The Echinades (. The archipelago is subdivided into three groups: the Drakoneres in the north, the Modia in the middle and the Ouniades in the south. Administratively, the Echinades form part of two regional units: Cephalonia. Six of the islands, including Oxeia the largest, are owned by Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani, the emir of Qatar, who purchased them for a reported £7.3 million sterling. The Battle of the Echinades in 1427 and the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 were fought at or near the islands. Several of the islands have been joined to the mainland by alluvial deposits. Herodotus says that half of the islands had been united to the mainland in his time; this expectation, has not been fulfilled, which Pausanias attributed to the Achelous bringing down less alluvium in consequence of the uncultivated condition of Aetolia. The Echinades are mentioned by Homer, who, in the Iliad, says that Meges, son of Phyleus, led 40 ships to Troy from Dulichium and the sacred islands Echinae, which are situated beyond the sea, opposite Elis.
Phyleus was the son of Augeas, king of the Epeians in Elis, who emigrated to Dulichium because he had incurred his father's anger. In the Odyssey, Dulichium is mentioned along with Same and Ithaca as one of the islands subject to Ulysses, is celebrated for its fertility. Strabo, most modern writers, place Dulichium among the Echinades, most identifying it with the island of Makri. Euripides identifies the Echinades with the islands of Taphos. However, most modern scholars, including the editors of the Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, place the island of Taphos at Meganisi east of Lefkada, quite northwest of the Echinades. Homer, as we have seen, describes the Echinades as inhabited. Strabo says that they were barren and rugged. Stephanus of Byzantium names a town Apollonia situated in one of the islands. Pliny the Elder gives us the names of nine of these islands — Aegialia, Thyatira, Dionysia, Chalcis, Mystus. Another of the Echinades was Artemita. Artemidorus spoke of Artemita as a peninsula near the mouth of the Achelous, Rhianus connected it with the Oxeiae islands.
The Oxeiae are sometimes spoken of as a separate group of islands to the west or south of the Echinades, but are included by Strabo under the general name of Echinades. The Oxeiae, according to Strabo, are mentioned by Homer under the synonymous name of Thoai; the Echinades derived their name from the echinus or the sea urchin, in consequence of their sharp and prickly outlines. For the same reason they were called Oxeiae, or the Sharp Islands, a name which one of them still retains under the altered form of Oxeia. Leake remarks that the Echinades are divided into two clusters, besides Petalas, being, quite barren and close to the mainland, is not claimed, or at least is not occupied by the Ithacans, though anciently it was undoubtedly one of the Echinades; the northern cluster is called the Drakoneres, from Drakonera, the principal island. By the Venetians they were known as the islands of Kurtzolári, which name belongs properly to a peninsula to the left of the mouth of the Achelous, near Oxeia.
Seventeen of the islands have names, besides the four Modia, two of which are mere rocks, nine of the seventeen are cultivated. These are, beginning from the south — Oxeia, Makri, Vrómonas, Karlonísi, Prováti, Lampriní, Sofía known as Gaia, Drakonera. Oxeia alone is lofty. Makri and Vrómonas are the two islands next in importance; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray. Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, p. 54. Official website of Municipality of Ithaca Island of Petalas for sale Another island for sale
In Greek mythology, Agamemnon was a king of Mycenae, the son of King Atreus and Queen Aerope of Mycenae, the brother of Menelaus, the husband of Clytemnestra and the father of Iphigenia, Electra or Laodike and Chrysothemis. Legends make him the king of Mycenae or Argos, thought to be different names for the same area; when Helen, the wife of Menelaus, was taken to Troy by Paris, Agamemnon commanded the united Greek armed forces in the ensuing Trojan War. Upon Agamemnon's return from Troy, he was killed by the lover of his wife Clytemnestra. In old versions of the story, the scene of the murder, when it is specified, is the house of Aegisthus, who has not taken up residence in Agamemnon's palace, it involves an ambush and the deaths of Agamemnon's followers as well. In some versions, Clytemnestra herself does the killing, or they act together as accomplices, killing Agamemnon in his own home, his name in Greek, Ἀγαμέμνων, means "very steadfast", "unbowed". The word comes from *Ἀγαμέδμων from ἄγαν, "very much" and μέδομαι, "think on".
