The Marshall Islands the Republic of the Marshall Islands, is an island country and a United States associated state near the equator in the Pacific Ocean west of the International Date Line. Geographically, the country is part of the larger island group of Micronesia; the country's population of 53,158 people is spread out over 29 coral atolls, comprising 1,156 individual islands and islets. The islands share maritime boundaries with the Federated States of Micronesia to the west, Wake Island to the north, Kiribati to the southeast, Nauru to the south. About 27,797 of the islanders live on Majuro. Data from the United Nations indicates an estimated population in 2016 of 53,066. In 2016, 73.3% of the population were defined as being "urban". The UN indicates a population density of 295 per km2 and its projected 2020 population is 53,263. Micronesian colonists reached the Marshall Islands using canoes circa 2nd millennium BC, with interisland navigation made possible using traditional stick charts.
They settled here. Islands in the archipelago were first explored by Europeans in the 1520s, starting with Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese at the service of Spain, Juan Sebastián Elcano and Miguel de Saavedra. Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar reported sighting an atoll in August 1526. Other expeditions by Spanish and English ships followed; the islands derive their name from British explorer John Marshall, who visited in 1788. The islands were known by the inhabitants as "jolet jen Anij". Spain claimed the islands in 1592, the European powers recognized its sovereignty over the islands in 1874, they had been part of the Spanish East Indies formally since 1528. Spain sold some of the islands to the German Empire in 1885, they became part of German New Guinea that year, run by the trading companies doing business in the islands the Jaluit Company. In World War I the Empire of Japan occupied the Marshall Islands, which in 1920, the League of Nations combined with other former German territories to form the South Pacific Mandate.
During World War II, the United States took control of the islands in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign in 1944. Nuclear testing began in 1946 and concluded in 1958; the US government formed the Congress of Micronesia in 1965, a plan for increased self-governance of Pacific islands. The Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1979 provided independence to the Marshall Islands, whose constitution and president were formally recognized by the US. Full sovereignty or Self-government was achieved in a Compact of Free Association with the United States. Marshall Islands has been a member of the Pacific Community since 1983 and a United Nations member state since 1991. Politically, the Marshall Islands is a presidential republic in free association with the United States, with the US providing defense and access to U. S.-based agencies such as the Federal Communications Commission and the United States Postal Service. With few natural resources, the islands' wealth is based on a service economy, as well as some fishing and agriculture.
The country uses the United States dollar as its currency. In 2018, it announced plans for a new cryptocurrency to be used as legal tender; the majority of the citizens of the Republic of Marshall Islands, formed in 1982, are of Marshallese descent, though there are small numbers of immigrants from the United States, China and other Pacific islands. The two official languages are Marshallese, one of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, English; the entire population of the islands practices some religion, with three-quarters of the country either following the United Church of Christ – Congregational in the Marshall Islands or the Assemblies of God. Evidence suggests that around 3,000 years ago successive waves of human migrants from Southeast Asia spread across the Western Pacific populating its many small islands; the Marshall Islands were settled by Micronesians in the 2nd millennium BC. Little is known of the islands' early history. Early settlers traveled between the islands by canoe using traditional stick charts.
