University of Haifa
The University of Haifa is a public research university on the top of Mount Carmel in Haifa, Israel. The university was founded in 1963 by the mayor of its host city, Abba Hushi, to operate under the academic auspices of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem; the University of Haifa was founded in 1963 by Haifa mayor Abba Hushi, to operate under the academic auspices of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Haifa University is located on Mount Carmel. In 1972, the University of Haifa declared its independence and became the sixth academic institution in Israel and the fourth university. About 18,100 undergraduate and graduate students study in the university a wide variety of topics, specializing in social sciences, humanities and education; the University is broadly divided into six Faculties: Humanities, Social Sciences, Law and Science Education, Social Welfare and Health Studies, Education. There is the Graduate School of Management, The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences and the Continuing Education and Extension Studies.
Beyond the objective of a first-rate higher education, the University of Haifa aims to provide equal educational opportunities to all, in particular to encourage mutual understanding and cooperation between the Jewish and Arab populations on and off campus. The university is a home for students from all sectors of Israeli society - Jews, Christians, Druze and secular students and many students from all over the world who study in the international school; the University of Haifa is home to the Hecht Museum of archeology and art, several research centers and institutes, including the Evolution Institute, Center for the Study of the Information Society, Center for the Study of National Security, Tourism Research Center, more. The University hosts a large IBM research center on its campus. In its first year 472 students attended the University. Studies in Humanities and Social Sciences were offered in the following departments: Biblical Studies, Hebrew Literature and Language, Jewish History, General History, French Literature and Language, English Literature and Language, Arabic Literature and Language, Geography and Political Science.
The academic staff included 50 of them Haifa residents. In 1967, the University of Haifa awarded diplomas to its first 75 graduates, three-quarters of whom intended to be teachers; the first home of the University of Haifa was in Erdstein House in the Hadar HaCarmel section of Haifa, but it soon became too crowded. The University moved to Merkaz HaCarmel, was housed in the building that now serves the Municipal High School No. 5. In 1966, the University moved to the top of the present location of its main campus; the University's first building, the "Multi-Purpose Building", was constructed in 1966. It contained classrooms, laboratories, a library with 110,000 books, a cafeteria. Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer planned the campus to include all the University's facilities in one complex. More additional buildings have been built nearby. Niemeyer did not complete the detailed design phase. Gilad retreated from Niemeyer's design, but retained the character of the main building, the Eshkol Building, named for the ex-prime minister Levi Eshkol.
The Eshkol Building was the highest building in the city of Haifa until 2002. The Leon H. Charney School of Marine Sciences is a division of the University of Haifa that focuses on the study of the Mediterranean Sea, it is home to the Caesarea Center, its own diving facility that supports the Israeli Antiques Authority in Caesaria. It focuses on three complementary fields: Marine Biology Marine Geosciences Maritime Civilizations Yitzhak Aharonovich, Israeli parliamentarian, Minister of Internal Security Gabi Ashkenazi, IDF Chief of Staff Ashraf Barhom, Israeli Arab actor Ronen Bergman, investigative journalist and author Inna Braverman, founder Eco Wave Power Meir Dagan, director of the Mossad Abdulwahab Darawshe, Israeli Arab parliamentarian Yaakov Edri, Israeli parliamentarian, held several cabinet portfolios Benjamin Gantz, IDF Chief of General Staff Carine Goren, Israeli pastry chef, cookbook author, television baking show host Gabriel Hallevy professor of law Dan Harel, IDF general, CEO of the Israeli Ministry of Transportation Maya Kalle-Bentzur, Israeli Olympic runner and long jumper Ram Karmi, architect Idan Ofer, London-based Israeli business magnate and philanthropist Igor Polovets, Owner of the RPI Group of Companies, including RPI International and RPI Eastern Europe Moran Samuel, Israeli rower and basketball player, Bronze medalist at 2016 Rio Paralympic Games Bernardo Sorj, sociologist Yochanan Vollach, president of Maccabi Haifa, CEO A. B.
