moore argues that this'high reward-based remuneration structure' drives Harvey Norman's point of difference and is what contributes, at least to its retail dominance.
"Almost all the people in a Harvey Norman are there
Coles Group Limited is an Australian public company operating numerous retail chains. It was Australia's second-largest retailer, behind Woolworths Limited, until it was acquired by Western Australian public company Wesfarmers, with transfer of ownership on 23 November 2007; the corporate operations ceased at head office in Melbourne from that point, instead based at Wesfarmers head office in Perth. Coles Group was spun-off from Wesfarmers in November 2018, with the company once again listed as a public company on the Australian Stock Exchange, containing Coles Supermarkets, Coles Express, Coles liquor division and a half-share in FlyBuys, with most of the other entities from the former Coles Group remaining as part of Wesfarmers. In 1914, the first Coles "variety store" was opened in Melbourne. Coles was founded in 1914 by George Coles when he opened what was called the "Coles Variety Store" in Smith Street in the Melbourne suburb of Collingwood. More stores opened and the chain was regarded as the leaders in providing value to Australian shoppers.
The building occupied by the original Coles Variety Store is now the location of a Woolworths outlet - the major competitor to Coles. Coles was run in succession by members of the Coles family from 1914 until the mid-1970s by the "famous five knights", brothers Sir George, Sir Arthur, Sir Edgar, Sir Kenneth and Sir Norman — known by their first initials — GJ, AW, EB, KF, NC. In 1960, the first supermarket was opened in the Melbourne suburb of North Balwyn and in 1973, a Coles store had been established in all capital cities of the country. Kmart Australia Limited was born out of a joint venture between G. J Coles & Coy and Kmart Corporation in the US; the first store opened in the Melbourne suburb of Burwood in 1969. In 1978 Coles acquired full ownership of the Australian K-Mart operation and in 1994 bought back all shares Kmart Corporation held in Coles Myer. A long-term licensing agreement allows Coles Group to use the Kmart name. Kmart New Zealand shares merchandise and branding with Kmart Australia, is owned by Coles Group Holdings New Zealand.
In Australia, BI-LO was established by John Weekes in Adelaide during the late 1970s. It is a major supermarket chain owned and operated by retail giant Coles Group in parallel to Coles Supermarkets, it has more than 200 stores in Australia. A new head office opened in 1987 at Melbourne; as of 2008, it associated subsidiaries. In 1996, BI-LO acquired the six-store Newmart discount supermarket chain in Western Australia which became the equivalent to BI-LO in Western Australia. By August 2002, it grew to 16 stores before being transferred to the management and being re branded as Coles, though some stores were sold off to Foodland Associated Limited and became Action Supermarkets. Coles Group Limited was listed on the Australian Securities Exchange with the code CGJ, which references back to its first registered company name of G. J. Coles & Coy Proprietary Limited; the company has in the past been listed on the NYSE, the New Zealand Stock Exchange and the London Stock Exchange. Sidney Myer arrived in Melbourne in 1899, working at a drapery store before moving to Bendigo where he and his partner, Jacob Slonim, opened the first store in 1900.
A second store opened in 1908. In 1911 Myer bought a drapery store in Bourke Street, which became the flagship Myer store, the Myer Emporium. Myer expanded to Adelaide, acquiring a shareholding in Marshall's department store in 1925 renaming this company as Myer SA Stores Ltd. Expansion across Australia followed. Both chains grew throughout Australia through growth and acquisitions, both independently listed on the Australian Stock Exchange. By the 1980s, Coles operated supermarkets, whilst Myer operated the department store chains Myer and Grace Bros, as well as the Target discount variety store chain in Australia. In August 1985, the Myer Emporium Ltd and GJ Coles & Coy Ltd merged, becoming the largest Australian Corporation; the official name change to "Coles Myer Limited" followed in January 1986. The office stationery chain Officeworks, based on the US chain Office Depot, was established in 1993 with the first store opening in the Melbourne suburb of Richmond in June 1994; this represented a successful introduction of a "category killer" - by comparison, around the same time Coles unsuccessfully attempted to negate the arrival of Toys "R" Us with the short-lived chain World 4 Kids.