The Spanish explorer Alonso de Salazar landed there in 1526, the archipelago came to be known as "Los Pintados", "Las Hermanas" and "Los Jardines" within the Spanish Empire, first falling within the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, to be administered directly by Madrid upon the independence of Latin America and the dissolution of New Spain starting in 1821. They were only formally possessed by Spain for much of their colonial history, were considered part of the "Carolines", or alternatively the "Nuevas Filipinas"; the islands were left to their own affairs except for short-lived religious missions during the 16th and 17th centuries. They were ignored by European powers except for cartographic demarcation treaties between the Iberian Empires in 1529, 1750 and 1777; the archipelago corresponding to the present-day country was independently named by Krusenstern, after British explorer John Marshall, who visited them together with Thomas Gilbert in 1788, en route from Botany Bay to Canton (two s
Pandanus is a genus of monocots with some 750 accepted species. They are palm-like, dioecious shrubs native to the Old World tropics and subtropics. Common names include pandan, screw palm, screw pine, they are classified in family Pandanaceae. Called pandanus palms, these plants are not related to palm trees; the species vary in size from small shrubs less than 1 m tall, to medium-sized trees 20 m tall with a broad canopy, heavy fruit, moderate growth rate. The trunk is stout, wide-branching, ringed with many leaf scars. Mature plants can have branches. Depending on the species, the trunk can be rough, or warty; the roots form a pyramidal tract to hold the trunk. They have many thick stilt roots near the base, which provide support as the tree grows top-heavy with leaves and branches; these roots are adventitious and branched. The top of the plant has one or more crowns of strap-shaped leaves that may be spiny, varying between species from 30 cm to 2 m or longer, from 1.5 cm up to 10 cm broad. They are dioecious, with male and female flowers produced on different plants.
The flowers of the male tree are 2 -- 3 cm fragrant, surrounded by narrow, white bracts. The female tree produces flowers with round fruits that are bract-surrounded; the individual fruit is a drupe, these merge to varying degrees forming multiple fruit, a globule structure, 10–20 cm in diameter and have many prism-like sections, resembling the fruit of the pineapple. The fruit changes from green to bright orange or red as it matures; the fruits can stay on the tree for more than 12 months. These plants grow from sea level to 3,300 m. Pandanus trees are of cultural and economic importance in the Pacific, second only to the coconut on atolls, they grow wild in semi-natural vegetation in littoral habitats throughout the tropical and subtropical Pacific, where they can withstand drought, strong winds, salt spray. They propagate from seed, but popular cultivars are widely propagated from branch cuttings by local people. Species growing on exposed coastal headlands and along beaches have thick'stilt roots' as anchors in the loose sand.
Those stilt roots emerge from the stem close to but above the ground, which helps to keep the plants upright and secure them to the ground. While pandanus are distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical islands and coastlines of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, they are most numerous on the low islands and barren atolls of Polynesia and Micronesia. Other species are adapted to mountain habitats and riverine forests; the tree is propagated from shoots that form spontaneously in the axils of lower leaves. Pandanus fruits are eaten by animals including bats, rats and elephants, but the vast majority of species are dispersed by water, its fruit can spread to other islands without help from humans. Pandanus leaves are used for handicrafts. Artisans collect the leaves from plants in the wild, cutting only mature leaves so that the plant will regenerate; the leaves are sorted for further processing. Weavers produce basic pandan mats of standard size or roll the leaves into pandan ropes for other designs.
This is followed by a coloring process, in which pandan mats are placed in drums with water-based colors. After drying, the colored mats are shaped into final products, such as placemats or jewelry boxes. Final color touch-ups may be applied. Pandan leaves from Pandanus amaryllifolius are used in Southeast Asian and South Asian cuisines to add a distinct aroma to various dishes and to complement flavors like chocolate; because of their similarity in usage, pandan leaves are sometimes referred to as the "vanilla of Asia." Fresh leaves are torn into strips, tied in a knot to facilitate removal, placed in the cooking liquid removed at the end of cooking. Dried leaves and bottled extract may be bought in some places. Pandan leaves are known as daun pandan in Malay. In Southeast Asia, pandan leaves are used in sweets such as coconut jam and pandan cake. In Indonesia and Malaysia, pandan is added to rice and curry dishes such as nasi lemak. In the Philippines, pandan leaves are paired with coconut meat in various desserts and drinks like maja blanca and gulaman.