Atreus, Agamemnon's father, murdered the sons of his twin brother Thyestes and fed them to Thyestes after discovering Thyestes' adultery with his wife Aerope. Thyestes fathered Aegisthus with his own daughter and this son vowed gruesome revenge on Atreus' children. Aegisthus murdered Atreus and restored his father to the throne. Aegisthus jointly ruled with Thyestes. During this period and his brother, took refuge with Tyndareus, King of Sparta. There they married Tyndareus' daughters Clytemnestra and Helen. Agamemnon and Clytemnestra had four children: one son and three daughters, Iphigenia and Chrysothemis. Menelaus succeeded Tyndareus in Sparta, while Agamemnon, with his brother's assistance, drove out Aegisthus and Thyestes to recover his father's kingdom, he became the most powerful prince in Greece. Agamemnon's family history had been tarnished by murder and treachery, consequences of the heinous crime perpetrated by his ancestor, of a curse placed upon Pelops, son of Tantalus, by Myrtilus, whom he had murdered.
Thus misfortune hounded successive generations of the House of Atreus, until atoned by Orestes in a court of justice held jointly by humans and gods. Agamemnon gathered the reluctant Greek forces to sail for Troy. Preparing to depart from Ancient Greece, a port in Boeotia, Agamemnon's army incurred the wrath of the goddess Artemis. There are several reasons throughout myth for such wrath: in Aeschylus' play Agamemnon, Artemis is angry for the young men who will die at Troy, whereas in Sophocles' Electra, Agamemnon has slain an animal sacred to Artemis, subsequently boasted that he was Artemis' equal in hunting. Misfortunes, including a plague and a lack of wind, prevented the army from sailing; the prophet Calchas announced that the wrath of the goddess could only be propitiated by the sacrifice of Agamemnon's daughter Iphigenia. Classical dramatizations differ on how willing either daughter was to this fate, her death appeased Artemis, the Greek army set out for Troy. Several alternatives to the human sacrifice have been presented in Greek mythology.
Other sources, such as Iphigenia at Aulis, say that Agamemnon was prepared to kill his daughter, but that Artemis accepted a deer in her place, whisked her away to Tauris in the Crimean Peninsula. Hesiod said. Agamemnon was the commander-in-chief of the Greeks during the Trojan War. During the fighting, Agamemnon killed Antiphus and fifteen other Trojan soldiers, according to one source, but in the "Iliad" itself, he's shown to slaughter hundreds more in Book 11 during his "aristea" loosely translated to "day of glory", the most similar to Achilles' "aristea" in Book 21. Before his "aristea," Agamemnon was considered to be one of the three best warriors on the Greek side as proven when Hector challenges any champion of the Greek side to fight him in Book 7, Agamemnon is one of the three most wished for to face him out of the nine strongest Greek warriors who volunteered, and after they reconciled Achilles admits in Book 23 that Agamemnon is "the best in strength and in throwing the spear." That claim is further proven by the fact that Agamemnon was the only major warrior on either side never to need the gods' direct intervention to increase his strength or give him any unfair advantages in battle and yet he still caused incredible destruction on the scale of Achilles.
The Iliad tells the story about the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles in the final year of the war. Following one of the Achaean Army's raids, daughter of Chryses, one of Apollo's priests, was taken as a war prize by Agamemnon. Chryses was met with little success. Chryses prayed to Apollo for the safe return of his daughter, which Apollo responded to by unleashing a plague over the Achaean Army. After learning from the Prophet Calchas that the plague could be dispelled by returning Chryseis to her father, Agamemnon reluctantly agreed (but first berated Calch
Euripides was a tragedian of classical Athens. Along with Aeschylus and Sophocles, he is one of the three ancient Greek tragedians for whom a significant number of plays have survived; some ancient scholars attributed 95 plays to him but, according to the Suda, it was 92 at most. Of these, 18 or 19 have survived more or less complete and there are fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays. More of his plays have survived intact than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together because his popularity grew as theirs declined—he became, in the Hellenistic Age, a cornerstone of ancient literary education, along with Homer and Menander. Euripides is identified with theatrical innovations that have profoundly influenced drama down to modern times in the representation of traditional, mythical heroes as ordinary people in extraordinary circumstances; this new approach led him to pioneer developments that writers adapted to comedy, some of which are characteristic of romance. Yet he became "the most tragic of poets", focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way unknown.
