Mehmed the Conqueror

Mehmed II known as Mehmed the Conqueror, was an Ottoman Sultan who ruled from August 1444 to September 1446, later from February 1451 to May 1481. In Mehmed II's first reign, he defeated the crusade led by John Hunyadi after the Hungarian incursions into his country broke the conditions of the truce Peace of Szeged; when Mehmed II ascended the throne again in 1451 he strengthened the Ottoman navy and made preparations to attack Constantinople. At the age of 21, he brought an end to the Byzantine Empire. After the conquest Mehmed claimed the title "Caesar" of the Roman Empire, based on the assertion that Constantinople had been the seat and capital of the Roman Empire; the claim was only recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church. Mehmed continued his conquests in Anatolia with its reunification and in Southeast Europe as far west as Bosnia. At home he made many political and social reforms, encouraged the arts and sciences, by the end of his reign, his rebuilding program had changed the city into a thriving imperial capital.

He is considered parts of the wider Muslim world. Among other things, Istanbul's Fatih district, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge and Fatih Mosque are named after him. Mehmed II was born on 30 March 1432, in Edirne the capital city of the Ottoman state, his father was Sultan Murad II and his mother Hüma Valide Hatun, born in the town of Devrekani, Kastamonu. When Mehmed II was eleven years old he was sent to Amasya to govern and thus gain experience, per the custom of Ottoman rulers before his time. Sultan Murad II sent a number of teachers for him to study under; this Islamic education had a great impact in molding Mehmed's mindset and reinforcing his Muslim beliefs. He was influenced in his practice of Islamic epistemology by practitioners of science by his mentor, Molla Gürani, he followed their approach; the influence of Akshamsaddin in Mehmed's life became predominant from a young age in the imperative of fulfilling his Islamic duty to overthrow the Byzantine empire by conquering Constantinople.

After Murad II made peace with the Karamanids in Anatolia in August 1444, he abdicated the throne to his 12-year-old son Mehmed II. In Mehmed II's first reign, he defeated the crusade led by John Hunyadi after the Hungarian incursions into his country broke the conditions of the truce Peace of Szeged. Cardinal Julian Cesarini, the representative of the Pope, had convinced the king of Hungary that breaking the truce with Muslims was not a betrayal. At this time Mehmed II asked his father Murad II to reclaim the throne. Angry at his father, who had long since retired to a contemplative life in southwestern Anatolia, Mehmed II wrote, "If you are the sultan and lead your armies. If I am the sultan I hereby order you to come and lead my armies." It was only after receiving this letter that Murad II led the Ottoman army and won the Battle of Varna in 1444. Murad II's return to the throne was forced by Çandarlı Halil Paşa, the grand vizier at the time, not fond of Mehmed II's rule, because Mehmed II's influential lala, had a rivalry with Çandarlı.

When Mehmed II ascended the throne again in 1451 he devoted himself to strengthening the Ottoman navy and made preparations for an attack on Constantinople. In the narrow Bosphorus Straits, the fortress Anadoluhisarı had been built by his great-grandfather Bayezid I on the Asian side. Having completed his fortresses, Mehmed proceeded to levy a toll on ships passing within reach of their cannon. A Venetian vessel ignoring signals to stop was sunk with a single shot and all the surviving sailors beheaded, except for the captain, impaled and mounted as a human scarecrow as a warning to further sailors on the strait. Abu Ayyub al-Ansari, the companion and standard bearer of Muhammad, had died during the first Siege of Constantinople; as Mehmed II's army approached Constantinople, Mehmed's sheikh Akshamsaddin discovered the tomb of Abu Ayyub al-Ansari. After the conquest, Mehmed built Eyüp Sultan Mosque at the site to emphasize the importance of the conquest to the Islamic world and highlight his role as ghazi.

In 1453 Mehmed commenced the siege of Constantinople with an army between 80,000 and 200,000 troops, an artillery train of over seventy large field pieces, a navy of 320 vessels, the bulk of them transports and storeships. The city was surrounded by land. In early April, the Siege of Constantinople began. At first, the city's walls held off the Turks though Mehmed's army used the new bombard designed by Orban, a giant cannon similar to the Dardanelles Gun; the harbor of the Golden Horn was defended by twenty-eight warships. On 22 April, Mehmed transported his lighter warships overland, around the Genoese colony of Galata, into the Golden Horn's northern shore, thus the Byzantines stretched their troops over a longer portion of the walls. About a month Constantinople fell, on 29 May, following a fifty-seven-day siege. After this conquest, Mehmed moved the Ottoman capital from Adrianople to Constantinople; when Sultan Mehmed II stepped into the ruins of t


Láadan is a feminist constructed language created by Suzette Haden Elgin in 1982 to test the Sapir–Whorf hypothesis to determine if development of a language aimed at expressing the views of women would shape a culture. The language was included in her science fiction Native Tongue series. Láadan contains a number of words that are used to make unambiguous statements that include how one feels about what one is saying. According to Elgin, this is designed to counter male-centered language's limitations on women, who are forced to respond "I know I said that, but I meant this". Láadan is a tonal language, it utilises two distinct tones: lo – /lō/ or /lò/, a short, medium or low tone, represented by a single unmarked vowel ló – /ló/, a short, high tone, represented by a single marked vowelThe word "Láadan" has three syllables: "lá-" with the short vowel /a/ plus high tone. Láadan does not allow any double phonemes. Whenever two identical short vowels would occur side by side in a single morpheme, one of them has to be marked for high tone.