In Indian cooking, the leaf is added whole to biryani, a kind of rice pilaf, made with ordinary rice. The basis for this use is that both basmati and pandan leaf contains the same aromatic flavoring ingredient, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline. In Sri Lanka, pandan leaves are a major ingredient used in the country's cuisine. Kewra is an extract distilled from the pandan flower, used to flavor drinks and desserts in Indian cuisine. Kewra or kevada is used in religious worship, the leaves are used to make hair ornaments worn for their fragrance as well as decorative purpose in western India. Species with large and medium fruit are edible, notably the many cultivated forms of P. tectorius and P. utilis. The fruit is cooked. Small-fruited pandanus may be astringent. Karuka nuts are an important staple food in New Guinea. Over 45 cultivated varieties are known. Entire households will move, in some areas will speak a pandanus language at
Utirik Atoll or Utrik Atoll is a coral atoll of 10 islands in the Pacific Ocean, forms a legislative district of the Ratak Chain of the Marshall Islands. Its total land area is only 2.4 square kilometres, but it encloses a lagoon with an area of 57.7 square kilometres. It is located 47 kilometres east of Ujae Atoll; the population of Utirik Atoll is 435 as of 2011. It is one of the northernmost Marshall Islands with permanent habitation; the larger islets are: Utirik Aon Bikrak Pike Āllok Nalap Its first recorded sighting was by the Spanish navigator Álvaro de Saavedra on board of the ship Florida on 29 December 1527. Together with Rongelap and Toke atolls, they were charted as Islas de los Reyes due to the proximity of Epiphany. Utirik Atoll was claimed by the Empire of Germany along with the rest of the Marshall Islands in 1884. After World War I, the island came under the South Pacific Mandate of the Empire of Japan. Following the end of World War II, Utirik came under the control of the United States as part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.
Utirik was one of four atolls affected by nuclear fallout from Castle Bravo, the largest of the many nuclear weapon tests conducted at Bikini Atoll following World War II. Research is still being done to ascertain the radiation levels, though many scientists agree that there is no harmful effect from the radiation still present; the island has been part of the independent Republic of the Marshall Islands since 1986. Marshall Islands Public School System operates Utrik Elementary School. Northern Islands High School on Wotje serves the community. Contaminated by Castle Bravo test: Rongelap Atoll, Ailinginae Atoll, Rongerik Atoll Marshall Islands site Entry at Oceandots.com at the Wayback Machine Video: Glimpse of Utrik Atoll
German New Guinea
German New Guinea consisted of the northeastern part of the island of New Guinea and several nearby island groups and was the first part of the German colonial empire. The mainland part of the territory, called Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, became a German protectorate in 1884. Other island groups were added subsequently. New Pomerania, the Bismarck Archipelago, the northern Solomon Islands were declared a German protectorate in 1885. Following the outbreak of the First World War in 1914, Kaiser-Wilhelmsland and nearby islands fell to Australian forces, while Japan occupied most of the remaining German possessions in the Pacific; the mainland part of German New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and the North Solomon Islands are now part of Papua New Guinea. The Micronesian islands of German New Guinea are now governed as the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands. Nauru, the Northern Mariana Islands and Palau are independent countries; the islands to the east of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, on annexation, were renamed the Bismarck Archipelago and the two largest islands renamed Neu-Pommern and Neu-Mecklenburg.
Due to their accessibility by water, these outlying islands were, have remained, the most economically viable part of the territory. With the exception of German Samoa, the German islands in the Western Pacific formed the "Imperial German Pacific Protectorates"; these were administered as part of German New Guinea and included the German Solomon Islands, the Carolines, the Marianas, the Marshall Islands, Nauru. The total land area of German New Guinea was 249,500 square kilometres; the first Germans in the South Pacific were sailors on the crew of ships of the Dutch East India Company: during Abel Tasman's first voyage, the captain of the Heemskerck was one Holleman, born in Jever in northwest Germany. Hanseatic League merchant houses were the first to establish footholds in the South Pacific: Johann Cesar Godeffroy & Sohn of Hamburg, headquartered at Samoa from 1857, operated a South Seas network of trading stations dominating the copra trade and carrying German immigrants to various South Pacific settlements.
