Knoxville is a city in the U. S. state of Tennessee, the county seat of Knox County. The city had an estimated population of 186,239 in 2016 and a population of 178,874 as of the 2010 census, making it the state's third largest city after Nashville and Memphis. Knoxville is the principal city of the Knoxville Metropolitan Statistical Area, which, in 2016, was 868,546, up 0.9 percent, or 7,377 people, from to 2015. The KMSA is, in turn, the central component of the Knoxville-Sevierville-La Follette Combined Statistical Area, which, in 2013, had a population of 1,096,961. First settled in 1786, Knoxville was the first capital of Tennessee; the city struggled with geographic isolation throughout the early 19th century. The arrival of the railroad in 1855 led to an economic boom. During the Civil War, the city was bitterly divided over the secession issue, was occupied alternately by both Confederate and Union armies. Following the war, Knoxville grew as a major wholesaling and manufacturing center.
The city's economy stagnated after the 1920's as the manufacturing sector collapsed, the downtown area declined and city leaders became entrenched in partisan political fights. Hosting the 1982 World's Fair helped reinvigorate the city, revitalization initiatives by city leaders and private developers have had major successes in spurring growth in the city the downtown area. Knoxville is the home of the flagship campus of the University of Tennessee, whose sports teams, called the "Volunteers" or "Vols", are popular in the surrounding area. Knoxville is home to the headquarters of the Tennessee Valley Authority, the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for East Tennessee and the corporate headquarters of several national and regional companies; as one of the largest cities in the Appalachian region, Knoxville has positioned itself in recent years as a repository of Appalachian culture and is one of the gateways to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. The first people to form substantial settlements in what is now Knoxville arrived during the Woodland period.
One of the oldest artificial structures in Knoxville is a burial mound constructed during the early Mississippian culture period. The earthwork mound is now surrounded by the University of Tennessee campus. Other prehistoric sites include an Early Woodland habitation area at the confluence of the Tennessee River and Knob Creek, Dallas Phase Mississippian villages at Post Oak Island, at Bussell Island. By the 18th century, the Cherokee had become the dominant tribe in the East Tennessee region, although they were at war with the Creek and Shawnee; the Cherokee people called the Knoxville area kuwanda'talun'yi, which means "Mulberry Place." Most Cherokee habitation in the area was concentrated in the Overhill settlements along the Little Tennessee River, southwest of Knoxville. The first white traders and explorers were recorded as arriving in the Tennessee Valley in the late 17th century, though there is significant evidence that Hernando de Soto visited Bussell Island in 1540; the first major recorded Euro-American presence in the Knoxville area was the Timberlake Expedition, which passed through the confluence of the Holston and French Broad into the Tennessee River in December 1761.
Henry Timberlake, en route to the Over hill settlements along the Little Tennessee River, recalled being pleasantly surprised by the deep waters of the Tennessee after having struggled down the shallow Holston for several weeks. The end of the French and Indian War and confusion brought about by the American Revolution led to a drastic increase in Euro-American settlement west of the Appalachians. By the 1780's, white settlers were established in the Holston and French Broad valleys; the U. S. Congress ordered all illegal settlers out with little success; as settlers continued to trickle into Cherokee lands, tensions between the settlers and the Cherokee rose steadily. In 1786, James White, a Revolutionary War officer, his friend James Connor built White's Fort near the mouth of First Creek, on land White had purchased three years earlier. In 1790, White's son-in-law, Charles McClung—who had arrived from Pennsylvania the previous year—surveyed White's holdings between First Creek and Second Creek for the establishment of a town.
McClung drew up 64 0.5-acre lots. The waterfront was set aside for a town common. Two lots were set aside for a graveyard. Four lots were set aside for a school; that school was chartered as Blount College and it served as the starting point for the University of Tennessee, which uses Blount College's founding date of 1794, as its own. In 1790, President George Washington appointed North Carolina surveyor William Blount governor of the newly created Territory South of the River Ohio. One of Blount's first tasks was to meet with the Cherokee and establish territorial boundaries and resolve the issue of illegal settlers; this he accomplished immediately with the Treaty of Holston, negotiated and signed at White's Fort in 1791. Blount wanted to place the territorial capital at the confluence of the Clinch River and Tennessee River, but when the Cherokee refused to cede this land, Blount chose White's Fort, which McClung had surveyed the previous year. Blount named the new capital Knoxville after Revolutionary War general and Secretary of War Henry Knox, who at the time was Blount's immediate superior.
