Video CD is a home video format and the first format for distributing films on standard 120 mm optical discs. The format was adopted in Southeast Asia and superseded the VHS and Betamax systems in the region until DVD became affordable in the region in the late 2000s; the format is a standard digital format for storing video on a compact disc. VCDs are playable in dedicated VCD players and playable in most DVD players, personal computers and some video game consoles. However, they are less playable in some Blu-ray Disc players and video game consoles such as the Sony PlayStation 3/4 due to lack of support for backward compatibility of the older MPEG-1 format; the Video CD standard was created in 1993 by Sony, Matsushita, JVC and is referred to as the White Book standard. Although they have been superseded by other media, VCDs continue to be retailed as a low-cost video format. LaserDisc was first available on the market, in Atlanta, Georgia, on December 15, 1978; this 30 cm disc could hold an hour of analog video on each side.
The Laserdisc provided picture quality nearly double that of VHS tape and analog audio quality far superior to VHS. Philips teamed up with Sony to develop a new type of disc, the compact disc or CD. Introduced in 1982 in Japan, the CD is about 120 mm in diameter, is single-sided; the format was designed to store digitized sound and proved to be a success in the music industry. A few years Philips decided to give CDs the ability to produce video, utilizing the same technology as its LaserDisc counterpart; this led to the creation of CD Video in 1987. However, the disc's small size impeded the ability to store analog video. Therefore, CD-V distribution was limited to featuring music videos, it was soon discontinued by 1991. By the early 1990s engineers were able to digitize and compress video signals improving storage efficiency; because this new format could hold 74/80 minutes of audio and video on a 650/700MB disc, releasing movies on compact discs became a reality. Extra capacity was obtained by sacrificing the error correction.
This format was named Video CD or VCD. VCD enjoyed a brief period of success, with a few major feature films being released in the format; however the introduction of the CD-R disc and associated recorders stopped the release of feature films in their tracks because the VCD format had no means of preventing unauthorized copies from being made. However, VCDs are still being released in several countries in Asia, but now with copy-protection; the development of more sophisticated, higher capacity optical disc formats yielded the DVD format, released only a few years with a copy protection mechanism. DVD players use lasers that are of shorter wavelength than those used on CDs, allowing the recorded pits to be smaller, so that more information can be stored; the DVD was so successful that it pushed VHS out of the video market once suitable recorders became available. VCDs made considerable inroads into developing nations, where they are still in use today due to their cheaper manufacturing and retail costs.
Video CDs comply with the CD-i Bridge format, are authored using tracks in CD-ROM XA mode. The first track of a VCD is in CD-ROM XA Mode 2 Form 1, stores metadata and menu information inside an ISO 9660 filesystem; this track may contain other non-essential files, is shown by operating systems when loading the disc. This track can be absent from a VCD, which would still work but would not allow it to be properly displayed in computers; the rest of the tracks are in CD-ROM XA Mode 2 Form 2 and contain video and audio multiplexed in an MPEG program stream container, but CD audio tracks are allowed. Using Mode 2 Form 2 allows 800 megabytes of VCD data to be stored on one 80 minute CD; this is achieved by sacrificing the error correction redundancy present in Mode 1. It was considered that small errors in the video and audio stream pass unnoticed. This, combined with the net bitrate of VCD video and audio, means that exactly 80 minutes of VCD content can be stored on an 80-minute CD, 74 minutes of VCD content on a 74-minute CD, so on.
