Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, known as tracks. It is referred to as train transport. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles run on a flat surface. Tracks usually consist of rails, installed on ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels. Other variations are possible, such as slab track, where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface. Rolling stock in a transport system generally encounters lower frictional resistance than road vehicles, so passenger. The operation is carried out by a company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electric power from a railway system or produce their own power. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system, Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of transport. The oldest, man-hauled railways date back to the 6th century BC, with Periander, one of the Seven Sages of Greece, Rail transport blossomed after the British development of the steam locomotive as a viable source of power in the 19th centuries.
With steam engines, one could construct mainline railways, which were a key component of the Industrial Revolution, railways reduced the costs of shipping, and allowed for fewer lost goods, compared with water transport, which faced occasional sinking of ships. The change from canals to railways allowed for markets in which prices varied very little from city to city. In the 1880s, electrified trains were introduced, and the first tramways, starting during the 1940s, the non-electrified railways in most countries had their steam locomotives replaced by diesel-electric locomotives, with the process being almost complete by 2000. During the 1960s, electrified high-speed railway systems were introduced in Japan, other forms of guided ground transport outside the traditional railway definitions, such as monorail or maglev, have been tried but have seen limited use. The history of the growth and restoration to use of transport can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used.
The earliest evidence of a railway was a 6-kilometre Diolkos wagonway, trucks pushed by slaves ran in grooves in limestone, which provided the track element. The Diolkos operated for over 600 years, Railways began reappearing in Europe after the Dark Ages. The earliest known record of a railway in Europe from this period is a window in the Minster of Freiburg im Breisgau in Germany
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by not only suppress floods but provide water for activities such as irrigation, human consumption, industrial use, aquaculture. Hydropower is often used in conjunction with dams to generate electricity, a dam can be used to collect water or for storage of water which can be evenly distributed between locations. Dams generally serve the purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. The word dam can be traced back to Middle English, and before that, from Middle Dutch, the first known appearance of dam occurs in 1165. However, there is one village, that is mentioned in 1120. The word seems to be related to the Greek word taphos, so the word should be understood as dike from dug out earth. The names of more than 40 places from the Middle Dutch era such as Amsterdam and Rotterdam, early dam building took place in Mesopotamia and the Middle East.
Dams were used to control the level, for Mesopotamias weather affected the Tigris. The earliest known dam is the Jawa Dam in Jordan,100 kilometres northeast of the capital Amman and this gravity dam featured an originally 9-metre-high and 1 m-wide stone wall, supported by a 50 m-wide earth rampart. The structure is dated to 3000 BC, the Ancient Egyptian Sadd-el-Kafara Dam at Wadi Al-Garawi, located about 25 km south of Cairo, was 102 m long at its base and 87 m wide. The structure was built around 2800 or 2600 BC as a dam for flood control. During the Twelfth Dynasty in the 19th century BC, the Pharaohs Senosert III, Amenemhat III, two dams called Ha-Uar running east-west were built to retain water during the annual flood and release it to surrounding lands. The lake called Mer-wer or Lake Moeris covered 1,700 km2 and is today as Berkat Qaroun. One of the wonders of the ancient world was the Great Dam of Marib in Yemen. Repairs were carried out during various periods, most important around 750 BC and these extensive works were not actually finalized until 325 AD and allowed the irrigation of 25,000 acres.
By the mid-late 3rd century BC, an intricate water-management system within Dholavira in modern-day India was built, the system included 16 reservoirs and various channels for collecting water and storing it. Eflatun Pınar is a Hittite dam and spring temple near Konya and it is thought to be from the time of the Hittite empire between the 15th and 13th century BC
A megastructure is a very large manmade object, though the limits of precisely how large this is vary considerably. Some apply the term to any large or tall building. Some sources define a megastructure as an enormous self-supporting artificial construct, other criteria such as rigidity or contiguousness are sometimes applied, so large clusters of associated smaller structures may or may not qualify. The products of engineering or astroengineering are megastructures. Most megastructure designs could not be constructed with todays level of industrial technology and this makes their design examples of speculative engineering. Those that could be constructed easily qualify as megaprojects, Megastructures are an architectural concept popularized in the 1960s where a city could be encased in a single building, or a relatively small number of buildings interconnected. Such arcology concepts are popular in science fiction, Megastructures often play a part in the plot or setting of science fiction movies and books, such as Rendezvous with Rama by Arthur C.