When adding an affix would result in two identical vowels side by side, an epenthetic /h/ is inserted to prevent the forbidden sequence. The language will allow either "máa" or "maá," but not "maa"; these combinations can be described as: loó – /lǒː/, a long, low-rising tone, represented by a double vowel, the second of, marked lóo – /lôː/, a long, high-falling tone, represented by a double vowel, the first of, marked Elgin preferred an analysis of the language as having no long vowels and a single tone, the high tone, but she acknowledged that linguists using other formalisms would be justified in saying that there are two tones and low. Láadan has five vowels: a – /ɑ/, an open back unrounded vowel, e – /ɛ/, an open-mid front unrounded vowel, i – /ɪ/, a near-close near-front unrounded vowel, o – /o/, a close-mid back rounded vowel, u – /u/, a close back rounded vowel. Láadan lacks the consonants /p, t, k, ɡ, s, z, f, v/. However, it uses d, sh, m, n, l, r, w, y, h with the same phonetic value as English.

In addition to these, three digraphs require further explanation: th – /θ/, a voiceless dental fricative, zh – /ʒ/, a voiced postalveolar fricative, lh – /ɬ/, a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative. Most Láadan sentences contain three particles: The speech-act particle – this occurs at the beginning of the sentence and marks it as either a statement, a question, et cetera, they are: Bíi Indicates. The evidence particle – this occurs at the end of statements and indicates the trustworthiness of the statement, they are: wa Known to speaker because perceived by speaker, externally or internally wi Known to speaker because self-evident we Perceived by speaker in a dream wáa Assumed true by speaker because speaker trusts source waá Assumed false by speaker because speaker distrusts source. Verbs and adjectives are interchangeable. There are no articles, the object is marked by the -th or -eth suffix; the plural number is shown only by the me- prefix to the verb. The particle ra following a verb makes it negative.

Separate clauses are joined by the particle hé. Láadan has an agglutinative morphology, uses a number of affixes to indicate various feelings and moods that many natural languages can only indicate by tone of voice, body language or circumlocution; the speech-act particle, at the beginning of a sentence, can carry several suffixes, which expand on the overall state of the sentence. For example, bíi begins a statement, but bíide begins a statement, part of a narrative. Pronouns in Láadan are built up from a number of constituent parts; the consonant l marks n the second person and b the third person. These are followed by the vowel e. However, the vowel a is used to designate someone, loved; the suffix -zh is used to mark a plural pronoun for numbers up to four, -n for numbers beyond that. Therefore, lazh means "we, several beloved", lheben means "they, many despised". Language and gender Elgin, Suzette Haden, & Diane Martin. A First Dictionary and Grammar of Láadan. Madison: Society for the Furtherance and Study of Fantasy and Science Fiction, 1988.

Jones, Mari C. and Ishtla Singh, Exploring Language Change: Routledge, 2005. Official website Elgin's Láadan introduction Láadan lessons A Láa

Cindy Ross

Dr. Cynthia S. Ross, better known as Cindy Ross, is a fifth generation Oklahoman whose work in higher education and administration lead to her pioneering roles for women, she is known for her service as the first female president of Cameron University. Dr. Cynthia Ross was born in Oklahoma -- one of three daughters, she was raised in Wakita through elementary school and attended junior high and high school in Medford, Oklahoma. Ross has two children and Jordan. Neither of Dr. Ross' parents had a college education, so college was not something discussed by the family. Out of high school, Ross went to Oklahoma State University and dropped out after a year to be married. After a seven years, Ross attended college part-time while working full-time. Ross earned her baccalaureate, master's, doctoral degrees from OSU in 1983, 1986, 1989 respectively, her undergraduate degree was in university studies while her master's and doctoral degrees were in higher education administration. Dr. Ross started out her career at Oklahoma State as an administrative assistant under Academic Vice President Dr. Bogg.

While working for OSU, Ross developed several policies in areas such as sexual harassment, as well as "family-friendly policies in dependent care leave and child care for working parents." In 1990, Ross went to the Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education in Oklahoma City. She started out there as Associate Vice Chancellor until she was promoted to Executive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs four year later, she is the first and only woman to hold the position of Executive Vice Chancellor for Academic Affairs. Ross held this position until 2002. In 2002, Ross was chosen by Cameron University to serve as their first woman president—and only the third female college president in the state of Oklahoma. At Cameron University she served for 11 years, retiring in 2013. In 2011, Dr. Ross was elected to BancFirst's board of directors. Inducted into the Oklahoma Women’s Hall of Fame Oklahoma State University College of Education Hall of Fame Stillwater Business and Professional Women of the Year Inducted in The Order of Saint Barbara for her support of the Army and Marine Corps OSU Distinguished Alumni Award Received the Martin Luther King, Jr. Humanitarian of the Year Award OU Board of Regents named an academic building on Cameron’s campus in her honor Higher Education Hall of Fame Elected to BancFirst Board of Directors Allen, Silas.

"After Decade at Helm, Cameron University President Will Retire". The Oklahoman. Chris Reen. Simpson, Susan. "Cameron University: $9M Exceeds Campaign Goal". The Oklahoman. Chris Reen. Oklahoma Women’s Hall of Fame Oral History Project – OSU Library