This was done in part to ensure compatibility with existing CD drive technology the earliest "1x" speed CD drives. Video specifications Codec: MPEG-1 Resolution: NTSC: 352×240 PAL/SECAM: 352×288 Aspect Ratio: NTSC: 4:3 PAL/SECAM: 4:3 Framerate: NTSC: 29.97 or 23.976 frames per second PAL/SECAM: 25 frames per second Bitrate: 1,150 kilobits per second Rate Control: constant bitrateAlthough many DVD video players support playback of VCDs, VCD video is only compatible with the DVD-Video standard if encoded at 29.97 frames per second or 25 frames per second. The 352×240 and 352×288 resolutions were chosen because it is half the horizontal and vertical resolution of NTSC video, half the horizontal resolution of PAL; this is half the resolution of an analog VHS tape, ~330 horizontal and 480 vertical or 330×576. Audio specifications Codec: MPEG-1 Audio Layer II Sample Frequency: 44,100 hertz Output: Dual channel, stereo, or Dolby Surround Bitrate: 224 kilobits per second Rate Control: Constant
Billboard is an American entertainment media brand owned by the Billboard-Hollywood Reporter Media Group, a division of Eldridge Industries. It publishes pieces involving news, opinion, reviews and style, is known for its music charts, including the Hot 100 and Billboard 200, tracking the most popular songs and albums in different genres, it hosts events, owns a publishing firm, operates several TV shows. Billboard was founded in 1894 by William Donaldson and James Hennegan as a trade publication for bill posters. Donaldson acquired Hennegen's interest in 1900 for $500. In the early years of the 20th century, it covered the entertainment industry, such as circuses and burlesque shows, created a mail service for travelling entertainers. Billboard began focusing more on the music industry as the jukebox and radio became commonplace. Many topics it covered were spun-off into different magazines, including Amusement Business in 1961 to cover outdoor entertainment, so that it could focus on music.
After Donaldson died in 1925, Billboard was passed down to his children and Hennegan's children, until it was sold to private investors in 1985, has since been owned by various parties. The first issue of Billboard was published in Cincinnati, Ohio by William Donaldson and James Hennegan on November 1, 1894, it covered the advertising and bill posting industry, was known as Billboard Advertising. At the time, billboards and paper advertisements placed in public spaces were the primary means of advertising. Donaldson handled editorial and advertising, while Hennegan, who owned Hennegan Printing Co. managed magazine production. The first issues were just eight pages long; the paper had columns like "The Bill Room Gossip" and "The Indefatigable and Tireless Industry of the Bill Poster". A department for agricultural fairs was established in 1896; the title was changed to The Billboard in 1897. After a brief departure over editorial differences, Donaldson purchased Hennegan's interest in the business in 1900 for $500 to save it from bankruptcy.
That May, Donaldson changed it from a monthly to a weekly paper with a greater emphasis on breaking news. He improved editorial quality and opened new offices in New York, San Francisco and Paris, re-focused the magazine on outdoor entertainment such as fairs, circuses and burlesque shows. A section devoted to circuses was introduced in 1900, followed by more prominent coverage of outdoor events in 1901. Billboard covered topics including regulation, a lack of professionalism and new shows, it had a "stage gossip" column covering the private lives of entertainers, a "tent show" section covering traveling shows, a sub-section called "Freaks to order". According to The Seattle Times, Donaldson published news articles "attacking censorship, praising productions exhibiting'good taste' and fighting yellow journalism"; as railroads became more developed, Billboard set up a mail forwarding system for traveling entertainers. The location of an entertainer was tracked in the paper's Routes Ahead column Billboard would receive mail on the star's behalf and publish a notice in its "Letter-Box" column that it has mail for them.
This service was first introduced in 1904, became one of Billboard's largest sources of profit and celebrity connections. By 1914, there were 42,000 people using the service, it was used as the official address of traveling entertainers for draft letters during World War I. In the 1960s, when it was discontinued, Billboard was still processing 1,500 letters per week. In 1920, Donaldson made a controversial move by hiring African-American journalist James Albert Jackson to write a weekly column devoted to African-American performers. According to The Business of Culture: Strategic Perspectives on Entertainment and Media, the column identified discrimination against black performers and helped validate their careers. Jackson was the first black critic at a national magazine with a predominantly white audience. According to his grandson, Donaldson established a policy against identifying performers by their race. Donaldson died in 1925. Billboard's editorial changed focus as technology in recording and playback developed, covering "marvels of modern technology" such as the phonograph, record players, wireless radios.