He was "the creator of...that cage, the theatre of Shakespeare's Othello, Racine's Phèdre, of Ibsen and Strindberg," in which "...imprisoned men and women destroy each other by the intensity of their loves and hates", yet he was the literary ancestor of comic dramatists as diverse as Menander and George Bernard Shaw. Unique among writers of Ancient Athens, Euripides demonstrated sympathy towards the underrepresented members of society, his male contemporaries were shocked by the'heresies' he put into the mouths of characters, such as these words of his heroine Medea: His contemporaries associated him with Socrates as a leader of a decadent intellectualism, both of them being lampooned by comic poets such as Aristophanes. Whereas Socrates was put on trial and executed as a corrupting influence, Euripides chose a voluntary exile in old age, dying in Macedonia. Recent scholarship casts doubt on ancient biographies of Euripides. For example, it is possible that he never visited Macedonia at all, or, if he did, he might have been drawn there by King Archelaus with incentives that were offered to other artists.
Traditional accounts of the author's life are found in many commentaries and include details such as these: He was born on Salamis Island around 480 BC, with parents Cleito and Mnesarchus, a retailer who lived in a village near Athens. Upon the receipt of an oracle saying that his son was fated to win "crowns of victory", Mnesarchus insisted that the boy should train for a career in athletics. In fact the boy was destined for a career on the stage, where however he was to win only five victories, one of, after his death, he served for a short time as both torch-bearer at the rites of Apollo Zosterius. His education was not confined to athletics: he studied painting and philosophy under the masters Prodicus and Anaxagoras, he had two disastrous marriages and both his wives—Melite and Choerine —were unfaithful. He became a recluse. "There he built an impressive library and pursued daily communion with the sea and sky". He retired to the "rustic court" of King Archelaus in Macedonia, where he died in 406 BC.
However, as mentioned in the introduction, biographical details such as these should be regarded with scepticism. They are derived entirely from three unreliable sources: folklore, employed by the ancients to lend colour to the lives of celebrated authors; this biography is divided into three sections corresponding to the three kinds of sources. Euripides was the youngest in a set of three great tragedians who were contemporaries: his first play was staged thirteen years after Sophocles' debut and only three years after Aeschylus's masterpiece, the Oresteia; the identity of the threesome is neatly underscored by a patriotic account of their roles during Greece's great victory over Persia at the Battle of Salamis—Aeschylus fought there, Sophocles was just old enough to celebrate the victory in a boys' chorus and Euripides was born on the day of the battle. The apocryphal account that he composed his works in a cave on Salamis island was a late tradition and it symbolizes the isolation of an intellectual, rather ahead of his time.
Much of his life and his whole career coincided with the struggle between Athens and Sparta for hegemony in Greece but he didn't live to see the final defeat of his city. It is said that he died in Macedonia after being attacked by the Molossian hounds of King Archelaus and that his cenotaph near Piraeus was struck by lightning—signs of his unique powers, whether for good or ill. In an account by Plutarch, the catastrophic failure of the Sicilian expedition led Athenians to trade renditions of Euripides' lyrics to their enemies in return for food and drink. Plutarch is the source for the story that the victorious Spartan generals, having planned the demolition of Athens and the enslavement of its people, grew merciful after being entertained at a banquet by lyrics from Euripides' play Electra: "they felt that it would be a barbarous act to annihilate a ci
Euboea or Evia. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a narrow island, its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland. Like most of the Greek islands, Euboea was known under other names in Antiquity, such as Macris and Doliche from its elongated shape, or Ellopia and Abantis from the tribes inhabiting it, its ancient and current name, Εὔβοια, derives from the words εὖ "good", βοῦς "ox", meaning " the well oxen". In the Middle Ages, the island was referred to by Byzantine authors by the name of its capital, Chalcis or Euripos, although the ancient name Euboea remained in use by classicizing authors until the 15th century; the phrase στὸν Εὔριπον'to Evripos', rebracketed as στὸ Νεὔριπον'to Nevripos', became Negroponte in Italian by folk etymology, the ponte'bridge' being interpreted as the bridge of Chalcis.