Many architects have designed such megastructures, some of the more notable such architects and architectural groups include the Metabolist Movement, Cedric Price, Frei Otto, Constant Nieuwenhuys, Yona Friedman, and Buckminster Fuller. This type of framework allows the structure to adapt to the wishes of its residents. Other sources define a megastructure as any development in which residential densities are able to support services and facilities essential for the development to become a self-contained community. There are structures that may be considered megastructures, such as The Great Wall of China is a human-built megastructure, a few meters wide and 3,947 miles in length, about 4,975,318 square yards. The Rice Terraces of the Philippine Cordilleras, a 10, 360-square-kilometer sprawling agricultural landscape carved in the mountains by free tribesmen of Ifugao some 6,000 to 2,000 years ago, skyscrapers represent our current state-of-the-art in large structure engineering. The Large Hadron Collider consists of, among other structures, a ring 27 kilometers in circumference, the Expressways of China are the longest expressway system in the world.
Networks of roads or railways, and collections of buildings, are not considered megastructures. Atlantropa, a dam to be built across the Strait of Gibraltar. Trans-Global Highway, highway systems that would link all six of the continents on Earth. The highway would network new and existing bridges and tunnels, improving not only ground transportation, the Alderson disk is a theoretical structure in the shape of a disk, where the outer radius is equivalent to the orbit of Mars or Jupiter and the thickness is several thousand miles. A civilization could live on either side, held by the gravity of the disk and still receive sunlight from a star bobbing up, a Dyson sphere refers to a structure or mass of orbiting objects that completely surrounds a star to make full use of its solar energy
A highway is any public road or other public way on land. It is used for roads, but includes other public roads and public tracks, It is not an equivalent term to controlled-access highway, or a translation for autobahn, autoroute. In North American and Australian English, major such as controlled-access highways or arterial roads are often state highways. Other roads may be designated county highways in the US and Ontario and these classifications refer to the level of government that maintains the roadway. In British English, highway is primarily a legal term, everyday use normally implies roads, while the legal use covers any route or path with a public right of access, including footpaths etc. The term has led to several related derived terms, including highway system, highway code, highway patrol, the term highway exists in distinction to waterway. Major highways are named and numbered by the governments that typically develop. Australias Highway 1 is the longest national highway in the world at over 14,500 km or 9,000 mi, China has the worlds largest network of highways followed closely by the United States of America.
Some highways, like the Pan-American Highway or the European routes, some major highway routes include ferry services, such as U. S. Route 10, which crosses Lake Michigan. Traditionally highways were used by people on foot or on horses, they accommodated carriages and eventually motor cars, facilitated by advancements in road construction. In the 1920s and 1930s, many nations began investing heavily in progressively more modern highway systems to spur commerce and these features are typically present on highways built as motorways. The general legal definition deals with right of use not the form of construction, the status of highway on most older roads has been gained by established public use while newer roads are typically dedicated as highways from the time they are adopted. In England and Wales, a highway is known as The Queens Highway. The core definition of a highway is modified in various legislation for a number of purposes, scots law is similar to English law with regard to highways but with differing terminology and legislation.
What is defined in England as a highway will often in Scotland be what is defined by s, Highways generally have a route number designated by the state and federal departments of transportation. Smaller roads may be termed byways, modern highway systems developed in the 20th century as the automobile gained popularity. The worlds first limited access road was constructed on Long Island New York in the United States known as the Long Island Motor Parkway or the Vanderbilt Motor Parkway, construction of the Bonn–Cologne autobahn began in 1929 and was opened in 1932 by the mayor of Cologne, Konrad Adenauer. In the USA, the Federal Aid Highway Act of 1921 enacted a fund to create a highway system
The Trans-Siberian Railway is a network of railways connecting Moscow with the Russian Far East. With a length of 9,289 kilometres, it is the longest railway line in the world, there are connecting branch lines into Mongolia and North Korea. It has connected Moscow with Vladivostok since 1916, and is still being expanded and it was built between 1891 and 1916 under the supervision of Russian government ministers personally appointed by Tsar Alexander III and his son, the Tsarevich Nicholas. Even before it had completed, it attracted travellers who wrote of their adventures. Russia has expressed its desire for Pakistan to participate in the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor, the railway is often associated with the main transcontinental Russian line that connects hundreds of large and small cities of the European and Asian parts of Russia. At a Moscow-Vladivostok track length of 9,289 kilometres, it spans a record eight time zones, a second primary route is the Trans-Manchurian, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian east of Chita as far as Tarskaya, about 1,000 km east of Lake Baikal.
From Tarskaya the Trans-Manchurian heads southeast, via Harbin and Mudanjiang in Chinas Northeastern Provinces and this is the shortest and the oldest railway route to Vladivostok. While there are currently no passenger services on this branch. The third primary route is the Trans-Mongolian Railway, which coincides with the Trans-Siberian as far as Ulan-Ude on Lake Baikals eastern shore, from Ulan-Ude the Trans-Mongolian heads south to Ulaan-Baatar before making its way southeast to Beijing. In 1991, a route running further to the north was finally completed. Known as the Baikal Amur Mainline, this recent extension departs from the Trans-Siberian line at Taishet several hundred miles west of Lake Baikal and it crosses the Amur River at Komsomolsk-na-Amure, and reaches the Tatar Strait at Sovetskaya Gavan. On 13 October 2011, a train from Khasan made its run to Rajin. In the late 19th century, the development of Siberia was hampered by poor transport links within the region, aside from the Great Siberian Route, good roads suitable for wheeled transport were rare.