It began covering coin-operated entertainment machines in 1899, created a dedicated section for them called "Amusement Machines" in March 1932. Billboard began covering the motion picture industry in 1907, but ended up focusing on music due to competition from Variety, it created a radio broadcasting station in the 1920s. The jukebox industry continued to grow through the Great Depression, was advertised in Billboard, which led to more editorial focus on music; the proliferation of the phonograph and radio contributed to its growing music emphasis. Billboard published the first music hit parade on January 4, 1936, introduced a "Record Buying Guide" in January 1939. In 1940, it introduced "Chart Line", which tracked the best-selling records, was followed by a chart for jukebox records in 1944 called Music Box Machine charts. By the 1940s, Billboard was more of a music industry specialist publication; the number of charts it published grew after World War II, due to a growing variety of music interests and genres.
It had eight charts by 1987, covering different genres and formats, 28 charts by 1994. By 1943, Billboard had about 100 employees; the magazine's offices moved to Brighton, Ohio in 1946 to New York City in 1948. A five-column tabloid format was adopted in November 1950 and coated paper was first used in Billboard's print issues in January 1963, allowing for photojournalis
Now TV (Hong Kong)
Now TV is a pay-TV service provider in Hong Kong operated by PCCW Media Limited, a wholly owned subsidiary of PCCW. It provides 197 TV channels including 176 channels branded under now TV, 21 channels from TVB Network Vision, over 30 video on demand categories. Launched on 26 September 2003, its TV signal is transmitted with IPTV technology through HKT's fixed broadband network. Now TV is the largest pay-TV operator in Hong Kong in terms of number of subscribers, number of channels, number of HD channels and quantity of VOD contents; the word "Now" is abbreviated from "Network Of the World". Launched in March 1998, PCCW's services included a wide range of information and entertainment, such as news, video-on-demand, music videos, home-shopping, home-banking and educational content. ITV had some 67,000 subscribers at the end of 2000. Due to the liberalization of the pay-TV market by the HKSAR government in early July 2000, the existing duopolists, iTV and i-Cable, were confronted with ferocious competition.
With fewer subscribers and hence the decline in the revenue generated from iTV, the interactive television operation was terminated in the final quarter of 2002. Now Broadband pay-TV service was launched in September 2003 with 23 channels under the same umbrella company PCCW. In December 2005, Now TV introduced a technology with connection speed up to 18 megabits per second. At least 75% of the service area will be offered a service running up to 8Mbit/s. In addition, Video-On-Demand services were launched in January 2006. Now TV subscribers have access to 136 channels. March 1998 Hong Kong Telecom commercially launched iTV July 2000 Liberalisation of the pay-TV market Last quarter of 2002 Termination of iTV August 2003 Now TV was unveiled September 2003 Now TV was launched Since each household has to install a special decoder to view the channels, there is an extra deposit and installation for the decoder. However, these charges are waived for Netvigator broadband subscribers. With the decoder, households are able to watch 20 free channels.
For the subscription channels, Now uses the pricing model of pay-per-channel basis. There are bundle offers in existence, for given bouquet of channels, but these are less comprehensive than those offered by rivals. Now TV offers a business package for businesses at a higher price than household subscribers. Since 1 September 2007, Now TV no longer offers STAR Sports or ESPN as stand-alone packages, preferring instead to bundle them into a single multi-sport package; this has caused some distress amongst many viewers who view this move as a breach of their commitment contract's that stipulates that upon expiry of channel contracts, contracts are automatically renewed. In the beginning, Now TV only operated 23 channels. In response to competition, it has expanded its repertoire of new channels, adding programming such as the Disney Channel and ESPN. By June 2005, the number of channels grew to more than 70, with an increased number of Cantonese channels. In 2006, Now TV outbid i-Cable for the rights to broadcast English Premier League football in Hong Kong, starting with the 2007-08 season.
It is the broadcaster of LaLiga, the Spanish football competition Now TV has the most channels of any pay TV provider in Hong Kong. At present, it offers 103 pay channels, including 15 audio channels; the total number of channels exceeds 130. The majority of its programming is in English, Cantonese or Putonghua, though some programming in Hindi, French, is available. Now TV service was launched with 23 channels in September 2003 but was soon expanded to exceed 30 with the addition of sports-related channels and BBC World and the Animax channel, as well as the Cantonese-language Star Chinese Movies and Xing Kong channels. Within four months of launch, Now TV had attracted more than 200,000 customers by end-2003. Although Now TV targets high-income viewers, its subscriber numbers have grown sharply; as well as home viewership, the service has been extended to hotel rooms, sports bars and hotels. According to a report in Ming Pao Finance on 5 October 2005, the number of subscribers to Now TV exceeded 450,000.