Yehoshua, novelist and playwright Gad Barzilai Benjamin Beit-Hallahmi Nitza Ben-Dov David Bukay Shay Bushinsky Aharon Dolgopolsky Doron Kliger Eli Lancman Ronit Matalon Eviatar Nevo, Evolutionary Biologist, Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences USA Ronny Reich Daniel Schueftan Brenda Shaffer Camelia Suleiman and academic Arnon Sofer Yuval Steinitz philosopher, the current finance minister of Israel. Avigdor Stematsky, painter Edward Trifonov, molecular biophysicist, a founder of Israeli bioinformatics Natan Zach, poet List of universities in Israel Bucerius Institute for Research of Contemporary German History and Society The University of Haifa homepage
Adeline Virginia Woolf was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device. Woolf was born into an affluent household in South Kensington, the seventh child in a blended family of eight, her mother, Julia Prinsep Jackson, celebrated as a Pre-Raphaelite artist's model, had three children from her first marriage, while Woolf's father, Leslie Stephen, a notable man of letters, had one previous daughter. The Stephens produced another four children, including the modernist painter Vanessa Bell. While the boys in the family received college educations, the girls were home-schooled in English classics and Victorian literature. An important influence in Virginia Woolf's early life was the summer home the family used in St Ives, where she first saw the Godrevy Lighthouse, to become iconic in her novel To the Lighthouse. Woolf's childhood came to an abrupt end in 1895 with the death of her mother and her first mental breakdown, followed two years by the death of her stepsister and surrogate mother, Stella Duckworth.
From 1897 to 1901, she attended the Ladies' Department of King's College London, where she studied classics and history and came into contact with early reformers of women's higher education and the women's rights movement. Other important influences were her Cambridge-educated brothers and unfettered access to her father's vast library. Encouraged by her father, Woolf began writing professionally in 1900, her father's death in 1905 caused another mental breakdown for Woolf. Following his death, the Stephen family moved from Kensington to the more bohemian Bloomsbury, where they adopted a free-spirited lifestyle, it was in Bloomsbury where, in conjunction with the brothers' intellectual friends, the Stephens formed the artistic and literary Bloomsbury Group. Following her 1912 marriage to Leonard Woolf, the couple founded the Hogarth Press in 1917, which published much of her work; the couple rented a home in Sussex and moved there permanently in 1940. Throughout her life, Woolf was troubled by bouts of mental illness.
She was institutionalized attempted suicide at least twice. Her illness is considered to have been bipolar disorder, for which there was no effective intervention during her lifetime. At age 59, Woolf committed suicide in 1941 by putting rocks in her coat pockets and drowning herself in the River Ouse. During the interwar period, Woolf was an important part of London's artistic society. In 1915 she published her first novel, The Voyage Out, through her half-brother's publishing house, Gerald Duckworth and Company, her best-known works include the novels Mrs Dalloway, To the Orlando. She is known for her essays, including A Room of One's Own, in which she wrote the much-quoted dictum, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." Woolf became one of the central subjects of the 1970s movement of feminist criticism and her works have since garnered much attention and widespread commentary for "inspiring feminism." Her works have been translated into more than 50 languages.
A large body of literature is dedicated to her life and work, she has been the subject of plays and films. Woolf is commemorated today by statues, societies dedicated to her work and a building at the University of London. Virginia Woolf was born Adeline Virginia Stephen on 25 January 1882 at 22 Hyde Park Gate in South Kensington, London to Julia and Leslie Stephen, historian, essayist and mountaineer. Julia Jackson was born in 1846 in Calcutta, British India to Dr. John Jackson and Maria "Mia" Theodosia Pattle, from two Anglo-Indian families. John Jackson FRCS was the third son of George Jackson and Mary Howard of Bengal, a physician who spent 25 years with the Bengal Medical Service and East India Company and a professor at the fledgling Calcutta Medical College. While John Jackson was an invisible presence, the Pattle family were famous beauties, moved in the upper circles of Bengali society; the seven Pattle sisters married into important families. Julia Margaret Cameron was a celebrated photographer, while Virginia married Earl Somers, their daughter, Julia Jackson's cousin, was Lady Henry Somerset, the temperance leader.