This name was most relevant. That name entered common use in the West in the 13th century, with other variants being Egripons and Negropont. Under Ottoman rule, the island and its capital were known as Eğriboz or Ağriboz, again after the Euripos strait. Euboea was believed to have formed part of the mainland, to have been separated from it by an earthquake; this is probable, because it lies in the neighbourhood of a fault line, both Thucydides and Strabo write that the northern part of the island had been shaken at different periods. In the neighbourhood of Chalcis, both to the north and the south, the bays are so confined as to make plausible the story of Agamemnon's fleet having been detained there by contrary winds. At Chalcis itself, where the strait is narrowest at only 40 m, it is called the Euripus Strait; the extraordinary changes of tide that take place in this passage have been a subject of note since classical times. At one moment the current runs like a river in one direction, shortly afterwards with equal velocity in the other.
A bridge was first constructed here in the twenty-first year of the Peloponnesian War. Geography and nature divide the island itself into three distinct parts: the fertile and forested north, the mountainous centre, with agriculture limited to the coastal valleys, the barren south; the main mountains include Pyxaria in the northeast and Ochi. The neighboring gulfs are the Pagasetic Gulf in the north, Malian Gulf, North Euboean Gulf in the west, the Euboic Sea and the Petalion Gulf. At the 2001 census the island had a population of 198,130, a total land area of 3,684 square kilometres; the history of the island of Euboea is that of its two principal cities and Eretria, both mentioned in the Catalogue of Ships. Both cities were settled by Ionian Greeks from Attica, would settle numerous colonies in Magna Graecia and Sicily, such as Cumae and Rhegium, on the coast of Macedonia; this opened new trade routes to the Greeks, extended the reach of Western Civilization. The commercial influence of these city-states is evident in the fact that the Euboic scale of weights and measures was used among the Ionic cities and in Athens until the end of the 7th century BC, during the time of Solon.
The classicist Barry B. Powell has proposed that Euboea may have been where the Greek alphabet was first employed, c. 775-750 BC, that Homer may have spent part of his life on the island. Chalcis and Eretria were rival cities, appear to have been powerful for a while. One of the earliest major military conflicts in Greek history took place between them, known as the Lelantine War, in which many other Greek city-states took part. Following the infamous battles of Thermopylae and Artemisium, Persian forces captured and sacked Athens, took Euboea and Attica, allowing them to overrun all of Greece. In 490 BC, Eretria was utterly ruined and its inhabitants were transported to Persia. Though it was restored nearby its original site after the Battle of Marathon, the city never regained its former eminence. Both cities lost influence to Athens, which saw Euboea as a strategic territory. Euboea was an important source of grain and cattle, controlling the island meant Athens could prevent invasion and better protect its trade routes from piracy.
Athens settled 4,000 Attic Greeks on their lands. After this conflict, the whole of the island was reduced to an Athenian dependency. Another struggle between Euboea and Athens broke out in 446. Led by Pericles, the Athenians subdued the revolt, captured Histiaea in the north of the island for their own settlement. By 410 BC, the island succeeded in regaining its independence. Euboea participated in Greek affairs until falling under the control of Philip II of Macedon after the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, being incorporated into the Roman Republic in the second century BC. Aristotle died on the island in 322 BC
In Greek mythology, was an Argive seer, with a gift for interpreting the flight of birds that he received of Apollo: "as an augur, Calchas had no rival in the camp". He interpreted the entrails of the enemy during the tide of battle. Calchas was the son of son of the seer Idmon, by Polymele, he was the brother of Leucippe and Theoclymenus It was Calchas who prophesied that in order to gain a favourable wind to deploy the Greek ships mustered in Aulis on their way to Troy, Agamemnon would need to sacrifice his daughter, Iphigeneia, to appease Artemis, whom Agamemnon had offended. The episode was related at length in the lost Cypria, of the Epic Cycle, he states that Troy will be sacked on the tenth year of the war. In the Iliad, Calchas tells the Greeks that the captive Chryseis must be returned to her father Chryses in order to get Apollo to stop the plague he has sent as a punishment: this triggered the quarrel of Achilles and Agamemnon, the main theme of the Iliad. In the story, Poseidon assumes the form of Calchas in order to rouse and empower the Greek forces while Zeus is not observing the battle.