Per annual reports issued by PCCW, at the end of December 2005 the number of paying subscribers to Now TV stood at 549,000. These figures compare with totals of 361,000 at end-December 2004 and 269,000 at end-June 2004. Despite the growth in subscribers, Now TV was operating at a loss in 2005. By August 2006, Now TV had in excess of 654,000 subscribers. Although NOW TV can claim consistent growth in subscriber numbers, quality of service remains'average' at best. Many viewers report'jerky' TV reception, slow refresh times when changing channels, picture freezing extending over several minutes at multiple instances during single programming. In early July 2000, the HKSAR government awarded five new pay-TV licences; the new entrants were all seasoned broadcasting companies including Galaxy Satellite Broadcasting, Hong Kong DTV Company, a British broadcaster Elmsdsale, Hong Kong Network TV and Pacific Digital Media HK. The considerable opening of the market sparked intense competition for programming and viewer share, which can be seen by the extensive use of advertising.
To avoid direct competition with the two local digital terrestrial channels - Television Broadcasts Limited and ViuTV - Now TV h
ABS-CBN Film Productions, Inc. is a Filipino film and television production company and film distributor based in Quezon City. It is the country's largest motion picture company in terms of revenue, ticket sales, number of films released annually. Star Cinema has released most of the highest grossing Philippine films of all time. Star Cinema, along with its subsidiaries and MOR 101.9 Manila, forms the Star Creatives Group, the main entertainment division of media conglomerate ABS-CBN. Star Cinema was founded in 1993 to transform ABS-CBN Broadcasting Corporation into a true entertainment company. Although still a new player in the film industry, Star Cinema has poised itself to be a major competitor of big film companies like Viva Films and Regal Entertainment, its strategies to reflect the viewer's current taste and trends has proven to be successful starting from the 90's with a string of films targeted to mainstream viewers with film genres ranging from action, comedy and fantasy. The films of Star Cinema in the 90's has been well received with some earning critical acclaims with films including May Minamahal, Maalaala Mo Kaya, Magic Temple, Bata, Bata… Pa'no Ka Ginawa?.
The 90's saw the pioneering works of the company by hiring third-party companies to integrate state-of-the-art computer generated images and special effects and makeup/prosthetic into some of its films like Patayin sa Sindak si Barbara, Magic Temple, Magandang Hatinggabi and Puso ng Pasko among others. Other notable works are live-action adaptations of popular Japanese anime series like Sarah... Ang Munting Prinsesa and Cedie, in turn based on children's novels by English playwright and author Frances Hodgson Burnett, which incorporates stylish production designs and costumes and was shot abroad. Star Cinema made a film adaptation of ABS-CBN's phenomenon TV series with films like Mara Clara: The Movie, released in 1996 and Mula Sa Puso: The Movie and Esperanza: The Movie both released in 1999. In 1997, 1998 and 2000, Star Cinema produced Goodbye America and Doomsdayer under the banner of Star Pacific Cinema in an attempt to penetrate the Hollywood B-movie market; the year 2000 and beyond has been the most successful time for Star Cinema in terms of box office gross.
In this period, Star Cinema's films are topping the box office chart in the Philippines which garners an average of 70% of the local film market based from the filings of ABS-CBN Corporation in the Philippine Stock Exchange. Most of the all-time highest-grossing films in the history of the Philippines are either produced or co-produced by Star Cinema as reported by Box Office Mojo. In 2002, Star Cinema together with Unitel Pictures released the Filipino-American film American Adobo with mixed reviews in the United States. In 2010, Star Cinema co-financed and released RPG Metanoia, the first 3D computer animated Filipino film in history. In 2013, Star Cinema co-financed and released Erik Matti's On the Job with mixed to positive reviews abroad. Star Cinema films, well received by critics in this period were Anak, Tanging Yaman, Bagong Buwan, Dekada'70, Nasaan Ka Man, Kasali, Kasalo, In My Life, On the Job; the television unit of ABS-CBN Film Productions is Star Creatives TV, it was established in 2000 to produce telenovelas for the ABS-CBN television network.