Julia moved to England with her mother at the age of two and spent much of her early life with another of her mother's sister, Sarah Monckton Pattle. Sarah and her husband Henry Thoby Prinsep, conducted an artistic and literary salon at Little Holland House where she came into contact with a number of Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, for whom she modelled. Julia was the youngest of three sisters and Adeline Virginia Stephen was named after her mother's eldest sister Adeline Maria Jackson and her mother's aunt Virginia Pattle; because of the tragedy of her aunt Adeline's death the previous year, the family never used Virginia's first name. The Jacksons were a well educated and artistic proconsular middle-class family. In 1867, Julia Jackson married Herbert Duckworth, a barrister, but within three years was left a widow with three infant children, she was devastated and entered a prolonged period of mourning, abandoning her faith and turning to nursing and philanthropy. Julia and Herbert Duckworth had three children.
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem is Israel's second oldest university, established in 1918, 30 years before the establishment of the State of Israel. The Hebrew University has one in Rehovot; the world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J. Safra Givat Ram campus; the university has 5 affiliated teaching hospitals including the Hadassah Medical Center, 7 faculties, more than 100 research centers, 315 academic departments. As of 2018, a third of all the doctoral candidates in Israel were studying at the Hebrew University; the first Board of Governors included Albert Einstein, Sigmund Freud, Martin Buber, Chaim Weizmann. Four of Israel's prime ministers are alumni of the Hebrew University; as of 2018, 15 Nobel Prize winners, 2 Fields Medalists, 3 Turing Award winners have been affiliated with the University. One of the visions of the Zionist movement was the establishment of a Jewish university in the Land of Israel. Founding a university was proposed as far back as 1884 in the Kattowitz conference of the Hovevei Zion society.
The cornerstone for the university was laid on July 24, 1918. Seven years on April 1, 1925, the Hebrew University campus on Mount Scopus was opened at a gala ceremony attended by the leaders of the Jewish world, distinguished scholars and public figures, British dignitaries, including the Earl of Balfour, Viscount Allenby and Sir Herbert Samuel; the University's first Chancellor was Judah Magnes. By 1947, the University had become a large teaching institution. Plans for a medical school were approved in May 1949, in November 1949, a faculty of law was inaugurated. In 1952, it was announced that the agricultural institute founded by the University in 1940 would become a full-fledged faculty. During the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, attacks were carried out against convoys moving between the Israeli-controlled section of Jerusalem and the University; the leader of the Arab forces in Jerusalem, Abdul Kader Husseini, threatened military action against the university Hadassah Hospital "if the Jews continued to use them as bases for attacks."
After the Hadassah medical convoy massacre, in which 79 Jews, including doctors and nurses, were killed, the Mount Scopus campus was cut off from Jerusalem. British soldier Jack Churchill coordinated the evacuation of 700 Jewish doctors and patients from the hospital; when the Jordan government denied Israeli access to Mount Scopus, a new campus was built at Givat Ram in western Jerusalem and completed in 1958. In the interim, classes were held in 40 different buildings around the city; the Terra Santa building in Rehavia, rented from the Franciscan Custodians of the Latin Holy Places, was used for this purpose. A few years together with the Hadassah Medical Organization, a medical science campus was built in the south-west Jerusalem neighborhood of Ein Kerem. By the beginning of 1967, the students numbered 12,500, spread among the two campuses in Jerusalem and the agricultural faculty in Rehovot. After the unification of Jerusalem, following the Six-Day War of June 1967, the University was able to return to Mount Scopus, rebuilt.
In 1981 the construction work was completed, Mount Scopus again became the main campus of the University. On July 31, 2002, a member of a terrorist cell detonated a bomb during lunch hour at the University's "Frank Sinatra" cafeteria when it was crowded with staff and students. Nine people—five Israelis, three Americans, one dual French-American citizen—were murdered and more than 70 wounded. World leaders, including Kofi Annan, President Bush, the President of the European Union issued statements of condemnation. In 2017 the Hebrew University of Jerusalem launched a marijuana research center, intended to "conduct and coordinate research on cannabis and its biological effects with an eye toward commercial applications." Mount Scopus, in the north-eastern part of Jerusalem, is home to the main campus, which contains the Faculties of Humanities, Social Sciences, Jerusalem School of Business Administration, Baerwald School of Social Work, Harry S. Truman Research Institute for the Advancement of Peace, Rothberg International School, the Mandel Institute of Jewish Studies.
