The Meiji period, or Meiji era, is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nationstate and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō period. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather than in k
Meijer Inc. is an American supercenter chain throughout the Midwest, with its corporate headquarters in Walker, a part of the Grand Rapids metropolitan area. Founded in 1934 as a supermarket chain, Meijer is credited with pioneering the modern supercenter concept in 1962. About half of the company's 242 stores are located in Michigan, with the other half in Illinois, Kentucky and Wisconsin; the chain was ranked No. 19 on Forbes magazine's 2015 list of "America's Largest Private Companies" and 19 in Fortune magazine's 2008 "The 35 largest U. S. private companies". In 2016, Supermarket News ranked Meijer No. 15 in the 2016 Top 75 U. S. & Canadian Food Retailers & Wholesalers. Based on 2015 revenue, Meijer is the 26th-largest retailer in the United States. Meijer was founded as Meijer's in Michigan, by Hendrik Meijer, a Dutch immigrant. Meijer was a local barber, his first employees included his 14-year-old son, Frederik Meijer, who became chairman of the company. The current co-chairmen, brothers Hank and Doug Meijer, are Hendrik's grandsons.
After studying trends in the grocery industry, Meijer was among the first stores to offer self-service shopping and shopping carts. He offered staple items, such as vinegar, at bargain prices; the Greenville store was successful and additional Meijer groceries were opened in Ionia and Cedar Springs. By the 1960s, the company had over two dozen stores located throughout West Michigan. In 1949, the first two Meijer stores opened in Michigan. "In a contest, a customer suggested the name "Thrifty" for Meijer's little Dutch boy, who became the corporate symbol for the next 30 years." In 1962, Meijer launched its modern format, with a store at the corner of 28th Street and Kalamazoo Avenue in Grand Rapids. At a size of 180,000 square feet, it combined grocery shopping and department store shopping in a single large store; the store was built with six-inch thick floors, so should the concept fail, the nongrocery half could be converted into an indoor car dealership. New stores were built in the same manner until the mid-1970s, when an architect mentioned the extra cost to management.
The second such store opened in Norton Shores that year, followed by two more in 1964, one on Alpine Avenue in Walker and one on Westnedge Avenue in Portage, Michigan. This was followed by the first Mid-Michigan location in Delta Charter Township, Michigan, in 1966 and the first Metro Detroit store in Ypsilanti, Michigan, in 1972. Meijer expanded into Northern Michigan with their 33rd location in Traverse City opening in 1977, still open to this day. Fred Meijer took over the company upon his father's death in 1964. Under his leadership, the Thrifty Acres stores became a success and were renamed Meijer in 1986. Meijer's stand-alone grocery operations continued until the early 1990s, as the larger stores became dominant. In 1985, Forbes magazine reported Walmart at the time had failed in what were known as hypermarkets because Sam Walton and company did not understand the grocery business. Walton launched the first Hypermart USA store in 1987, opening only four stores, the last in 1990. An article in Forbes Magazine said Meijer understood the importance of the food business, it was not something just tacked onto a discount store.
The quality of the produce is important. By contrast, surveys said and now that Meijer ranks high on produce quality. With the increasing dominance of Walmart throughout the country during the 1990s and up to the present, Meijer is facing the effects of an intensely competitive retail industry. In late 2003, the company laid off 350 people from the corporate offices, distribution centers and field offices. A marketing professor, Dr. Ben Rudolph of Grand Valley State University near Meijer's corporate headquarters, lambasted this move, saying they "apparently blinked" and that Meijer's "decision was driven by panic". Continuing cutbacks in 2006, the company outsourced 81 information technology positions to India. In 2003, the company announced that all new Meijer stores would feature an new format and company image, complete with a new logo intended to make the Meijer stores seem "friendly" and inviting; the company hired New York City's Rockwell Group to redesign the existing stores and establish a design for new stores.
The "new theatrics" for the then-71-year-old company started as a "new product introduction program" until David Rockwell talked Hank and Fred Meijer into further changes. Rockwell told the Meijers the new introduction program would "work only if it was part of a new overall creative foundation based on a fresher, younger approach, encompassing architecture, interior design, graphic design". In 2005, despite cutbacks, Meijer embarked on a expansion plan to increase its number of stores in Illinois and Ohio. In April 2003, Meijer selected DeVito/Verdi, an award-winning advertising agency in New York, to handle its $25-million account. In May 2007, the first LEED-certified Meijer store opened in the second phase of the Fairlane Green development in Allen Park, Michigan. In July 2007, Meijer announced to the Michigan press it would be "restructuring" its Team Leader management positions in all 181 stores, stating layoffs would be "minimal" and necessary "to handle more sophisticated products such as flat-screen TVs and high-priced wines".