It started its television venture in 2000 with Pangako Sa ’Yo, a series that had gained huge following in the country and abroad. The series had a successful run in Malaysia, Thailand, Namibia and China, it was followed by another successful series Kay Tagal Kang Hinintay. In 2008, its most expensive television production Lobo received the Banff World Media Festival for best telenovela program and earned Angel Locsin an International Emmy Awards nomination for best performance of an actress. Sana Maulit Muli gained a following in Taiwan when it was dubbed in Taiwanese Minnan. Kahit Isang Saglit became a finalist in the 37th International Emmy Awards, its 2010 production Magkaribal became a finalist to the 2011 New York International Independent Film and Video Festival for best telenovela. Budoy is a finalist to the 2013 New York Festivals International Television and Film Awards. Bridges of Love is the first Philippine telenovela to be released in Latin American countries including Peru. Soap operas produced by Star Creatives had been subtitled and dubbed to several languages including English, Turkish, Khmer and French and most notably those that are targeted to Asia Pacific and South Africa.
One of the programs dubbed in French is Kay Tagal Kang Hinintay which will cater to French-speaking audience in Africa and Europe. Star Cinema has produced TV promos and specials for the ABS-CBN network. In 2011, Star Cinema spent 12 million pesos for the Philippine National Anthem video clip of ABS-CBN network. Star Cinema distributes all of its films as well as movies produced by other production companies. In recent years, due to the popularity of independent films, Star Cinema created new divisions that would cater the niche markets; these are Skylight Films. Star Cinema redistributes classic films restored by ABS-CBN Film Archives and Central Digital Lab, Inc. In 2015, Star Cinema released the Cinema One Originals film That Thing Called Tadhana with critical and box office success; the film went on to gross over 134 million pesos against its budget of only two-million pesos. Sta
GMA Pictures is a film and television production company established by GMA Network, Inc. in 1995. Its films have become both critical acclaim and commercial successes, among which are Jose Rizal, Muro Ami, Deathrow. GMA tested the movie waters by co-producing films with Viva Films. Among the movies that were co-produced were Ober Da Bakod: The Movie and Sana Dalawa ang Puso Ko. Although not credited in the opening and closing credits of the movies, the network's logo appeared in the aforementioned movies' posters in theaters and newspaper ads. First founded in 1995 under the supervision of Jimmy Duavit and Butch Jimenez, GMA Films released certain films from 1995 to 1998 under its former title "Cinemax Studios", starting with Run Barbi Run. After its initial production, a co-production arrangement with OctoArts Films was made where OctoArts would produce and distribute the movies in theaters nationwide while Cinemax will handle publicity and promotions for TV and radio. GMA Network holds the airing rights for the said movies.
In 1998, it changed its name to "GMA Films" after the international movie cable channel HBO created a separate movie channel called Cinemax. The same year, GMA received critical and commercial success for the following movies it produced, Sa Pusod ng Dagat and José Rizal, both directed by Marilou Diaz-Abaya. In 1999, GMA Films produced Muro-Ami and in 2000, both were critically acclaim; when Felipe Gozon took over GMA Network, the film production outfit of GMA Network was placed on hiatus for about 5 years. After five years of hibernating, the film outfit made a comeback in 2005 with the romantic movie Let the Love Begin, which became the highest-grossing Valentine film in the Philippines on its release that year, it released other films that became hits in the Philippine Box-office. In 2007, the award-winning film Ouija co-produced with Viva Films was supposed to be its first film to be released internationally. However, the scheduled overseas premieres in four U. S. cities were cancelled. Only the one in New Jersey pushed through.