By the end of 1875, one German trader reported: "German trade and German ships are encountered everywhere at the exclusion of any other nation". In the late 1870s and early 1880s, an active minority, stemming from a right-wing National Liberal and Free Conservative background, had organised various colonial societies all over Germany to persuade Chancellor Bismarck to embark on a colonial policy; the most important ones were the Kolonialverein of 1882 and the Society for German Colonization founded in 1884. The reasons for Bismarck's lack of enthusiasm when it came to the subject of Germany's colonial possessions is reflected in his curt response in 1888 to the procolonial, expansionist remarks of Eugen Wolf, reflected in the latter's autobiography. After Bismarck had patiently listened to Wolf enthusiastically laying out his plans that he sought to pitch employing several illustrative maps, Bismarck interrupted his monologue: Your map of Africa there is nice I have to admit, but you know, my map of Africa is here... in Europe.
You see. And us, we are here – right in the middle between those two. That's my map of Africa. Despite his personal objections, it was Bismarck himself who organised the acquisition of much of what would become the German colonial empire; the first attempts at the new policy came in 1884 when Bismarck had to put German trading interests in southwestern Africa under imperial protection. Bismarck told the Reichstag on 23 June 1884 of the change in German colonial policy: annexations would now proceed but by grants of charters to private companies; the edition of 27 November 1882 of the Augsburger Allgemeine Zeitung carried an article which the Colonial Secretary of the British colony of New South Wales drew to the attention of the editor of the Sydney Morning Herald and, on 7 February 1883, the paper published a summary of the article under the heading German annexation of New Guinea. The argument lifted from the German paper began by stating that New Guinea fell into the Australian sphere but had been neglected.
Recent explorations had given the basis for reconsideration: it "is considered useful by geology and biology people as holding in its forests the key to solve problems... a profitable field for cultivation" but London had only sent missionaries to save souls. "As we Germans have learnt a little about conducting colonial policy, as our wishes and plans turn with a certain vivacity towards New Guinea... according to our opinion it might be possible to create out of the island a German Java, a great trade and plantation colony, which would form a stately foundatio
Miguel López de Legazpi
Miguel López de Legazpi known as El Adelantado and El Viejo, was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expedition crossed the Pacific Ocean from the Viceroyalty of New Spain in modern-day Mexico, arrived in Cebu of the Philippine Islands, 1565. He was the first Governor-General of the Spanish East Indies which included the Philippines and other Pacific archipelagos, namely Guam and the Marianas Islands. After obtaining peace with various indigenous nations and kingdoms, he made Manila the capital of the Spanish East Indies in 1571; the capital city of the province of Albay bears his name. In 1528, Hernán Cortés established settlements in North America and López de Legazpi traveled to Mexico to start a new life; this was due to the death of his parents and his dissatisfaction with his eldest sibling, who inherited the family fortune. In Tlaxcala, he worked with Isabel Garcés. López de Legazpi would go on to have nine children with her.
Isabel died in the mid-1550s. Between 1528 and 1559 he worked as a leader of the financial department council and as the civil governor of Mexico City. In 1564, López de Legazpi was commissioned by the viceroy, Luis de Velasco, to lead an expedition in the Pacific Ocean, to find the Spice Islands where the earlier explorers Ferdinand Magellan and Ruy López de Villalobos had landed in 1521 and 1543, respectively; the expedition was ordered by King Philip II of Spain, after whom the Philippines had earlier been named by Ruy López de Villalobos. The viceroy died in July 1564, but the Audiencia and López de Legazpi completed the preparations for the expedition. On November 19 or 20, 1564, five ships and 500 soldiers, sailed from the port of Barra de Navidad, New Spain, in what is now Jalisco state, Mexico. Members of the expedition included six Augustinian missionaries, in addition to Fr. Andrés de Urdaneta, who served as navigator and spiritual adviser, Melchor de Legazpi, Felipe de Salcedo, Guido de Lavezarez.