For about five months of the year, rivers were the means of transport. During the cold half of the year and passengers travelled by horse-drawn sledges over the roads, many of which were the same rivers. The first steamboat on the River Ob, Nikita Myasnikovs Osnova, was launched in 1844, but early beginnings were difficult, and it was not until 1857 that steamboat shipping started developing on the Ob system in a serious way. Steamboats started operating on the Yenisei in 1863, and on the Lena, an attempt to partially remedy the situation by building the Ob-Yenisei Canal was not particularly successful. Only a railway could be a solution to the regions transport problems
The Itaipu Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Paraná River located on the border between Brazil and Paraguay. The construction of the dam was first contested by Argentina, but the negotiations, the name Itaipu was taken from an isle that existed near the construction site. In the Guarani language, Itaipu means the sounding stone, completed in 1984, it is a binational undertaking run by Brazil and Paraguay at the border between the two countries,15 km north of the Friendship Bridge. The project ranges from Foz do Iguaçu, in Brazil, and Ciudad del Este in Paraguay, in the south to Guaíra, the installed generation capacity of the plant is 14 GW, with 20 generating units providing 700 MW each with a hydraulic design head of 118 metres. In 2016 the plant generated a new world record, in 2016, the plant employed 3038 workers. Of the twenty generator units currently installed, ten generate at 50 Hz for Paraguay, the concept behind the Itaipu Power Plant was the result of serious negotiations between the two countries during the 1960s.
The Ata do Iguaçu was signed on July 22,1966, by the Brazilian and Paraguayan Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Juracy Magalhães and Raúl Sapena Pastor, the Treaty that gave origin to the power plant was signed in 1973. The terms of the treaty, which expires in 2023, have been the subject of widespread discontent in Paraguay, the government of President Lugo vowed to renegotiate the terms of the treaty with Brazil, which long remained hostile to any renegotiation. Design studies began in February 1971, on April 26,1973, Brazil and Paraguay signed the Itaipu Treaty, the legal instrument for the hydroelectric exploitation of the Paraná River by the two countries. On May 17,1974, the Itaipu Binacional entity was created to administer the plants construction, the construction began in January of the following year. Brazils first electric car was introduced in late 1974, it received the name Itaipu in honor of the project, on October 14,1978, the Paraná River had its route changed, which allowed a section of the riverbed to dry so the dam could be built there.
An important diplomatic settlement was reached with the signing of the Acordo Tripartite by Brazil and Argentina and this agreement established the allowed river levels and how much they could change as a result of the various hydroelectrical undertakings in the watershed that was shared by the three countries. At that time, the three countries were ruled by military dictatorships, Argentina was concerned that, in the event of a conflict, Brazil could open the floodgates, raising the water level in the Río de la Plata and consequently flood the capital city of Buenos Aires. The reservoir began its formation on October 13,1982, when the dam works were completed and the side canals gates were closed. Throughout this period, heavy rains and flooding accelerated the filling of the reservoir as the water rose 100 meters, on May 5,1984, the first generation unit started running in Itaipu. The first 18 units were installed at the rate of two to three a year, the last two of these started running in the year 1991.
The last two of the 20 electric generation units started operations in September 2006 and in March 2007, thus raising the capacity to 14 GW. This increase in capacity allows 18 generation units to run permanently while two are shut down for maintenance, due to a clause in the treaty signed between Brazil and Argentina, the maximum number of generating units allowed to operate simultaneously cannot exceed 18
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land. Port locations are selected to optimize access to land and navigable water, for commercial demand, Ports with deeper water are rarer, but can handle larger ships. Since ports throughout history handled every kind of traffic and storage facilities vary widely, may extend for miles, some ports have an important military role. One of the worlds oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea, along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Guangzhou was an important port during the ancient times as far back as the Qin Dynasty, canopus was the principal port in Egypt for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. Athens port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet, lothal is one of the most prominent cities of the ancient Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and dating from 3700 BCE.
Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius, Ports often have cargo-handling equipment, such as cranes and forklifts for use in loading ships, which may be provided by private interests or public bodies. Often, canneries or other processing facilities will be located nearby, some ports feature canals, which allow ships further movement inland. Access to intermodal transportation, such as railroads and highways, is critical to a port, so that passengers, Ports with international traffic have customs facilities. Harbor pilots and tugboats may maneuver large ships in tight quarters when near docks, the terms port and seaport are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, and river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. An inland port is a port on a lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean. An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Duluth-Superior, a fishing port is a port or harbor for landing and distributing fish.