The movie is titled Seance internationally. In 2009, GMA Films produced the reboot of the classic komiks novel Ang Panday in partnership with Imus Productions. Starring Ramon "Bong" Revilla Jr. in the title role, it became the official entry of GMA Films and Imus Productions for the 2009 Metro Manila Film Festival. It became the festival's top grosser and won 6 major awards, including Best Picture and Best Actor for Revilla. From on, all films were only released nationwide while selected films had selected screenings in key points worldwide such as When I Met U, starring Richard Gutierrez and KC Concepcion had various international screenings and You to Me Are Everything, starring Marian Rivera and Dingdong Dantes had a New Jersey showing in 2010 and its recent film to be released at least within US borders was In Your Eyes, starring Claudine Barretto, Richard Gutierrez and Anne Curtis, had an international screening in notable cities such as Los Angeles and San Diego. During the 2010 Metro Manila Film Festival, GMA Films scored a back-to-back victory at the box office when it became the top grosser once again via the entry Si Agimat at si Enteng Kabisote.
The film starred Vic Sotto and Ramon "Bong" Revilla Jr. and was a joint production with Imus Productions, M-Zet Production, Octo Arts Films and APT Entertainment. In September 2011, there are speculations going around as to whether the upcoming film, The Road, will be released internationally as the director Yam Laranas has expressed for the film to be released worldwide and he himself said that he will help finance the release worldwide. On January 24, 2012, it was announced by GMA Films Producer Joey Abacan that The Road will be screened in cinemas in the U. S. and Canada. This marks the first time GMA Films premiered one of its films without any negotiations with co-produced because The Road is produced by GMA Films, it is scheduled to have a U. S. and Canada theatrical release on May 11, 2012.2012 is the year that GMA Films has produced eight films in a year, the most it has done since its start. This was part of GMA Films' resolution to produce one film per month. Though that did not happen, they managed to produce eight films.
On the same year, It made their own first venture for television was Cielo de Angelina on the morning slot. After producing the highest output in 2012 with 8 films, GMA Films went downhill, producing only 2 feature films in 2013, Dance of the Steelbars and My Lady Boss. Both films performed below box-office expectations despite a star-studded cast. In 2014, the film outfit distributed the horror-thriller Basement and produced the action-thriller Overtime and the 40th Metro Manila Film Festival entry Kubot: The Aswang Chronicles 2, which won 5 major awards. With the popularity of the AlDub love team (Alden Richards and Maine Mendoza rising to phenomenal heights in 2015, GMA Films partnered with Octo Arts Films, M-Zet Productions, APT Entertainment and MEDA Productions to produce My Bebe Love: #KiligPaMore as entry to the 41st Metro Manila Film Festival; the hottest love team was joined by Vic Sotto and Ai-Ai delas Alas, directed by Jose Javier Reyes. The movie figured in a tight race with another MMFF entry and the Bestie for the top spot at the box-office.
The movie earned P385 million, breaking box-office records. The said movie earned 3 major awards, including Best Supporting Actress for Maine Mendoza. In 2016, GMA Films partnered with APT Entertainment and M-Zet Productions for the movie Imagine You and Me, which marked the second team-up of Alden Richards and Maine Mendoza. Shot in Como and Verona
Playboy is an American men's lifestyle and entertainment magazine. It was founded in Chicago in 1953, by Hugh Hefner and his associates, funded in part by a $1,000 loan from Hefner's mother. Notable for its centerfolds of nude and semi-nude models, Playboy played an important role in the sexual revolution and remains one of the world's best-known brands, having grown into Playboy Enterprises, Inc. with a presence in nearly every medium. In addition to the flagship magazine in the United States, special nation-specific versions of Playboy are published worldwide; the magazine has a long history of publishing short stories by novelists such as Arthur C. Clarke, Ian Fleming, Vladimir Nabokov, Saul Bellow, Chuck Palahniuk, P. G. Wodehouse, Roald Dahl, Haruki Murakami, Margaret Atwood. With a regular display of full-page color cartoons, it became a showcase for notable cartoonists, including Harvey Kurtzman, Jack Cole, Eldon Dedini, Jules Feiffer, Shel Silverstein, Erich Sokol, Roy Raymonde, Gahan Wilson, Rowland B. Wilson.