The Rothberg International School features Jewish/Israeli studies. Included for foreign students is a mandatory Ulpan program for Hebrew language study which includes a mandatory course in Israeli culture and customs. All Rothberg Ulpan classes are taught by Israeli natives. However, many other classes at the Rothberg School are taught by Jewish immigrants to Israel; the land on Mt. Scopus was purchased before World War I from Sir John Gray-Hill, along with the Gray-Hill mansion; the master plan for the university was designed by Patrick Geddes and his son-in-law, Frank Mears in December 1919. Only two buildings of this original design were built: the David Wolffsohn University and National Library, the Mathematics Institute, with the Physics Institute being built on the designs of their Jerusalem-based partner, Benjamin Chaikin. Housing for students at Hebrew University who live on Mount Scopus is located at the three dormitories located near the university; these are the Maiersdorf dormitories, the Bronfman dormitories, the Kfar HaStudentim.
Nearby is the Nicanor Cave, an ancient cave, planned to be a national pantheon. The Givat Ram campus is the home of the Faculty of Science including the Einstein Institute of Mathematics.
Netanya is a city in the Northern Central District of Israel, is the capital of the surrounding Sharon plain. It is 30 km north of Tel Aviv, 56 km south of Haifa, between the'Poleg' stream and Wingate Institute in the south and the'Avichail' stream in the north. Netanya was named in honor of Nathan Straus, a prominent Jewish American merchant and philanthropist in the early 20th century, the co-owner of Macy's department store, its 14 kilometres of beaches have made the city a popular tourist resort. In addition, the city is known for its large immigrant population. A significant percentage of the city's population consists of immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia, the city is home to a notably large population of English-speaking immigrants from the United Kingdom, United States, South Africa and New Zealand. In 2017, it had a population of 214,101. An additional 150,000 people live in the local and regional councils within 10 kilometres of Netanya which serves as a regional center for them.
The city mayor is Miriam Feirberg. The idea to create the settlement of Netanya was drawn up at a meeting of the Bnei Binyamin association in Zikhron Ya'akov; the location was decided upon near the ancient site of Poleg, it was decided to name it in honor of Nathan Straus, co-owner of Macy's department store, New York City Parks Commissioner, president of the New York City Board of Health, who gifted two-thirds of his personal fortune to projects benefiting Jews and Arabs in Palestine. "Netanya... was named for Straus in the hope. When he told them he had no more money to give they were disappointed, but decided to keep the city's name anyway." In 1928 members of Bnei Binyamin and Hanote, an organisation set up after Straus was informed of the establishment of the settlement, purchased 350 acres of Umm Khaled lands. On December 14, 1928 a team led by Moshe Shaked began digging for water at the site, finding it in February 1929. Subsequently, on February 18, 1929, the first five settlers moved onto the land and cultivating it for the first time.
In the weeks that followed, more settlers began arriving. The land was divided between the settlers in June 1929 as the vision of the settlement became reality. Development was set back, however when the 1929 Palestine riots and massacre of Jews caused the settlement to be abandoned for a couple of weeks. By September, development was back on track with the cornerstones for the first 10 houses being laid on Sukkot. In the following years, Netanya continued to grow, with the first kindergarten and shop opening in 1930, the first school in 1931. In the 1931 census of Palestine, Netanya was recorded as having 253 residents. In 1933, the British architect Cliff Holliday proposed a plan for Netanya to become a tourist city. Holliday prepared urban projects in Jaffa, Tiberias and Ramla; the first urban plan for the city, saw it being divided into three sections with a tourism district along the coastline, housing and commerce in the center, agriculture and industry to the east. That year saw the completion of the Tel Aviv Hotel, the first hotel in Netanya, as well as the establishment of two new neighborhoods, Ben Zion and Geva.
The moshava as it was continued to grow in 1934, when the first ship of illegal immigrants carried 350 to Netanya's shoreline. These operations continued until 1939, with over seventeen ships landing near the city, being aided by the residents of Netanya. Whilst flourishing agriculturally, 1934 saw the city diversify with Primazon opening the first factory there, producing fruit and vegetable preserves. Following this, the first industrial zone was set up, whilst the Shone Halahot Synagogue was built and the Bialik School inaugurated; as the settlement continued to grow, 1937 saw a cornerstone laid for a new commercial center and the connection of Netanya to the Tel Aviv-Haifa road. In 1940, the British Mandate government defined Netanya as a local council of which Oved Ben-Ami was elected head of. Expansion continued after this point. In 1944, Netanya had a population of 4,900; the first high school in Netanya opened in 1945. During the Jewish insurgency in Palestine, the Jewish underground group Irgun launched a number of attacks against British military and police forces in the Netanya area.