In Sophocles' Ajax, Calchas delivers a prophecy to Teucer suggesting that the protagonist will die if he leaves his tent before the day is out. Calchas plays a role in Quintus of Smyrna's Posthomerica. Calchas said, it is he rather than Helenus that predicts that Troy will only fall once the Argives are able to recruit Philoctetes. It is by his advice that they halt the battle though Neoptolemus is slaughtering the Trojans, he tells the Argives that the city is more taken by strategy than by force. He endorses Odysseus' suggestion that the Trojan Horse will infiltrate the Trojans, he foresees that Aeneas will survive the battle and found the city, tells the Argives that they will not kill him. He did not join the Argives when they boarded the ships, as he foresaw the impending doom of the Kapherean Rocks. Calchas died of shame at Colophon in Asia Minor shortly after the Trojan War: the prophet Mopsus beat him in a contest of soothsaying, although Strabo placed an oracle of Calchas on Monte Gargano in Magna Graecia.
It is said that Calchas died of laughter when he thought another seer had incorrectly predicted his death. This seer had foretold Calchas would never drink from the wine produced from vines he had planted himself. In medieval and versions of the myth, Calchas is portrayed as a Trojan defector and the father of Chryseis, now called Cressida. 4138 Kalchas, Jovian asteroid
Diomedes or Diomede is a hero in Greek mythology, known for his participation in the Trojan War. He was born to Tydeus and Deipyle and became King of Argos, succeeding his maternal grandfather, Adrastus. In Homer's Iliad Diomedes is regarded alongside Ajax the Great as one of the best warriors of all the Achaeans, he founded ten or more Italian cities. After his death, Diomedes was worshipped as a divine being under various names in Italy as well as Greece. Diomedes was, on his father’s side, an Aetolian, on his mother's an Argive, his father, was himself of royal blood, being the only son of Oeneus, the king of Calydon. He had been exiled from his homeland for killing his relatives, either his cousins or his paternal uncles. In any case, Tydeus was exiled, he found refuge at Argos, where the king, offered him hospitality giving him his daughter, Deipyle, to be his wife; the two were married and had two children together - a daughter, a son, Diomedes. Sometime Polynices, a banished prince of Thebes, arrived in Argos.
Adrastos promised to do so and set out to gather an expeditionary force with which to march against Thebes. This force was made up of seven individual champions, each assigned to lead an assault on one of the seven gates of the city. Together, these champions were known as the “Seven Against Thebes”; the expedition proved to be complete disaster, however, as all seven of the Argive champions were killed in the ensuing battle, except for Adrastus, who escaped thanks to his horse Arion, the fastest of all of his brethren. Diomedes' father, was among those, slain. Tydeus was Athena’s favourite warrior at the time, when he was dying she wanted to offer him a magic elixir that would make him immortal. However, she withdrew the intended privilege in apparent disgust when Tydeus gobbled down the brains of the hated enemy who had wounded him. According to some, Diomedes was four years old. At the funeral of their fathers, the sons of the seven fallen champions met and vowed to vanquish Thebes in order to avenge their fathers.