Problems arose from the Holston Treaty. Blount believed that he had "purchased" mu
1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
2010 United States Census
The 2010 United States Census is the twenty-third and most recent United States national census. National Census Day, the reference day used for the census, was April 1, 2010; the census was taken via mail-in citizen self-reporting, with enumerators serving to spot-check randomly selected neighborhoods and communities. As part of a drive to increase the count's accuracy, 635,000 temporary enumerators were hired; the population of the United States was counted as 308,745,538, a 9.7% increase from the 2000 Census. This was the first census in which all states recorded a population of over half a million, as well as the first in which all 100 largest cities recorded populations of over 200,000; as required by the United States Constitution, the U. S. census has been conducted every 10 years since 1790. The 2000 U. S. Census was the previous census completed. Participation in the U. S. Census is required by law in Title 13 of the United States Code. On January 25, 2010, Census Bureau Director Robert Groves inaugurated the 2010 Census enumeration by counting World War II veteran Clifton Jackson, a resident of Noorvik, Alaska.
More than 120 million census forms were delivered by the U. S. Post Office beginning March 15, 2010; the number of forms mailed out or hand-delivered by the Census Bureau was 134 million on April 1, 2010. Although the questionnaire used April 1, 2010 as the reference date as to where a person was living, an insert dated March 15, 2010 included the following printed in bold type: "Please complete and mail back the enclosed census form today." The 2010 Census national mail participation rate was 74%. From April through July 2010, census takers visited households that did not return a form, an operation called "non-response follow-up". In December 2010, the U. S. Census Bureau delivered population information to the U. S. President for apportionment, in March 2011, complete redistricting data was delivered to states. Identifiable information will be available in 2082; the Census Bureau did not use a long form for the 2010 Census. In several previous censuses, one in six households received this long form, which asked for detailed social and economic information.
The 2010 Census used only a short form asking ten basic questions: How many people were living or staying in this house, apartment, or mobile home on April 1, 2010? Were there any additional people staying here on April 1, 2010 that you did not include in Question 1? Mark all that apply: Is this house, apartment, or mobile home – What is your telephone number? What is Person 1's name? What is Person 1's sex? What is Person 1's age and Person 1's date of birth? Is Person 1 of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? What is Person 1's race? Does Person 1 sometimes live or stay somewhere else? The form included space to repeat all of these questions for up to twelve residents total. In contrast to the 2000 census, an Internet response option was not offered, nor was the form available for download. Detailed socioeconomic information collected during past censuses will continue to be collected through the American Community Survey; the survey provides data about communities in the United States on a 1-year or 3-year cycle, depending on the size of the community, rather than once every 10 years.
A small percentage of the population on a rotating basis will receive the survey each year, no household will receive it more than once every five years. In June 2009, the U. S. Census Bureau announced. However, the final form did not contain a separate "same-sex married couple" option; when noting the relationship between household members, same-sex couples who are married could mark their spouses as being "Husband or wife", the same response given by opposite-sex married couples. An "unmarried partner" option was available for couples; the 2010 census cost $13 billion $42 per capita. Operational costs were $5.4 billion under the $7 billion budget. In December 2010 the Government Accountability Office noted that the cost of conducting the census has doubled each decade since 1970. In a detailed 2004 report to Congress, the GAO called on the Census Bureau to address cost and design issues, at that time, had estimated the 2010 Census cost to be $11 billion. In August 2010, Commerce Secretary Gary Locke announced that the census operational costs came in under budget.
Locke credited the management practices of Census Bureau director Robert Groves, citing in particular the decision to buy additional advertising in locations where responses lagged, which improved the overall response rate. The agency has begun to rely more on questioning neighbors or other reliable third parties when a person could not be reached at home, which reduced the cost of follow-up visits. Census data for about 22% of U. S. househol
Fort Loudoun Dam
Fort Loudoun Dam is a hydroelectric dam on the Tennessee River in Loudon County, Tennessee, in the southeastern United States. The dam is operated by the Tennessee Valley Authority, which built the dam in the early 1940s as part of a unified plan to provide electricity and flood control in the Tennessee Valley and create a continuous 652-mile navigable river channel from Knoxville, Tennessee to Paducah, Kentucky, it is the uppermost of nine TVA dams on the Tennessee River. The dam impounds its tailwaters are part of Watts Bar Lake; the generating capacity of Fort Loudoun Dam is enhanced by the Tellico Reservoir, from which water is diverted via canal to Fort Loudoun Lake. It and associated infrastructure were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017. Fort Loudoun Dam is named after Fort Loudoun, an 18th-century British colonial fort built during the French and Indian War; the fort—, located about 10 miles south of the dam site— was named for John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun, commander of British forces in North America during this period.