In 1996, the operations of Target and Fosseys merged and the first Baby Target speciality store was opened, followed in 1998 by Target Home. In 1999, regional Fosseys stores were re-badged with metropolitan stores closed. Following Target's operating loss of $43m in 2001, the chain's format was repositioned to compete less with Kmart, Woolworths Limited's Big W, Harris Scarfe and The Warehouse, more with Myer, with a focus on "middle class" quality products clothing and home wares. In 1998, Coles Myer opened the first Megamart store, in Queensland. Harris Technology, a computer hardware and software reseller started by Ron Harris in 1986, was acquired in 1999. By 2001, Coles Myer planned to expand the Megamart chain of furniture and electrical stores, but by 2005 had decided to divest the struggling chain. Six of the nine stores were sold with the remainder closed. In 2001, the Company appointed John Fletcher of Brambles, as chief executive. Fletcher engineered a brief turnaround in the company's fortunes.
Fletcher abolished the shareholder disc
Mitre 10 is an Australian retail and trade hardware store chain. Operations are based on a cooperative system, where the store owners are members of the national group and each has voting rights; the chain name references the mitre joint. There are over 400 "Mitre 10" and its associated "True Value Hardware" franchises throughout Australia; the move to set up a co-operative group of hardware stores originated from a meeting of five men who would become Mitre 10's founders — Tom Molomby, Tom Danaher, Reg Buchanan, Jack Womersley and Ian Nisbet — held at Buchanan's home in Balwyn, Victoria, on 29 June 1959. This move occurred to maximise funds and energy with regards to advertising and promotions and to demonstrate that independent operators offered service and competitive prices; the new company soon expanded operations, with fifteen New South Wales members joining the group by February 1961. Queensland soon followed with seven retailers, under the chairmanship of Arthur Scurr, joining the cooperative in January 1962, followed by a further sixteen members from Newcastle in October the same year.
With the company operational in the three Eastern states of Australia by the end of 1962, South Australia and Western Australia soon started running their own state-based co-operatives, attention turned to crossing the Tasman. In June 2004 Mitre 10 Australia opened its first "destination hardware" or "big-box" chain at Beenleigh, Queensland. In late 2008 Woolworths Limited and Mitre 10 Australia held talks on the potential acquisition of the company; the Australian Financial Review reported that Mitre 10 Australia had held talks with other companies since beginning to find a major buyer or investor, although in early 2009 Woolworths decided the company structure was too complex for a takeover. Mitre 10 Australia was believed to be in talks with Metcash Trading, supplier of IGA and various liquor stores. In late 2009 Mitre 10 Australia announced that they were searching for buyer. On 27 November Metcash released a statement to the ASX with a proposal for Metcash to take 50.1% in the Mitre 10 Hardware Group for A$55 million cash injection.
The deal proposed giving Metcash the right to buy the remaining 49.9% in the company at the end of 2012 or 2013 with an amount based on the earnings. Mitre 10 Australia would remain a standalone entity headed by Mark Burrowes. In March 2010 98% of Mitre 10 Australia shareholders voted in favour of the Metcash bid. Metcash acquired the rest of Mitre 10 in 2012. Mega is Mitre 10's "destination hardware, or "big-box" chain designed as a one stop shop for big projects, to compete with Bunnings Warehouse; the main focus of the Mega is customer service, it markets itself as "All the help you need", stores have customer service attendants stationed in different departments of the store i.e. plumbing, trade building supplies, the majority of these have a trade qualification. Mitre 10 Australia opened its first Mega in June 2004 at Queensland. In 2007 seven Mega stores operated across Australia, one in Queensland, one in South Australia and five in Victoria, Mitre 10 Australia had planned to have 50 MEGA stores open, or have store owners renovate from other store types, across the country in metropolitan and regional hubs by the end of 2009.
As at August 2009 three stores have closed. The Ringwood, Victoria store closed due to financial difficulty, with the store employing over 130 people, while the Campbellfield, Victoria store was closed in March 2009 due to the building having structural problems, the store employed 54 people, with the closure staff were redeployed to other stores; the Modbury, South Australia Mega store was bought by Wesfarmer's Bunnings Warehouse in January 2007, the store employed 100 people. Hardy's Mitre 10 Mega in Pakenham, Victoria being the only store redeveloped from a smaller Mitre 10 Home and Trade store, still trading, with plans to expand; the Mega store in Lilydale, Victoria closed in late 2009, being the last Mitre 10 Australia corporate store. Mitre 10 stores are painted in the traditional white livery; as Mitre 10 stores are all owned, operators have the option of adding concepts to their store, such as a dedicated "GardenCentre" or "TradeCentre". Mitre 10 Australia Pty Ltd
Coorparoo is a suburb of Brisbane, Australia, 4 kilometres south-east of the CBD. It borders Camp Hill, Holland Park, Stones Corner, East Brisbane and Norman Park. Coorparoo was chosen as the name of the suburb at a public meeting on 22 March 1875, before which it was known as Four Mile Camp; the name Coorparoo is derived from an Aboriginal name for Norman Creek recorded by early surveyors as Koolpuroom. The word is thought to refer to either a place associated with mosquitoes, or a sound made by the'gentle dove'; the latter explanation appears doubtful though, as'gentle dove' may mean the spotted dove, introduced to the area in 1912, long after the name Coorparoo was adopted. The Coorparoo Clan lived south of the Brisbane River and camped along creeks, their name comes from Kulpurum, the word for Norman Creek or a tributary of it. They continued to occupy watercourse campsites after white settlement, but other clans from the region began to move into South Brisbane. In 1846, there were reports of Aborigines raiding produce along Norman Creek.