López de Legazpi and his men sailed the Pacific Ocean for 93 days. In 1565, they landed in the Mariana Islands, where they anchored and replenished their supplies. There they burned several huts. A chief of Bohol island named Catunao gave information to Miguel Lopez of Cebu, accompanied Lopez as a guide. López de Legazpi's expedition anchored off the Indianized Rajahnate of Cebu on February 13, 1565, but did not put ashore due to opposition from natives. On February 22, 1565 the expedition reached the island of Samar and made a blood compact with Datu Urrao; the Spaniards proceeded to Limasawa and were received by Datu Bankaw to Bohol, where they befriended Datu Sikatuna and Rajah Sigala. On March 16, Legazpi made a blood compact with Datu Sikatuna. On April 27, 1565, the expedition landed there. Rajah Tupas were overpowered by them; the Spaniards established a colony, naming the settlements "Villa del Santisimo Nombre de Jesús" after an image of Sto. Niño in one of the native houses. In 1569, due to a scarcity of food provisions in Cebu, Legazpi transferred to Panay town on the island of Panay, where they were peacefully welcomed by the people in the Kedatuan of Madja-as.
Subsequently, they founded a second settlement named Capiz and now the city of Roxas in Capiz province, located on the bank of the Panay River. In 1570, Legazpi sent Juan de Salcedo, his grandson who had arrived from Mexico in 1567, to Mindoro to punish the Muslim Moro pirates, plundering Panay villages. Salcedo destroyed forts on the islands of Ilin and Lubang South and Northwest of Mindoro In 1570, having heard of the rich resources in Luzon, Legazpi dispatched Martín de Goiti to explore the northern region. Landing in Batangas with a force of 120 Spaniards, de Goiti explored the Pansipit River, which drains Taal Lake. On May 8, they arrived in Manila Bay. There, they were welcomed by the natives. Goiti's soldiers camped there for a few weeks while forming an alliance with the Muslim leader, Rajah Ache, a vassal under the Sultan of Brunei. Legazpi wanted to use Manila's harbor as a base for trade with China. However, the Rajah's ally in northern shores of Manila Bay known as the young Bambalito of Macabebe, asked Rajah Soliman to revoke his alliance with the Spaniards.
Rajah Matanda refused because of the "word of honor" of the Spaniards. Rajah Soliman had his conditions for Bambalito that if they were able to kill as least 50 Spaniards, he would revoke his alliance with Legazpi, the old ache would help to expel the conquerors. Bambalito rode back to Macabebe and formed a fleet of two thousand five hundred moros consisting of soldiers from the villages along Manila Bay from Macabebe and Hagonoy. On May 30, 1570, Bambalito sailed to Tondo with Caracoas and encountered the Spaniards at Bangkusay Channel, headed by Martin de Goiti on June 3, 1571. Bambalito and his fleet had lost the battle, after disputes and hostility had erupted between the two groups, the Spaniards occupied the Islamized states of Tondo and Maynila. Manila was prepared by Goiti for Legazpi. In the same year, more reinforcements arrived in the Philippines, prompting López de Legazpi to leave Cebu for Panay and for Luzon, he recruited 250 Spanish soldiers and 600 native warriors to e
Pacific Proving Grounds
The Pacific Proving Grounds was the name given by the United States government to a number of sites in the Marshall Islands and a few other sites in the Pacific Ocean at which it conducted nuclear testing between 1946 and 1962. The U. S. tested a nuclear weapon on Bikini Atoll on June 30, 1946. This was followed by Baker on July 24, 1946. On July 18, 1947, the United States secured an agreement with the United Nations to govern the islands of Micronesia as the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, a strategic trusteeship territory; this is the only such trusteeship granted by the United Nations. The Trust Territory comprised about 2,000 islands spread over 3,000,000 square miles of the North Pacific Ocean. Five days the United States Atomic Energy Commission established the Pacific Proving Grounds; the United States conducted 105 atmospheric and underwater nuclear tests in the Pacific, many of which were of high yield. While the Marshall Islands testing composed 14% of all U. S. tests, it composed nearly 80% of the total yields of those detonated by the U.