The town itself was a bastion of support for the Irgun. The most infamous incident happened in what became known as the Sergeants affair. After three Irgun fighters had been sentenced to death by the British, the Irgun abducted two British sergeants on a Netanya street, hid them in an abandoned factory; the British responded by declaring martial law and placing Netanya and the surrounding area under curfew. The British Army did not find the sergeants. After the three Irgun fighters were hanged, the Irgun hanged the two sergeants in the factory and re-hanged and booby trapped their bodies in an orange grove. In November 1947, an Egged bus which left Netanya for Jerusalem was attacked in Petah Tikva. In 1948, following the withdrawal of British forces from Netanya and the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, a large military base was established in the city. On December 3, 1948, after fighting in the area had calmed down, Netanya was designated a city, the first city to be designated in the newly established State of Israel.
A number of nearby settlements, Ramat Tiomkin, Ein Hatchlelet, Pardes Hagdud, Ramat Ephraim, were annexed to Netanya. At this time, Netanya had a population of 11,600. In 1949, the Kiryat Eliezer Kaplan Industrial Zone was inaugurated and t
Hanoch Levin, was a prominent Israeli dramatist, theater director and poet, best known for his theater plays. Hanoch Levin was born in 1943 to Malka and Israel Levin, who immigrated to then-Mandatory Palestine in 1935 from Łódź, Poland, he grew up in a religious home in the Neve Sha'anan neighborhood in southern Tel Aviv. His father ran a grocery store; as a child, he attended the Yavetz State Religious School. In the 1950s, his brother, nine years older than he was, worked as an assistant director at the Cameri Theater, his father died of a heart attack. Hanoch attended Zeitlin Religious High School in Tel Aviv. After ninth grade, he left school to help support the family, he worked as a messenger boy for the Herut company and took classes at a night school for working youth at the Ironi Aleph middle school. There he acted in Michal, Daughter of Saul by Aharon Ashman. After serving his compulsory military duty as a code clerk in the signal corps, Levin began to study philosophy and Hebrew literature at Tel Aviv University.
In 1965 he joined the editorial board of the Dorban newspaper, one of the university's two student newspapers. Some passages from the period were republished, with thorough revisions, as part of his work. For example, "A Hardened Ballad of a Soldier Man and Woman" from June 1966 was revised as "Black Eagle on a Red Roof" and published after the 1982 Lebanon War. During his university studies, Levin associated with the Communist Party, where he met Danny Tracz, the dramatist of the Communist youth. A friendship and professional kinship developed between the two that lasted beyond the period of their party activities. In 1967, Levin published a poem called "Birkot ha-Shahar" in the literary journal Yochani, was met with critical acclaim; the poem was reprinted in his poetry collection Life of the Dead. In Haaretz he published the stories "Stubborn Dina" and "Pshishpsh", as well as the verse cycles "Party Song of the Wicked: An Idyll" and "Flawed People". Following Meir Wieseltier's invitations, he began in 1971 to publish stories and verse in the literary journal Exclamation Point: "The World of the Sycophantes" in 1973, "A Hunchback Finds a Prostitute" in 1976, "Life of the Dead" in 1981, others.
In 1967, Levin sent a radio play called Catch the Spy to a radio drama competition at Kol Israel, winning first prize. The show, under the direction of David Levin, was broadcast several times. Levin's translation into English won first prize in 1969 in a radio drama competition in Italy, it was published in the book Finale. In 1967–70, Levin devoted himself to political satire. In March 1968 he began working on a cabaret show entitled You, Me and the Next War, with Edna Shavit; the show was mounted in August 1968 at the Bar-Barim club in Tel Aviv by four of Shavit's students from the theatre department at Tel Aviv University: Bat-Sheva Zeisler, Shifra Milstein, Gad Keynar and Rami Peleg. Danny Tracz was the producer. Next, Levin wrote. Under the direction of his brother, David, it was performed in the basement of the Satirical Cabaret in Tel Aviv in March 1969. In these two works, Levin mocked Israeli military pathos, the impotence and complacency of Israel's politicians, presented a macabre treatment of bereavement.