It may be a facility, but it is usually commercial. A fishing port is the port that depends on an ocean product. In recent decades, regulations to save fishing stock may limit the use of a fishing port, a dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A warm-water port is one where the water does not freeze in wintertime, because they are available year-round, warm-water ports can be of great geopolitical or economic interest. A seaport is further categorized as a port or a cargo port. Additionally, cruise ports are known as a home port or a port of call
A building or edifice is a structure with a roof and walls standing more or less permanently in one place, such as a house or factory. To better understand the term building compare the list of nonbuilding structures, Buildings serve several needs of society – primarily as shelter from weather, living space, privacy, to store belongings, and to comfortably live and work. A building as a shelter represents a division of the human habitat. Ever since the first cave paintings, buildings have become objects or canvasses of much artistic expression. In recent years, interest in planning and building practices has become an intentional part of the design process of many new buildings. The word building is both a noun and a verb an adverb, the structure itself and the act of making it. As a noun, a building is a structure that has a roof and walls and stands more or less permanently in one place, there was a building on the corner. In the broadest interpretation a fence or wall is a building, the word structure is used more broadly than building including natural and man-made formations and does not necessarily have walls.
Structure is more likely to be used for a fence, as a verb, building is the act of construction. Structural height in technical usage is the height to the highest architectural detail on building from street-level, depending on how they are classified and masts may or may not be included in this height. Spires and masts used as antennas are not generally included, the definition of a low-rise vs. a high-rise building is a matter of debate, but generally three storeys or less is considered low-rise. A report by Shinichi Fujimura of a shelter built 500000 years ago is doubtful since Fujimura was found to have faked many of his findings. Supposed remains of huts found at the Terra Amata site in Nice purportedly dating from 200000 to 400000 years ago have called into question. There is clear evidence of homebuilding from around 18000 BC, Buildings became common during the Neolithic. Single-family residential buildings are most often called houses or homes, residential buildings containing more than one dwelling unit are called a duplex, apartment building to differentiate them from individual houses. A condominium is an apartment that the occupant owns rather than rents, houses which were built as a single dwelling may be divided into apartments or bedsitters, they may be converted to another use e. g. an office or a shop.
Building types may range from huts to multimillion-dollar high-rise apartment blocks able to house thousands of people, increasing settlement density in buildings is usually a response to high ground prices resulting from many people wanting to live close to work or similar attractors. Other common building materials are brick, concrete or combinations of either of these with stone, if the residents are in need of special care such as a nursing home, orphanage or prison, or in group housing like barracks or dormitories
A budget is a quantitative expression of a financial plan for a defined period of time. It may include planned sales volumes and revenues, resource quantities and expenses, liabilities and it expresses strategic plans of business units, activities or events in measurable terms. A budget is the sum of money allocated for a particular purpose, a budget is a quantified financial plan for a forthcoming accounting period. A budget is an important concept in microeconomics, which uses a line to illustrate the trade-offs between two or more goods. In other terms, a budget is an organizational plan stated in monetary terms and it helps to co-ordinate the activities of the organization by compelling managers to examine relationships between their own operation and those of other departments. Other essentials of budget include, To control resources To communicate plans to various responsibility center managers, to motivate managers to strive to achieve budget goals. Tools enable the actual operation of the business to be measured against the forecast.
Lastly, tools establish the cost constraint for a project, program, on the other hand, if the figures diverge wildly from the budget, this sends an out of control signal, and the share price could suffer. Campaign planners incur two types of cost in any campaign, the first is the cost of human resource necessary to plan, the second type of expense that campaign planners incur is the hard cost of the campaign itself. A budget is a tool for an event director to predict with a reasonable accuracy whether the event will result in a profit. A budget can be used as a pricing tool, there are two basic approaches or philosophies, when it comes to budgeting. One approach is telling you on mathematical models, and the other on people, the first school of thought believes that financial models, if properly constructed, can be used to predict the future. The focus is on variables and outputs, investments of time and money are devoted to perfecting these models, which are typically held in some type of financial spreadsheet application.
The other school of thought holds that it’s not about models, no matter how sophisticated models can get, the best information comes from the people in the business. The focus is therefore in engaging the managers in the more fully in the budget process. The companies that adhere to this approach have their managers develop their own budgets, while many companies would say that they do both, in reality the investment of time and money falls squarely in one approach or the other. The budget of a government is a summary or plan of the revenues and expenditures of that government. There are three types of government budget, the operating or current budget, the capital or investment budget, the budget is prepared by the Treasury team led by the Chancellor of the Exchequer and is presented to Parliament by the Chancellor of the Exchequer on Budget Day