S. with an estimated total yield of around 210 megatons, with the largest being the 15 Mt Castle Bravo shot of 1954 which spread considerable nuclear fallout on many of the islands, including several which were inhabited, some that had not been evacuated. Many of the islands which were part of the Pacific Proving Grounds are still contaminated from the nuclear fallout, many of those who were living on the islands at the time of testing have suffered from an increased incidence of various health problems. Through the Radiation Exposure Compensation Act of 1990, at least $759 million has been paid to Marshall Islanders as compensation for their exposure to U. S. nuclear testing. Following the Castle Bravo accident, the U. S. paid $15.3 million to Japan. Scientists have calculated that the residents of the Marshall Islands during their lifetimes will be diagnosed with an added 1.6% cancers attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. The cancers are the consequence of exposure to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 years.
On July 18, 1947, the United States convinced the United Nations to designate the islands of Micronesia as the Strategic Trust Territory. This was the only trust granted by the U. N; the directive stated that the United States should "promote the economic advancement and self-sufficiency of the inhabitants, to this end shall... protect the inhabitants against the loss of their lands and resources..."The United States Navy controlled the Trust from a headquarters in Guam until 1951, when the United States Department of the Interior took over control, administering the territory from a base in Saipan. Despite the promise to "protect the inhabitants", from July 1946 through July 1947, the residents of Bikini Atoll, relocated to Rongerik Atoll were starving for lack of food. A team of U. S. investigators concluded in late 1947. Press from around the world harshly criticized the U. S. Navy for ignoring the people. Harold Ickes, a syndicated columnist, wrote "The natives are and starving to death." The islanders were moved again to Kili Island, not surrounded by a reef.
The island does not support the inhabitants' traditional way of life. Because of the large amount of atmospheric testing, the Castle Bravo accident of 1954, many of the islands which were part of the Pacific Proving Grounds are still contaminated by nuclear fallout. Many of the island inhabitants at the time of testing suffered from increased incidence of various types of cancers and birth defects. Scientists calculated in 2010 that during the lifetimes of members of the Marshall Islands population exposed to ionizing radiation from weapons test fallout deposited during the testing period and from residual radioactive sources during the subsequent 12 years 1.6% of all cancers might be attributable to fallout-related radiation exposures. By sub-population, the projected proportion of cancers attributable to radiation from fallout from all nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands is 55% among 82 persons exposed in 1954 on Rongelap Atoll and Ailinginae Atoll, 10% for 157 persons exposed on Utirik Atoll, 2.2% and 0.8% for the much larger populations exposed in mid-latitude locations including Kwajalein and in southern locations including Majuro.
Since 1956, the U. S. has paid at least $759 million to Marshall Islanders as compensation for their exposure to U. S. nuclear testing. Following the Castle Bravo accident on March 1, 1954, the U. S. paid $15.3 million to Japan. In June 1983, the U. S. and the Marshall islanders signed the Compact of Free Association, which gave the Marshall Islands independence. The Compact became effective in 1986 and was subsequently modified by the Amended Compact that became effective in 2004, it established the Nuclear Claims Tribunal, given the task of adjudicating compensation for victims and families affected by the nuclear testing program. Section 177 of the compact provided for reparations to the Bikini islanders and other northern atolls for damages, it included $150 million to be paid over a 15-year period ending in 2001. During that time, payments averaging about $18 million per year were made to the peoples of Bikini, Enewetak and Utrik for medical and radiological monitoring, in response to claims.
The payments began in 1987 with $2.4 mil