The criticism directed at Levin following You, Me and the Next War and Ketchup deepened after the premiere of his third political play, Queen of a Bathtub, produced by the Cameri Theater in April 1970. David Levin directed the controversial play, which made pointed use of vulgarity, contained provocative sketches such as "The Binding" in which Isaac begs his father Abraham not to hesitate to slaughter him, "The Courting" which mocks Israeli volubility and arrogance; because it was presented on the stage of an established theater, the play aroused an unprecedented storm of public opinion. Viewers made a disturbance during the performances; the National Religious Party demanded censorship of a song that, in its opinion, profaned the honor of the Bible. The government threatened to withdraw its financial support from the theater; the criticism further addressed the play itself: "a combination of flawed dialogues and ditties attempting to toss salt on our open wounds". In spite of Levin's objections, the theater's management decided, in the wake of these outraged responses, to close the show after only nineteen performances.
Levin's first "artistic" play was the comedy Solomon Grip, which premiered in May 1969 at the Open Theater under direction of Hillel Ne'eman. He achieved his first great public success with his next comedy, mounted on the stage of the Haifa Theater in March 1972, directed by Oded Kotler; this play had been passed up by the Cameri and Habima. His next play, Ya'akobi and Leidental, the first that Levin directed, was first presented in December 1972 at the Cameri Theater. During the 1970s, he co
Nathan Zach is an Israeli poet. Born in Berlin, Zach immigrated to what was known as Palestine in 1936 and served in the IDF as an intelligence clerk during the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. In 1955, he published his first collection of poetry, translated numerous German plays for the Hebrew stage. Zach immigrated to Haifa as a child. At the vanguard of a group of poets who began to publish after Israel's establishment, Zach has had a great influence on the development of modern Hebrew poetry as editor and critic, as well as translator and poet. Distinguishing him among the poets of the generation of the 1950s and 1960s is his poetic manifesto Zeman veRitmus etsel Bergson uvaShira haModernit. Zach has been one of the most important innovators in Hebrew poetry since the 1950s, he is well known in Israel for his translations of the poetry of Else Lasker-Schüler and Allen Ginsberg. Zach's essay, “Thoughts on Alterman’s Poetry,”, published in the magazine Achshav in 1959 was an important manifesto for the rebellion of the Likrat group against the lyrical pathos of the Zionist poets, as it included an unusual attack on Nathan Alterman, one of the most important and esteemed poets in the country.
In the essay Zach decides upon new rules for poetry. The new rules that Zach presented were different from the rules of rhyme and meter which were customary in the nation’s poetry at the time. From 1960 to 1967, Zach lectured in several institutes of higher education both in Tel Aviv and Haifa. From 1968 to 1979 he completed his PhD at the University of Essex. After returning to Israel, he lectured at Tel Aviv University and was appointed professor at the University of Haifa, he has been chairman of the repertoire board of both the Cameri theaters. Internationally acclaimed, Zach has been called "the most articulate and insistent spokesman of the modernist movement in Hebrew poetry", he is one of the best known Israeli poets abroad. In 1982, Zach was awarded the Bialik Prize for literature. In 1993, he was awarded the Feronia Prize. In 1995, he was awarded the Israel Prize for Hebrew poetry. In July 2010 Zach was interviewed on Israel's Channel 10 and accused Sephardic Jews from Muslim countries of having an inferior culture to that of Jews from Europe.
The one lot comes from the highest culture there is — Western European culture — and the other lot comes from the caves." The racist comments resulted in a petition to remove his work from the educational curriculum and remove him from any academic positions. List of Israel Prize recipients List of Bialik Prize recipients Admiel Kosman: On terms of Time and the Theological perception of Zach: Reading the Poem ‘Ani Rotze Tamid Eynayim`, in Dorit Weissman, Makom LeShirah: http://www.poetryplace.org/index.php/online-magazine/-2011/gilayon-42/807
Clarence Malcolm Lowry was an English poet and novelist, best known for his 1947 novel Under the Volcano, voted No. 11 in the Modern Library 100 Best Novels list. Lowry was born in New Brighton, Wirral, UK the fourth son of Evelyn Boden and Arthur Lowry, a cotton broker with roots in Cumberland, he was educated at St Catharine's College, Cambridge. In 1912, the family moved to Caldy on another part of the Wirral peninsula, their home was a mock Tudor estate on two acres with a tennis court, small golf course and a maid, a cook and a nanny. Lowry was said to have felt neglected by his mother, was closest to his brother, he began drinking alcohol at the age of 14. At age 15 Lowry won the junior golf championship at Hoylake, his father expected him to go to Cambridge and enter the family business, but Malcolm wanted to experience the world and convinced his father to let him work as a deckhand on a tramp steamer to the Far East. In May 1927 his parents drove him to the Liverpool waterfront and, while the local press watched, waved goodbye as he set sail on the freighter S.