Their spokesperson said the changes were "not about a labor reduction", but fitting people into the right roles
Kyushu Institute of Technology
Kyushu Institute of Technology is one of the 87 national universities in Japan. Located in Fukuoka Prefecture on the island of Kyushu, it is dedicated to education and research in the fields of science and technology, it is abbreviated to KIT and sometimes to Kyutech. The founder was Matsumoto Kenjiro, second son of Yasukawa Keiichiro, the links with the Yaskawa Electric Corporation remain strong to this day; the centenary of the opening of the Tobata campus is being celebrated in 2009, with Founder's Day on May 28, 2009. One of its famous alumnus is the severe storms researcher Tetsuya "Ted" Fujita, he graduated in 1943 and was an associate professor until 1953 when he was invited to the University of Chicago. The university was granted government permission to be founded in 1907 as a private training school for engineers called Meiji Senmon Gakkō, toward the end of the Meiji period; the first campus opened its doors in Tobata in 1909, the centenary of the university is therefore being celebrated in 2009.
KIT became a Japanese national university on May 31, 1949 and has, since April 1, 2004, been incorporated as a national university corporation under a new law that applies to all national universities. Despite the incorporation, which has led to increased financial independence and autonomy, KIT is still quite controlled in many respects by the Japanese Ministry of Education. In 1995, the Satellite Venture Business Laboratory was opened at Tobata campus; the first school building of Meiji Senmon Gakko was made wholly of wood and designed by Tatsuno Kingo. There is a 1/50th scale model of the building on display in the university archives on Tobata campus; the first president of KIT, Yamakawa Kenjiro who studied at Yale University declared that the aim of the school was to produce "gentlemen well versed in technological skills". Nowadays the university aims to produce both ladies and gentlemen with these skills, enjoys a high reputation with employers. Founder's day is May 28, it coincides deliberately with the Battle of Tsushima of May 27 and May 28, 1905, the decisive naval battle in the Russo-Japanese War.
Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō once visited KIT, his visit is commemorated in the school's archives, as is that of Okuma Shigenobu. KIT has three campuses. Two of these are in Kitakyushu and one is in Iizuka. All three are in Kyushu. Faculty of Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering; this is the oldest campus, opened in 1909. It was designed by Tatsuno Kingo, it had three departments: Mining and Mechanical Engineering. Faculty of Computer Science and Systems Engineering, Graduate School of Computer Science and Systems Engineering; this is the second campus, established in 1986. The first students were admitted in 1987. Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering; this is the newest campus, established in April 2001. KIT has partnership agreements with several overseas universities, including the Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, University of Surrey, Old Dominion University, the University of Texas at El Paso. Tatsuo Endo - professor emeritus, "Mr. rainflow" Tetsuya Fujita - severe storm research, "Mr. Tornado" Kagoshima University Kyushu Institute of Design Kyushu University Nagasaki University Nagoya Institute of Technology Tokyo Institute of Technology University of Kitakyushu Institute of Technology Dallas Finn, Meiji Revisited: The Sites of Victorian Japan, Weatherhill, 1995 ISBN 978-0-8348-0288-9 for a description of the first school building designed by Tatsuno Kingo.
Nogami Gyoichi, Meiji Senmon Gakkō 40 nen no kiseki Kyushu Kōgyō Daigaku Hyakunen shi henshu iinkai, Kyushu Kōgyō Daigaku Hyaku nen shi, Meisenkai, 2009 KIT official website
Meiji Shrine, located in Shibuya, Tokyo, is the Shinto shrine, dedicated to the deified spirits of Emperor Meiji and his wife, Empress Shōken. The shrine does not contain the emperor's grave, located at Fushimi-momoyama, south of Kyoto. After the emperor's death in 1912, the Japanese Diet passed a resolution to commemorate his role in the Meiji Restoration. An iris garden in an area of Tokyo where Emperor Meiji and Empress Shōken had been known to visit was chosen as the building's location. Construction began in 1915 under Itō Chūta, the shrine was built in the traditional nagare-zukuri style, using Japanese cypress and copper; the building of the shrine was a national project, mobilizing youth groups and other civic associations from throughout Japan, who contributed labor and funding. It was formally dedicated in 1920, completed in 1921, its grounds finished by 1926; until 1946, the Meiji Shrine was designated one of the Kanpei-taisha, meaning that it stood in the first rank of government supported shrines.