Fort Loudoun Dam is located at just over 602 miles upstream from the mouth of the Tennessee River and nearly 50 miles downstream from the river's source at the confluence of the Holston and French Broad at Knoxville. The river's natural confluence with the Little Tennessee River is located 1 mile downstream, although the Tellico Reservoir, which covers most of the lower Little Tennessee, is connected to Fort Loudoun Lake via canal which empties into the lake upstream from the dam. Lenoir City is located north of Fort Loudoun Dam; the reservoir includes parts of Loudon and Knox counties. Fort Loudoun Dam was built across three small islands, although the construction of the dam and the construction of Tellico Dam required a drastic modification of the landscape; the northern and eastern parts of these islands are now submerged, whereas the southern and western parts were combined with part of the original mainland and part of Bussell Island to form one large island. This new island is separated from the mainland by the Tellico canal to the south and the main Tennessee River channel to the north.
From 1963 until the bridge's closure in July 2017, Lamar Alexander Parkway crossed the J. Carmichael Greer Bridge atop Fort Loudoun Dam and connected the area to Interstate 75 and Interstate 40 to the north and to Maryville and the Great Smoky Mountains National Park to the south. US-321 intersects U. S. Route 11 just over a mile north of the dam in Lenoir City. Interstate 140 and several federal and state highways cross Fort Loudoun Lake further upstream. A new bridge south-east of the dam was completed in the summer of 2017 and now carries Parkway traffic across the river. Fort Loudoun Dam stretches 4,190 feet across the Tennessee River; the reservoir has 379 miles of shoreline, 14,600 acres of water surface, a flood storage capacity of 111,000 acre feet. The dam is equipped with a 60-by-360-foot lock that raises and lowers boats about 70 feet between Fort Loudoun Lake and Watts Bar Lake. There are four hydroelectric generators at the dam with a combined generation capacity of 155.6 megawatts of electricity.
To augment Fort Loudoun's power production capacity, water from the Little Tennessee River is diverted into Fort Loudoun Lake via a short canal extending from Tellico Reservoir a short distance upstream of the nearby Tellico Dam. The canal is a half-mile long and creates an island with Fort Loudoun Dam at its northeastern tip and Tellico Dam at its southwestern tip; the canal allows navigation by barge-size craft between the Tellico Reservoir and Fort Loudoun Lake. In the mid-1930s, TVA drafted its "unified plan," a series of long-term goals that called for the construction of a series of dams along the Tennessee River to provide a minimum 9-foot navigation channel along the entire length of the river, control flooding in the Tennessee Valley, bring electricity to the area; the Fort Loudoun project was known as the Coulter Shoals project, named for a site identified by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers 6 miles upstream from the present dam site in the early 1930s. After surveying the area, TVA moved the project to the Belle Canton Islands.
The TVA proposed the project in 1939 and it was authorized on April 18, 1940. Construction began on July 8, 1940, using much of the construction organization, used in previous months on TVA's Hiwassee River projects. TVA planned to complete the dam in 1944, but the outbreak of World War II brought increased funding and urgency, the dam was completed and the gates closed August 2, 1943; the first generator went online November 9, 1943 and the second went online January 15, 1944. The Fort Loudoun Dam project required the purchase of 16,200 acres of flowage rights. 317 residents, 6 cemeteries, over 60 miles of roads had to be relocated. Construction efforts required 582,000 cubic yards of 122,000 cubic yards of riprap. Plans called for the installation of four 24-megawatt units, but was modified to three 32-megawatt units after the construction of Cherokee Dam alleviated the need for flexibility; the dam's lock was designed by the Army Corps of Engineers and completed in June 1943. The reservoir submerged part of Louisville and required modifications to Knoxville's riverfront.
In 1942, TVA received approval to build a dam— at the time known as the "Fort Loudoun extensi
Return J. Meigs Sr.