Playboy features monthly interviews of notable public figures, such as artists, economists, conductors, film directors, novelists, religious figures, politicians and race car drivers. The magazine reflects a liberal editorial stance, although it interviews conservative celebrities. After a year-long removal of most nude photos in Playboy magazine, the March–April 2017 issue brought back nudity. By spring 1953, Hugh Hefner—a 1949 University of Illinois psychology graduate who had worked in Chicago for Esquire magazine writing promotional copy, he formed HMH Publishing Corporation, recruited his friend Eldon Sellers to find investors. Hefner raised just over $8,000, including from his brother and mother. However, the publisher of an unrelated men's adventure magazine, contacted Hefner and informed him it would file suit to protect their trademark if he were to launch his magazine with that name. Hefner, his wife Millie, Sellers met to seek a new name, considering "Top Hat", "Gentleman", "Sir'", "Satyr", "Pan" and "Bachelor" before Sellers suggested "Playboy".
The first issue, in December 1953, was undated. He produced it in his Hyde Park kitchen; the first centerfold was Marilyn Monroe, although the picture used was taken for a calendar rather than for Playboy. Hefner chose what he deemed the "sexiest" image, a unused nude study of Marilyn stretched with an upraised arm on a red velvet background with closed eyes and mouth open; the heavy promotion centered around Marilyn's nudity on the already-famous calendar, together with the teasers in marketing, made the new Playboy magazine a success. The first issue sold out in weeks. Known circulation was 53,991; the cover price was 50¢. Copies of the first issue in mint to near mint condition sold for over $5,000 in 2002; the novel Fahrenheit 451, by Ray Bradbury, was published in 1953 and serialized in the March and May 1954 issues of Playboy. An urban legend started about Hefner and the Playmate of the Month because of markings on the front covers of the magazine. From 1955 to 1979, the "P" in Playboy had stars printed around the letter.
The legend stated that this was either a rating that Hefner gave to the Playmate according to how attractive she was, the number of times that Hefner had slept with her, or how good she was in bed. The stars, between zero and 12 indicated the domestic or international advertising region for that printing. From 1966 to 1976, Robie Macauley was the Fiction Editor at Playboy. During this period the magazine published fiction by Saul Bellow, Seán Ó Faoláin, John Updike, James Dickey, John Cheever, Doris Lessing, Joyce Carol Oates, Vladimir Nabokov, Michael Crichton, John le Carré, Irwin Shaw, Jean Shepherd, Arthur Koestler, Isaac Bashevis Singer, Bernard Malamud, John Irving, Anne Sexton, Nadine Gordimer, Kurt Vonnegut and J. P. Donleavy, as well as poetry by Yevgeny Yevtushenko. In 1968 at the feminist Miss America protest, protestors symbolically threw a number of feminine products into a "Freedom Trash Can." These included copies of Cosmopolitan magazines. One of the key pamphlets produced by the protesters was "No More Miss America!", by Robin Morgan which listed ten characteristics of the Miss America pageant that the authors believed degraded women.
Since reaching its peak in the 1970s, Playboy saw a decline in circulation and cultural relevance due to competition in the field it founded—first from Penthouse Oui and Gallery in the 1970s. In response, Playboy has attempted to re-assert its hold on the 18–35 male demographic through slight changes to content and focusing on issues and personalities more appropriate to its audience—such as hip-hop artists being featured in the "Playboy Interview". Christie Hefner, daughter of the founder Hugh Hefner, joined Playboy in 1975 and became head of the company in 1988, she announced in December 2008 that she would be stepping down from leading the company, effective in January 2009, said that the election of Barack Obama as the next President had inspired her to give more time to charitable work
Viva Entertainment Inc. is a Filipino-owned entertainment company based in Quezon City and Pasig City, Philippines. It was founded in 1981 by Vicente "Vic" del Rosario, Jr. Viva Communications Inc. Viva Films Neo Films Falcon Films Viva Television Vintage Television Mega Productions Viva International Pictures Viva Artists Agency Viva Live Halo Halo Radio Halo Halo Radio 105.1 Cebu Halo Halo Radio 97.1 Davao Halo Halo Radio 103.5 Zamboanga Viva Interactive Viva Networks PBO: Pinoy Box Office Viva TV TMC: Tagalized Movie Channel Sari-Sari Channel Joint venture with A+E Networks History H2 Fyi Crime & Investigation Network Lifetime Joint venture with Viacom Comedy Central Joint venture with Blue Ant Media Blue Ant Entertainment Blue Ant Extreme Joint venture with Celestial Tiger Entertainment Celestial Movies Pinoy Viva Sports Viva Sports Management Viva Video, Inc. Viva Video City Viva Music Group Viva Records Vicor Music Verje Music Publishing Harmony Music Publishing Amerasian Recording Studios Viva Publishing Group Viva PSICOM Publishing Corporation - joint venture with the Gabriel family Viva Starmometer Publishing Corporation - joint venture with Edsel Roy VRJ Books Publishing Viva International Food & Restaurants Boteju Paper Moon Cake Boutique Halo Halo Radio is a brand name for Viva's radio stations.
