The Meiji era is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, 1868 to July 30, 1912. This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonisation by European powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialised nation state and emergent great power, influenced by Western scientific, philosophical, political and aesthetic ideas; as a result of such wholesale adoption of radically-different ideas, the changes to Japan were profound, affected its social structure, internal politics, economy and foreign relations. The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji and was succeeded upon the accession of Emperor Taishō by the Taishō era. On February 3, 1867, the 14-year-old Prince Mutsuhito succeeded his father, Emperor Kōmei, to the Chrysanthemum Throne as the 122nd emperor. On November 9, 1867, then-shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu tendered his resignation to the Emperor, formally stepped down ten days later.
Imperial restoration occurred the next year on January 3, 1868, with the formation of the new government. The fall of Edo in the summer of 1868 marked the end of the Tokugawa shogunate, a new era, was proclaimed; the first reform was the promulgation of the Five Charter Oath in 1868, a general statement of the aims of the Meiji leaders to boost morale and win financial support for the new government. Its five provisions consisted of: Establishment of deliberative assemblies. Implicit in the Charter Oath was an end to exclusive political rule by the bakufu, a move toward more democratic participation in government. To implement the Charter Oath, a rather short-lived constitution with eleven articles was drawn up in June 1868. Besides providing for a new Council of State, legislative bodies, systems of ranks for nobles and officials, it limited office tenure to four years, allowed public balloting, provided for a new taxation system, ordered new local administrative rules; the Meiji government assured the foreign powers that it would follow the old treaties negotiated by the bakufu and announced that it would act in accordance with international law.
Mutsuhito, to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title—Meiji, or Enlightened Rule—to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history. To further dramatize the new order, the capital was relocated from Kyoto, where it had been situated since 794, to Tokyo, the new name for Edo. In a move critical for the consolidation of the new regime, most daimyōs voluntarily surrendered their land and census records to the Emperor in the abolition of the Han system, symbolizing that the land and people were under the Emperor's jurisdiction. Confirmed in their hereditary positions, the daimyo became governors, the central government assumed their administrative expenses and paid samurai stipends; the han were replaced with prefectures in 1871, authority continued to flow to the national government. Officials from the favored former han, such as Satsuma, Chōshū, Hizen staffed the new ministries. Old court nobles, lower-ranking but more radical samurai, replaced bakufu appointees and daimyo as a new ruling class appeared.
In as much as the Meiji Restoration had sought to return the Emperor to a preeminent position, efforts were made to establish a Shinto-oriented state much like it was 1,000 years earlier. Since Shinto and Buddhism had molded into a syncretic belief in the prior one-thousand years and Buddhism had been connected with the shogunate, this involved the separation of Shinto and Buddhism and the associated destruction of various Buddhist temples and related violence. Furthermore, a new State Shinto had to be constructed for the purpose. In 1871, the Office of Shinto Worship was established, ranking above the Council of State in importance; the kokutai ideas of the Mito school were embraced, the divine ancestry of the Imperial House was emphasized. The government supported a small but important move. Although the Office of Shinto Worship was demoted in 1872, by 1877 the Home Ministry controlled all Shinto shrines and certain Shinto sects were given state recognition. Shinto was released from Buddhist administration and its properties restored.
Although Buddhism suffered from state sponsorship of Shinto, it had its own resurgence. Christianity was legalized, Confucianism remained an important ethical doctrine. However, Japanese thinkers identified with Western ideology and methods. A major proponent of representative government was Itagaki Taisuke, a powerful Tosa leader who had resigned from the Council of State over the Korean affair in 1873. Itagaki sought peaceful, rather than rebellious, he started a school and a movement aimed at establishing a constitutional monarchy and a legislative assembly. Such movements were called People's Rights Movement. Itagaki and others wrote the Tosa Memorial in 1874, criticizing the unbridled power of the oligarchy and calling for the immediate establishment of representative government. Between 1871 and 1873, a series of land and tax laws were enacted as the basis for modern fiscal policy. Private ownership was legalized, deeds were issued, lands were assessed at fair market value with taxes paid in cash rather t
The Green Round is a horror novel by Welsh author Arthur Machen. It was published by Ernest Benn Limited in 1933; the first U. S. edition was published by Arkham House in 1968 in an edition of 2,058 copies. It was the only book by Machen to be published by Arkham House. Critic S. T. Joshi has referred to the novel as "a drearily verbose and unfocussed rehashing of old themes". According to the Friends of Arthur Machen website, "Machen's final full-length work of fiction is judged a failure by some. However, in this work, Machen's earlier exploration of the fantastic moves outward to embrace the absurd, of Kafka and Sartre. Not recommended for devotees of gothic and horror, but of potential fascination for the rest of us." Jaffery, Sheldon. The Arkham House Companion. Mercer Island, WA: Starmont House, Inc. p. 89. ISBN 1-55742-005-X. Chalker, Jack L.. The Science-Fantasy Publishers: A Bibliographic History, 1923-1998. Westminster, MD and Baltimore: Mirage Press, Ltd. p. 44. Joshi, S. T.. Sixty Years of Arkham House: A History and Bibliography.
Essential Cuts is a budget compilation album by Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five released on CD in 2005. Although titled to Grandmaster Flash alone, it does not contain any tracks from Flash's Elektra Records albums and features tracks from The Message era; the fold-out booklet contains a brief but accurate history of the band and track-by-track commentary by Ian McCann. As is common with Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five compilation releases minor mistakes have been made regarding some song titles. "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel" – 7:10 "Freedom" – 5:06 "The Message" – 3:12 "It's Nasty" – 7:50 "New York New York" – 7:20 "Scorpio" – 4:44 "White Lines" – 4:28 "Dreamin'" – 5:47 "The Birthday Party" – 5:46 "She's Fresh" – 4:57 "It's a Shame" – 4:57 "Flash to the Beat" – 4:23 "You Are" – 4:51 "The Adventures of Grandmaster Flash on the Wheels of Steel" is mistitled as Adventures on the Wheels of Steel". Although sometimes subtitled as "It's Nasty", it is here mistitled as the.
It is lacks the appellation, present on the other tracks. "New York New York" is mistitled as New York. "Flash to the Beat" is mistitled as Flash to the Beat. "Freedom", "The Message", "Scorpio", "White Lines" and "The Birthday Party" are the edited versions