In 1853, there was a fight between Ningy Ningy, Bribie Island, Amity Point, Logan peoples at Norman Creek. A visitor in 1855 reported many camps and fishing spots between Stones Corner and the mouth of Norman Creek. In 1959 an eighty-year-old woman told of frequent corroborees on the banks of the creek in Norman Park. Corroborees were held at a little creek that crossed Norfolk Street. On 17 June 1856, ten farms were sold from the Parish of Bulimba near Stones Corner. Investors bought all but two of them; the next year James Warner surveyed land on the other side of the road for a second land auction. Samuel Stevens donated two acres of his property near the junction of Cavendish and Old Cleveland Roads for use of a school, he declined the offer of naming the area "Steven's Town". In 1876, the Coorparoo State School was opened and Frederick Robinson began offering public transport in a wagonette from Coorparoo Junction to Victoria Bridge; the 1880s land boom was a spur to profit from land. John Black was the first to subdivide land in the area in 1882 and a variety of subdivisions were offered to the public.
The construction of the bridge at Stanley Street and the development of the Stanley Bridge Estate made the area more attractive to purchasers. In 1887, the tramway was extended to Buranda, putting the western end of Coorparoo close to tram travel. Coorparoo had been part of the Bulimba Divisional Board since 1879. However, in 1888, as a result of dissatisfaction with this situation, a petition was taken resulting in the creation of Shire of Coorparoo. A bridge was built at Burnetts Swamp and important road improvements took place. Development was taking off. In 1889 there were 2,500 people in the shire; the floods of 1889 and 1893 hit the low-lying areas of Coorparoo. The flooding combined with the 1890s depression slowed development in the area. In 1900 there were fewer houses than there had been ten years earlier; the settlement was dense from Stones Corner to Kirkland Avenue, but further out it was bush with a few isolated farms and houses. The only major industry was the brickworks of Abraham James at St Leonards Street, which employed eighty men in the 1880s.
After World War I, land prices increased. Coorparoo did not begin to expand again until the tram service was extended to Stones Corner in 1902 and Coorparoo Junction in 1915; the number of houses increased from 613 in 1911 to 1,467 ten years later. The 2016 Census recorded 16,282 residents in Coorparoo, of whom 51.2% were female and 48.8% were male. The median age of the population was 34. Aboriginal and/or Torres Strait Islander people made up 0.9% of the population. 70.7% of people living in Coorparoo were born in Australia, with the next most common countries of birth being India, New Zealand, England and China. 77.6% of people only spoke English at home, while the other most common responses were Spanish, Punjabi and Greek. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 29.8%, Catholic 28.6% and Anglican 11.2%. In 2015, the old Myer Department store building on the corner of Old Cleveland Road and Cavendish Road was demolished. In its place are 3 residential towers with commercial development on the lower floors.
The development, known as Coorparoo Square opened in 2017 and features a 10 screen Dendy cinema, Aldi Supermarket and speciality retailers and coffee shops. Under the development, will be a void for the future Eastern Busway station. Coorparoo is home of the Eastern Suburbs District Rugby League Football Club who play their home games at Langlands Park. Langlands Park hosts training sessions for the Queensland and Australian Rugby League teams when they are playing in Brisbane; the Brisbane Lions train during the week at Giffin Park in Coorparoo. State schools in Coorparoo include Coorparoo Secondary College. There are four Catholic schools: St James Primary School, Loreto College Coorparoo, Mt Carmel Primary school, Villanova College. Coorparoo has a range of distinctive homes and sites of interest, including: Spanish Mission Revival homes along Cavendish Road; this was a popular inter-war house style introduced from California. Ridgelands, built for the Blundell family Cardington at the corner of Norfolk Street and Cavendish Road.