It was launched as Oomph! Radio before the end of 2014 following the acquisition of Ultimate Entertainment and its FM stations, thus it is Viva's new venture into radio broadcasting, its format playlist consisted of international songs. In May 2016, Viva Live dropped the Oomph! Radio brand and went to an independent branding among stations by adding 70s, 80s and 90s music to its playlist, despite retaining its format and the Ultimate Radio name. In July 2016, Viva Live brought back the Oomph! Radio brand and its Top 40/OPM format. In February 2017, the Oomph! Radio brand was dropped permanently due to management decision. In May 2017, Oomph! Radio was relaunched as an all-OPM station. With this launch, Halo Halo Radio became the de facto provincial counterpart of Manila-based Pinas FM 95.5, the country's first all OPM radio station. Viva Video Inc. is the exclusive distributor of video products for local and international studios in the Philippines. Viva Video, Inc. is the home video affiliate of Inc..
Viva Video, Inc. is the home video and DVD distribution arm of Viva Entertainment with the exclusive distributor of video products including films and television series. The company releases titles from the film and television library of VIVA Films, as well as programs from other Viva Entertainment companies, they serve as the distributor for television and/or movie product licensed by Nickeloedeon, Universal Studios Home Entertainment, 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment, Cartoon Network, Big Idea Productions, Turner Entertainment Co. Cookie Jar Entertainment, Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment, Nine Network, Summit Entertainment, Lionsgate Home Entertainment, Sesame Workshop, HIT Entertainment, MGA Entertainment internationally for the Philippine market, local products from VIVA Films, APT Entertainment, OctoArts Films, Regal Entertainment, Solar Entertainment, Studio5, GMA Films, FPJ Productions, Pioneer Films and Star Cinema. Viva Video holds licenses for: Local Viva Films APT Entertainment OctoArts Films Regal Entertainment GMA Films Star Cinema Solar Entertainment Studio5 FPJ Productions Pioneer FilmsInternational Cookie Jar Entertainment 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment Walt Disney Studios Home Entertainment MGM Home Entertainment, phased out in 2005 as MGM Holdings ABC MGA Entertainment Summit Entertainment Lionsgate Home Entertainment Syndicate Films Emperor Motion Pictures Lakeshore Entertainment Mandate Pictures Icon Entertainment Bauer Martinez Inferno Distribution Cineclick Asia Cinema Service Miro Vision Skyfilms Nick Jr. Nickelodeon Nine Network HIT Entertainment Big Idea Productions Sesame Workshop Cartoon Network Turner Entertainment Universal Studios Home Entertainment Playboy Home Entertainment Viva Video City is the video retail affiliate of Viva Video, the home video unit of Viva Entertainment, Inc.
Viva PSICOM Publishing Corporation is a publishing company jointly owned by Viva Entertainment and the Gabriel family. It was founded in 1990 by Arnel Jose Gabriel as a small desktop publisher, which evolved into publishing the first Filipino wholly owned trade newspaper, the now-defunct Philippine IT Update; the company known as PSICOM, rose to fame through the Diary ng Panget tetralogy authored by HaveYouSeenThisGirL. In August 2013, Viva Entertainment acquired 50% of the company stocks, it was renamed as Viva-Psicom. Magazines OtakuZine Otak