The original building was destroyed during the Tokyo air raids of World War II. The present iteration of the shrine was funded through a public fund raising effort and completed in October 1958. Meiji Shrine has been visited by numerous foreign politicians, including United States President George W. Bush, United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle. On the eve of new year, Japanese visit a Shinto shrine to prepare for the worship - Hatsumōde of the new year. Meiji Shrine is the most popular location in Japan for hatsumōde. Meiji Shrine is located in a forest; this area is covered by an evergreen forest that consists of 120,000 trees of 365 different species, which were donated by people from all parts of Japan when the shrine was established. The forest is visited by many as a relaxation area in the center of Tokyo; the entrance to the shrine complex leads through the Jingu Bashi bridge. Meiji Shrine is adjacent to Yoyogi Park; the shrine itself is composed of two major areas: The Naien is the inner precinct, centered on the shrine buildings and includes a treasure museum that houses articles of the Emperor and Empress.
The treasure museum is built in the Azekurazukuri style. The Gaien is the outer precinct, which includes the Meiji Memorial Picture Gallery that houses a collection of 80 large murals illustrative of the events in the lives of the Emperor and his consort, it includes a variety of sports facilities, including the National Stadium, the Meiji Memorial Hall, used for governmental meetings, including discussions surrounding the drafting of the Meiji Constitution in the late 19th century. Today it is used for restaurants services. Meiji Jingu Stadium List of Shinto shrines List of Jingū Ponsonby-Fane, Richard Arthur Brabazon.. The Imperial House of Japan. Kyoto: Ponsonby Memorial Society. OCLC 194887 Official English site Requires Flash. Meiji Shrine English map Meiji Shrine Pictures & Travel Guide Practical guide for travelers
Mischief Reef is a reef / atoll surrounding a large lagoon in the SE of Dangerous Ground in the east of the Spratly Islands in the South China Sea. It is located 250 kilometres west of Palawan Island of the Philippines. Activities by the People's Republic of China in the mid 2010s have created a large artificial island on the atoll which has included an 2,700 metres runway and associated airfield. Mischief Reef has been occupied and controlled by the PRC since 1995, is claimed by the Republic of China, the Philippines and Vietnam; the PRC performed various reclamation activities at at least two locations on the rim of the atoll in the period from 1995 to 2013, but in the period from the end of 2013 to the end of 2016 a large artificial island of 1,379 acres was created around the majority of the perimeter of the lagoon. The reef was the subject of a 2016 tribunal ruling by the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague; the area is said to be rich in as yet unexplored gas fields. One source says that Mischief reef was discovered by Henry Spratly in 1791 and was named after the German sailor Heribert Mischief, one of his crew..
Other sources suggest that the reef may have been named after the clipper Mischief that sailed in the South China Sea in the 1850s. Mischief reef is located at 9°55′N 115°32′E, it lies 50 nautical miles east of Union Banks. Mischief reef consists of rocks that lie above water at low tide. In 1994 and 1995, China built initial structures on stilts in the area; the Philippine government protested these actions. However, the Chinese government rejected the protest and said that the structures were shelter for fishermen. In 1999, another wave of protests from Manila occurred when China added more structures to Mischief Reef. China was reported to have planted buoys in nearby Sabina Shoal. Philippines claimed that China had a well-rehearsed routine when laying claim to a new reef: first put down buoys build concrete markers. Temporary wooden or bamboo shelters followed, permanent structures went up; the Philippines therefore would try to destroy the buoys or markers before China has time to build larger structures.
The Philippines' decision not to destroy the Chinese structures on Mischief Reef has prevented an escalation of the dispute. The Philippines claims that China has always been prepared for armed conflict when challenged, as is evident in China's defense of reefs from Vietnam in the 1988 Johnson South Reef Skirmish which resulted in more than 70 Vietnamese deaths. On 11 July 2012, the Chinese Type 053 frigate Dongguan ran aground on the reef, sparking embarrassment for the Chinese government and causing an awkward diplomatic situation; the ship was towed back to base. On 12 July 2016, the tribunal of the Permanent Court of Arbitration concluded that Mischief Reef is, or in their natural condition was, exposed at low tide and submerged at high tide and are, accordingly low-tide elevations that do not generate entitlement to a territorial sea, exclusive economic zone or continental shelf; the tribunal concluded that Mischief Reef forms part of the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of the Philippines.