This residence was built by Thomas Howling who had purchased the allotments from early settler George Harden. Barston P
Myer, is an upmarket Australian department store chain trading in all Australian states and one of Australia's two self-governing territories. Myer retails a broad range of products across women's, men's, babies and children's clothing and accessories. Myer's primary department store rival is David Jones. Myer has long been Australia's largest department store by store count. Myer's current brand ambassadors are Elyse Knowles, Josh Gibson, who were signed in 2018. Australian model and Miss Universe 2004 Jennifer Hawkins was the long-serving'face of Myer' for 12 years, until her departure from the role in 2018; the department store engages a number of other personalities as'fashion ambassadors'. The Myer retail group was started by Sidney Myer, who migrated from Russia to Melbourne in 1899 after the height of Victoria's gold rush, with little money and little knowledge of English to join his elder brother, Elcon Myer, who had left Russia two years earlier, they opened the first Myer store in Bendigo, Victoria in 1900.
After prospering, they opened a second store in Bendigo in 1908. In 1911, Myer purchased the business of Wright and Neil, Drapers, in Bourke Street, near the General Post Office, a new building was completed and opened in 1914. From this base in Melbourne, Myer built Australia's largest chain of department stores, the only chain with stores in all Australian states. In 1918, the Doveton woollen mills at Ballarat were purchased, in 1921 a new building fronting Post Office Place was added at Melbourne and in the following years Myer purchased adjoining properties building a store known as the Myer Emporium. Myer expanded to Lonsdale Street in the 1920s; the Myer Emporium grew with the purchase of the old established businesses of Robertson & Moffat and Stephens & Sons. In 1925, Myer Emporium Ltd was listed on the Melbourne Stock Exchange and the new building on the Lonsdale Street frontage was begun. In Adelaide, in 1925, the company Myer SA Stores Ltd acquired a controlling interest in Marshall's department store and its shares continued to be listed on the Adelaide Stock Exchange until Myer Emporium Ltd made a successful takeover bid in 1966.
A separate building in Queensberry Street, was put up in 1928, the Collins Street businesses of T. Webb and Sons, china importers, W. H. Rocke and Company, house furnishers, were bought and transferred to the Bourke-street building. By 1934, the public company had a paid-up capital of nearly £2,500,000; the company was employing 5300 people with medical and nursing aid for the staff, rest homes for them at the seaside and in the Dandenong Ranges. On the death of Sidney Myer in 1934, leadership of the company fell to Elcon Myer, on the death of Elcon in 1938, leadership went to their nephew Norman Myer. Norman Myer led the company until his death in 1956. Myer grew by developing its own stores and acquiring other department stores, including Adelaide's Marshall's, Western Australia's Boans in 1984, Queensland's Barry and Roberts and in New South Wales they acquired Western Stores, Farmers & Co in 1961, Mortimer's in 1968 and Grace Brothers in 1983. In 1968, Myer acquired Geelong's Lindsay's stores, renaming the business Target following the purchase of name and logo from US Target Corporation and positioning it as a discount department store chain.
The core business of the company began to expand further with the purchase of liquor retailers and fast food outlets. In 1983, Grace Bros. bought Myer in New South Wales, in July of that year Myer acquired Grace Bros. Holdings Ltd; the Myer store on Market and Pitt Sts in Sydney became the main Grace Bros. store. In 1984, Myer acquired Boans Ltd, the dominant Western Australian department store chain and embarked on a major redevelopment of its Perth City Store. In 1985 the Myer Emporium merged with GJ Coles & Coy forming Coles Myer Limited Australia's largest retailer. Myer remained a distinct entity within the new corporate structure until it was sold in 2006. In 2000, Coles Myer CEO Dennis Eck, faced with lower sales and profits from Myer and Grace Bros. stores took the department stores down market, reducing service levels, increasing stock volumes on the selling floor and introducing product to appeal to younger consumers. In doing so, he ended up replicating the approach of another of Target.
The resulting effect included reduced units sold per transaction. In 2001, Coles Myer set about to reposition the store to appeal to customers lost in the down market experiment. In 2003, one of the key changes made by the appointed Managing Director, Dawn Robertson, was to classify each Myer Grace Bros. store using a grid system referencing the socio-economic status of the area, its turnover and growth potential. Larger city-centre stores would rank at the top of the grid and smaller regional stores would rank at the bottom of the grid; the grid would affect the merchandise allocated to each store, rather than selling the same range of product in downtown Melbourne as in regional Queensland. On 13 February 2004, Grace Bros. stores were rebranded as Myer. In April 2004, Myer re-opened its Bondi Junction, New South Wales, store which replaced a former Grace Bros. store closed in April 2002 to make way for the redevelopment of Westfield Bondi Junction. It was the first Myer store to open in several years and incorporated new features