S. Pyrrhus; the five months at sea gave him stories to incorporate into Ultramarine. In autumn 1929 he enrolled at Cambridge to placate his parents, he spent little time at the university, but excelled in writing, graduating in 1931 with a 3rd class honours degree in English. During his first term, his roommate, Paul Fitte, took his own life. Fitte had wanted a homosexual relationship. Lowry was haunted by it for the rest of his life; the twin obsessions which would dominate his life and literature, were in place. Lowry was well travelled. After Cambridge, Lowry lived in London, existing on the fringes of the vibrant Thirties literary scene and meeting Dylan Thomas, among others, he met Jan Gabriel, in Spain. They were married in France in 1934. Theirs was a turbulent union due to his drinking, because she resented homosexuals' attraction to her husband. After an estrangement, Lowry followed Jan to New York City where incoherent after an alcohol-induced breakdown, he checked into Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital in 1936 — experiences which became the basis of his novella Lunar Caustic.
When the authorities began to take notice of him, he fled to avoid deportation, went to Hollywood, where he tried screenwriting. At about that time he began writing Under the Volcano. Lowry and Jan moved to Mexico, arriving in the city of Cuernavaca on 2 November 1936, the Day of the Dead, in a final attempt to salvage their marriage. Lowry continued to drink though he devoted more energy to his writing; the effort to save their marriage failed. Jan saw that he wanted a mother figure, she did not want to mother him, she ran off with another man in late 1937. Alone in Oaxaca, Lowry entered into another period of dark alcoholic excess, culminating in his deportation from Mexico in the summer of 1938, his family put him in the Hotel Normandie in Los Angeles. He continued working on his novel, met his second wife, the actress and writer Margerie Bonner. In August Lowry moved to Vancouver, British Columbia, leaving his manuscript behind. Margerie moved up to Vancouver, bringing his manuscript, the following year they married.
At first, they lived in an attic apartment in the city. When World War II broke out, Lowry was rejected. Correspondence between Lowry and Canada's Governor-General Lord Tweedsmuir during this time resulted in Lowry's writing several articles for the Vancouver Province newspaper; the couple lived and wrote in a squatter's shack on the beach near the community of Maplewood in British Columbia, north of Vancouver. In 1944, the beach shack was destroyed by a fire, Lowry was injured in his efforts to save manuscripts. Margerie was an positive influence, editing Lowry's work skillfully and making sure that he ate as well as drank; the couple travelled to Europe and the Caribbean, while Lowry continued to drink this seems to have been a peaceful and productive period. It lasted until 1954, when a final nomadic period ensued, embracing New York and other places. During their travels to Europe, Lowry twice attempted to strangle Margerie, he lived in Canada for much of his active writing career, is thus considered a significant figure in Canadian literature.
He won the Governor General's Award for English-language fiction in 1961 for his posthumous collection Hear Us O Lord from Heaven Thy Dwelling Place. Lowry died in June 1957, in a rented cottage in the village of Ripe, where he was living with wife Margerie after having returned to England in 1955, ill and impoverished; the coroner's verdict was death by misadventure, the causes of death given as inhalation of stomach contents, barbiturate poisoning, excessive consumption of alcohol. It has been suggested. Inconsistencies in the accounts given by his wife at various times about what happened on the night of his death have given rise to suspicions of murder. Lowry is buried in the churchyard of St John the Baptist in Ripe. Lowry reputedly wrote his own epitaph: "Here lies Malcolm Lowry, late of the Bowery, whose prose was flowery, glowery, he lived nightly, drank daily, died playing the ukulele," but the epitaph