In 2014, land reclamation started inside the rims. The Philippines filed a diplomatic protest against China after the discovery of their reclamation activities. By January 2016, work was well advanced on developing a military base with a large harbour and a 2,644 metres runway, with the reclaimed land covering 558 hectares. A civilian test flight to the runway was conducted by a China Southern Airlines passenger jet on 13 July 2016. In late 2016, photographs emerged which suggested that Mischief Reef was armed with anti-aircraft weapons and a CIWS missile-defence system. Great wall of sand Nine-dash line Meyer, Stanley E.. "Incident at Mischief Reef: Implications for the Philippines and the United States". U. S. Army War College
Meiji-mura is an open-air architectural museum/theme park in Inuyama, near Nagoya in Aichi prefecture, Japan. It was opened on March 18, 1965; the museum preserves historic buildings from Japan's Meiji and early Shōwa periods. Over 60 historical buildings have been moved and reconstructed onto 1 square kilometre of rolling hills alongside Lake Iruka; the most noteworthy building there is the reconstructed main entrance and lobby of Frank Lloyd Wright's landmark Imperial Hotel, which stood in Tokyo from 1923 to 1967, when the main structure was demolished to make way for a new, larger version of the hotel. The Meiji era was a period of rapid change in Japan. After centuries of isolation, Japan began to incorporate ideas from the west, including building styles and construction techniques. Meiji-mura was started by Yoshirō Taniguchi, an architect, Motoo Tsuchikawa vice president and president of Nagoya Railroad. While riding the Yamanote line in Tokyo, Taniguchi lamented the sight of the demolition of the Rokumeikan, a symbol of Meiji era architecture.
He appealed to his college classmate Tsuchikawa to join him in working to preserve western style Meiji era buildings of cultural or historical importance. On July 16, 1962 they formed a foundation for this purpose, with Nagoya Railroad providing the funding. Meiji-mura was opened on March 18, 1965 on the banks of the Lake Iruka reservoir, operated under Nagoya Railroad with Taniguchi as museum director, with 15 buildings. Meiji-mura's goal is to preserve these historic early examples of western architecture mixed with Japanese construction techniques and materials. Incidentally, many of the buildings were saved from demolition during the post World War II period, another time of transition and rapid progress in Japanese history. Though it is still operated by Nagoya Railroad, a subsidiary company was created in 2003 to oversee it and nearby Little World. Due to the recent financial declines with Nagoya Railroad the future of the park is in question. While renovations had been put on hold for a time, work on moving the Shibakawa Yashiki from Nishinomiya, Kobe was begun in January 2005.
Notable buildings of historical or cultural importance including those of eras are preserved, including a few Japanese style buildings. Nine of the buildings are designated as Important Cultural Assets, nearly all the rest are registered as tangible cultural assets; the museum includes buildings from Hawaii and Seattle in the United States, Brazil. A steam locomotive and street car, along with shuttle buses and horse-drawn carriages, provide transportation within the grounds. An operational historic post office is included among the 67 buildings. Though some buildings are somewhat empty, others have displays showing the history of the building and period, period furniture, other displays; the entrance and lobby of the Imperial Hotel was saved and moved from Tokyo between 1967 and 1985. Though only the entrance and lobby remain, it is the largest structure in Meiji Mura. Other structures preserved at Meiji Mura include Lafcadio Hearn's summer house from Shizuoka, St. John's Church from Kyoto designed by James McDonald Gardiner and Kyoto's old St. Francis Xavier Catholic Cathedral.