They were called "the Epigoni" because they were born "after everything has happened". Ten years the Epigoni set out to launch another expedition against Thebes, appointing Alcmaeon as their commander-in-chief, they strengthened their initial forces with contingents from Messenia, Arcadia and Megara. This army, was still small compared to that of Thebes; the war of the Epigoni is remembered as the most important expedition in Greek mythology prior to the Trojan War. It was a favorite topic for epics, but all of these epics are now lost; the main battle took place at Glisas where Prince Aegialeus was slain by King Laodamas, in turn killed by Alcmaeon. With their king dead, the Thebans, believing this to be the end for them, sought counsel from the seer Tiresias, who urged them to flee the city, they did so, faced with no opposition, the Epigoni entered the city, plundering its treasures and tearing down its great walls. Having achieved their objective, the Epigoni returned home, but not before they installed Thersander, son of the fallen prince Polynices, as the city's new ruler.
As Diomedes and the Argive forces travelled home, an elderly King Adrastus died of grief upon learning that his son Aegialeus had perished in the battle. That being so, upon returning home to Argos, Diomedes ascended to the throne. In order to secure his grasp on the throne, Diomedes married Princess Aegialia. According to some, Diomedes ruled Argos for more than five years and brought much wealth and stability to the city during his time, he was a skilled politician and was respected by other rulers. He still kept an eye on Calydonian politics, when the sons of Agrius put Oeneus in jail and their own father on the throne, Diomedes decided to restore Oeneus to the throne. Diomedes attacked and ceded the kingdom, slaying all the traitors except Thersites and Agrius restoring his grandfather to the throne. Oeneus passed the kingdom to his son-in-law and headed to Argos to meet Diomedes, he was assassinated on the way by Onchestus. Unable to find the murderers, Diomedes founded a mythical city called "Oenoe" at the place where his grandfather was buried to honour his death.
Thersites fought against the Trojans in the Trojan War and noble Diomedes did not mistreat him. In fact, when Thersites was brutally slain by Achilles, Diomedes was the only person who wanted to punish Achilles. Diomedes became one of the suitors of Helen and, as such, he was bound by the oath of Tyndareus, which established that all the suitors would defend and protect the man, chosen as Helen's husband against any wrong done against him in regard to his marriage. Accordingly, when the Trojan prince Paris stole Menelaus' wife, all those who had sworn the oath were summoned by Agamemnon, s
Idomeneus of Crete
In Greek mythology, Idomeneus was a Cretan commander, father of Orsilochus and Iphiclus, son of Deucalion and Cleopatra, grandson of Minos and king of Crete. He led the Cretan armies to the Trojan War and was one of Helen's suitors as well as a comrade of the Telamonian Ajax. Meriones was his charioteer and brother-in-arms. In Homer's Iliad, Idomeneus is found among the first rank of the Greek generals, leading his troops and engaging the enemy head-on, escaping serious injury. Idomeneus was one of Agamemnon's trusted advisors, he was one of the primary defenders when most of the other Achaean heroes were injured, fought Hector and repulsed his attack. Like most of the other leaders of the Greeks, he is alive and well, he was one of the Achaeans to enter the Trojan Horse. Idomeneus killed at least three Amazon women, including Bremusa, at Troy. A tradition, preserved by the mythographer Apollodorus of Athens, continues the story as follows: after the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a terrible storm, he promised Poseidon that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon would save his ship and crew.
The first living thing was his son. The gods sent a plague to Crete; the Cretans sent him into exile in Calabria and Colophon in Asia Minor where he died. According to Marcus Terrentius Varro, the gens Salentini descended from Idomeneus, who had sailed from Crete to Illyria, together with Illyrians and Locrians from Illyria to Salento, see Grecìa Salentina. Alternatively, Idomeneus was driven out of Crete by Leucus, his foster son, who had seduced and killed Idomeneus' wife Meda and usurped the throne of Crete; the tale is covered by the fourth-century Italian writer Maurus Servius Honoratus, the French 17th century writer François Fénelon. According to the hypothetical reading of Achterberg et al. Idomeneus may be mentioned on the Phaistos Disk as the governor of Mesara. Idomeneo, a 1781 opera seria by Mozart, is based on the story of Idomeneus's return to Crete. In this version, Poseidon spares Idomeneo's son Idamante, on condition that Idomeneo relinquish his throne to the new generation. Achterberg, Winfried.
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