Return Jonathan Meigs, a colonel in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, was one of the settlers of the Northwest Territory in what is now the state of Ohio. He served the federal government as an Indian agent working with the Cherokee in southeastern Tennessee. Meigs was born in Middletown, Connecticut, on December 17, 1740, to Jonathan Meigs and Elizabeth Hamlin Meigs, their thirteen children included his brother Josiah Meigs. His father was a hatter; as a young man, Meigs entered a mercantile business. He married Joanna Winborn in 1764. Before her death in 1773, they had four children, including Return Jonathan Meigs, Jr.. In 1774, Meigs married Grace Starr. Meigs served in the local militia, achieving the rank of lieutenant in 1772 and promoted to captain in 1774. On April 19, 1775, after the Battle of Lexington, he led a company of light infantry to Boston. There he was appointed major in the 2nd Connecticut Regiment, a provincial regiment of the Continental Army; that year, serving as a division commander under Colonel Benedict Arnold, he accompanied Arnold on his 1,100-man expedition through Maine to Canada.
He kept a journal of the expedition, making the ink by mixing powder and water in the palm of his hand. Meigs was captured by the British in the assault on Quebec City and imprisoned, but was paroled on May 16, 1776, by British General Guy Carleton, he was acknowledged to have given decent treatment to a British prisoner, Captain Law, Carleton's chief engineer. Meigs returned to Connecticut by way of Halifax. After Meigs was formally exchanged on January 10, 1777, he returned to active service as major of the 3rd Connecticut Regiment of the newly organized Connecticut Line. Meigs was appointed lieutenant colonel of Sherburne's Additional Continental Regiment on February 10, 1777. On May 12 of that year, he was sent to command the 6th Connecticut Regiment when its colonel, William Douglas, became incapacitated by ill health. One of his most important achievements during the Revolutionary War was leading the Meigs Raid against the British forces in Sag Harbor, New York, in May 1777. With just 220 men in a fleet of 13 whaleboats, he crossed Long Island Sound from Connecticut to Long Island to attack the British fleet at night.
The raid succeeded without losing a single man. The U. S. Congress awarded Meigs a presentation sword for his heroism. Colonel Douglas died on May 28, Governor Trumbull of Connecticut appointed Meigs as the new colonel of the 6th Connecticut on September 10, 1777, with rank counted from May 12th; when a Corps of Light Infantry was formed under General Anthony Wayne in July 1779, Meigs was given command of its 3rd Regiment, which he led at the Battle of Stony Point. Following its disbandment in December, he returned to the 6th Connecticut and became acting commander of the 1st Connecticut Brigade. In that capacity, he put down an incipient mutiny and received the written thanks of General George Washington. On January 1, 1781, the Continental Main Army was reorganized and many of its regiments were consolidated. After the Revolution, Meigs was appointed surveyor of the Ohio Company of Associates. In April 1788, at age 47, he was one of a party of pioneers to the Northwest Territory from New England.
They reached the confluence of the Muskingum and Ohio rivers, where he participated in the founding of Marietta, Ohio. Meigs drafted the code of regulations used for governance until the formal creation of the Northwest Territory the following year. Subsequently, he entered political life, being appointed as a territorial judge, a justice of the peace, clerk of the Court of Quarter Sessions. In 1795, he served the army under General Anthony Wayne, as a commissary of clothing in the western country. In 1799, Meigs was elected as a member of the Ohio territorial legislature, serving until 1801. In 1801, Meigs went to Tennessee to fill the combined position of US Indian agent to the Cherokee Nation and military agent for the United States War Department, his office and the Cherokee Agency were at Fort Southwest Point, in what is now Kingston, Tennessee. In 1807 he relocated these operations to a new post further east, named Hiwassee Garrison, it was at its confluence with the Tennessee River. Charles R. Hicks, a mixed-race and bilingual Cherokee, worked as his interpreter for some time.
Hicks became a chief of the Cherokee. Meigs' role as military agent ended in 1813 when the Federal soldiers stationed at Hiwassee Garrison were withdrawn, he continued as Cherokee agent on the Hiwassee River until his death on January 28, 1823. The government's trading or factory operations were linked with Indian relations in the War Department during these years; as Cherokee agent, Meigs promoted the well-being of the Cherokee, defended their rights in treaty negotiations, encouraged Cherokee efforts to establish a republican form of government. His death was attributed to pneumonia contracted from sleeping outdoors in a tent while giving a visiting Indian chief his own living quarters. Meigs is buried in the Garrison Cemetery in Rhea County, near the site of the former Hiwassee Garrison, his son Return J. Meigs, Jr. was elected as Ohio governor and by the legislature, as U. S. Senator. A grandson, Return J. Meigs IV, married daughter of principal Cherokee chief John Ross, they emigrated with her father to Indian Territory in 1838, forced out on the Trail of Tears.