The former cathedral is available to rent for weddings. One of the traditional merchant houses that survived from Nagoya is the Tōmatsu House, constructed in 1901 in Funairi-chō, Nagoya, it was relocated to the museum in the 1970s. It has been designated by the government as an Important Cultural Property. Famous Japanese actors have served as honorary village chief. Musei Tokugawa Hisaya Morishige Shoichi Ozawa Sawako Agawa Showa-mura Taisho-mura Treaty of Portsmouth, 1905 – see table used by Russian and Japanese negotiators Edo-Tokyo Open Air Architectural Museum Greenfield Village Media related to Meiji-mura at Wikimedia Commons Official Meiji Mura site Article on Meiji Mura from Time Asia 2004/08/30
The Constitution of the Empire of Japan, known informally as the Meiji Constitution, was the constitution of the Empire of Japan which had the proclamation on February 11, 1889, had enacted since November 29, 1890 until May 2, 1947. Enacted after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, it provided for a form of mixed constitutional and absolute monarchy, based jointly on the Prussian and British models. In theory, the Emperor of Japan was the supreme leader, the Cabinet, whose Prime Minister would be elected by a Privy Council, were his followers. Under the Meiji Constitution, the Prime Minister and his Cabinet were not chosen from the elected members of the group. Through the regular procedure for amendment of the Meiji Constitution, it was revised to become the "Postwar Constitution" on November 3, 1946, in force since May 3, 1947; the Meiji Restoration in 1868 provided Japan a form of constitutional monarchy based on the Prusso-German model, in which the Emperor of Japan was an active ruler and wielded considerable political power over foreign policy and diplomacy, shared with an elected Imperial Diet.
The Diet dictated domestic policy matters. After the Meiji Restoration, which restored direct political power to the emperor for the first time in over a millennium, Japan underwent a period of sweeping political and social reform and westernization aimed at strengthening Japan to the level of the nations of the Western world; the immediate consequence of the Constitution was the opening of the first Parliamentary government in Asia. The Meiji Constitution established clear limits on the power of the executive branch and the Emperor, it created an independent judiciary. Civil rights and civil liberties were guaranteed, though in many cases they were subject to limitation by law. However, it was ambiguous in wording, in many places self-contradictory; the leaders of the government and the political parties were left with the task of interpretation as to whether the Meiji Constitution could be used to justify authoritarian or liberal-democratic rule. It was the struggle between these tendencies.
The Meiji Constitution was used as a model for the 1931 Ethiopian Constitution by the Ethiopian intellectual Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam. This was one of the reasons why the progressive Ethiopian intelligentsia associated with Tekle Hawariat were known as "Japanizers". By the surrender in the World War II on 2 September 1945, the Empire of Japan was deprived of sovereignty by the Allies, the Meiji Constitution was suspended. During the Occupation of Japan, the Meiji Constitution was replaced by a new document, the postwar Constitution of Japan; this document—officially an amendment to the Meiji Constitution—replaced imperial rule with a form of Western-style liberal democracy. Prior to the adoption of the Meiji Constitution, Japan had in practice no written constitution. A Chinese-inspired legal system and constitution known as ritsuryō was enacted in the 6th century. In theory the last ritsuryō code, the Yōrō Code enacted in 752, was still in force at the time of the Meiji Restoration. However, in practice the ritsuryō system of government had become an empty formality as early as in the middle of the Heian period in the 10th and 11th centuries, a development, completed by the establishment of the Kamakura Shogunate in 1185.
The high positions in the ritsuryō system remained as sinecures, the emperor was de-powered and set aside as a symbolic figure who "reigned, but did not rule". The idea of a written constitution had been a subject of heated debate within and without the government since the beginnings of the Meiji government; the conservative Meiji oligarchy viewed anything resembling democracy or republicanism with suspicion and trepidation, favored a gradualist approach. The Freedom and People's Rights Movement demanded the immediate establishment of an elected national assembly, the promulgation of a constitution. On October 21, 1881, Itō Hirobumi was appointed to chair a government bureau to research various forms of constitutional government, in 1882, Itō led an overseas mission to observe and study various systems first-hand; the United States Constitution was rejected as "too liberal". The French and Spanish models were rejected as tending toward despotism; the Reichstag and legal structures of the German Empire that of Prussia, proved to be of the most interest to the Constitutional Study Mission.
Influence was drawn from the British Westminster system, although it was considered as being unwieldy and granting too much power to Parliament. He rejected some notions as unfit for Japan, as they stemmed from European constitutional practice and Christianity, he therefore added references to the kokutai or "national polity" as the justification of the emperor's authority through his divine descent and the unbroken line of emperors, the unique relationship between subject and sovereign. The Council of State was replaced in 1885 with a cabinet headed by Itō as Prime Minister; the positions of Chancellor, Minister of the Left, Minister of the Right, which had existed since the seventh century, were abolished. In their place, the Privy Council was established in 1888 to evalua