Two Tennessee place names ho
Trail of Tears
The Trail of Tears was a series of forced relocations of Native Americans in the United States from their ancestral homelands in the Southeastern United States, to areas to the west, designated as Indian Territory. The forced relocations were carried out by government authorities following the passage of the Indian Removal Act in 1830; the relocated peoples suffered from exposure and starvation while en route to their new designated reserve, many died before reaching their destinations. The forced removals included members of the Cherokee, Seminole and Choctaw nations, as well as their African slaves; the phrase "Trail of Tears" originates from a description of the removal of many Native American tribes, including the infamous Cherokee Nation relocation in 1838. Between 1830 and 1850, the Chickasaw, Creek and Cherokee people were forcibly removed from their traditional lands in the Southeastern United States, relocated farther west; those Native Americans who were relocated were forced to march to their destinations by state and local militias.
The Cherokee removal in 1838 was brought on by the discovery of gold near Dahlonega, Georgia in 1828, resulting in the Georgia Gold Rush. 2,000–8,000 of the 16,543 relocated Cherokee perished along the way. In 1830, a group of Indians collectively referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes were living as autonomous nations in what would be called the American Deep South; the process of cultural transformation, as proposed by George Washington and Henry Knox, was gaining momentum among the Cherokee and Choctaw. American settlers had been pressuring the federal government to remove Indians from the Southeast. Although the effort was vehemently opposed by some, including U. S. Congressman Davy Crockett of Tennessee, President Andrew Jackson was able to gain Congressional passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which authorized the government to extinguish Indian title to lands in the Southeast. In 1831, the Choctaw became the first Nation to be removed, their removal served as the model for all future relocations.
After two wars, many Seminoles were removed in 1832. The Creek removal followed in 1834, the Chickasaw in 1837, lastly the Cherokee in 1838; some managed to evade the removals and remained in their ancestral homelands. A small group of Seminole, fewer than 500, evaded forced removal. A small number of non-Native Americans who lived with the tribes, including some of African descent accompanied the Indians on the trek westward. By 1837, 46,000 Indians from the southeastern states had been removed from their homelands, thereby opening 25 million acres for predominantly European settlement. Prior to 1838, the fixed boundaries of these autonomous tribal nations, comprising large areas of the United States, were subject to continual cession and annexation, in part due to pressure from squatters and the threat of military force in the newly declared U. S. territories—federally administered regions whose boundaries supervened upon the Native treaty claims. As these territories became U. S. states, state governments sought to dissolve the boundaries of the Indian nations within their borders, which were independent of state jurisdiction, to expropriate the land therein.
These pressures were exacerbated by U. S. population growth and the expansion of slavery in the South, with the rapid development of cotton cultivation in the uplands following the invention of the cotton gin. Andrew Jackson's support for removal of Native Americans began at least a decade before his presidency. Indian removal was Jackson's top legislative priority upon taking office; the removals, conducted under both Presidents Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, followed the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which provided the president with powers to exchange land with Native tribes and provide infrastructure improvements on the existing lands. The law gave the president power to pay for transportation costs to the West, should tribes choose to relocate; the law did not, allow the president to force tribes to move west without a mutually agreed-upon treaty. Referring to the Indian Removal Act, Martin Van Buren, Jackson's vice president and successor is quoted as saying "There was no measure, in the whole course of administration, of which he was more the author than this."In the years following the Act, the Cherokee filed several lawsuits regarding conflicts with the state of Georgia.
Some of these cases reached the most influential being Worcester v. Georgia. Samuel Worcester and other non-Indians were convicted by Georgia law for residing in Cherokee territory in the state of Georgia without a license. Worcester was sentenced to prison for four years and appealed the ruling, arguing that this sentence violated treaties made between Indian nations and the United States federal government by imposing state laws on Cherokee lands; the Court ruled in Worcester's favor, declaring that the Cherokee Nation was subject only to federal law and that the Supremacy Clause barred legislative interference by the state of Georgia. Chief Justice Marshall argued, "The Cherokee nation
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University