1980 Canadian federal election
The 1980 Canadian federal election was held on February 18, 1980, to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 32nd Parliament of Canada. It was called when the minority Progressive Conservative government led by Prime Minister Joe Clark was defeated in the Commons. Clark and his government had been under attack for its perceived inexperience, for example, in its handling of its 1979 election campaign commitment to move Canada's embassy in Israel from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem. Clark had maintained uneasy relations with the fourth largest party in the House of Commons, Social Credit. While he needed the six votes that the conservative-populist Quebec-based party had in order to get legislation passed, he was unwilling to agree to the conditions they imposed for their support. Clark had managed to Richard Janelle, to join the PC caucus. Clark's Minister of Finance, John Crosbie, introduced an austere government budget in late 1979 that proposed to increase the excise tax on gasoline by 18¢ per Imperial gallon to reduce the federal government's deficit.
The New Democratic Party's finance critic, Bob Rae, proposed a subamendment to the budget motion, stating that the House of Commons did not approve of the budget. The five remaining Social Credit MPs abstained, upset that the revenues from the increased gas tax were not allocated to Quebec. In addition, one Tory MP was too ill to attend the vote while two others were abroad on official business. Meanwhile, the Liberals assembled all but one member of their caucus going as far as to bring in several bedridden MPs by ambulance. Rae's subamendment was adopted by a vote of 139–133, bringing down the government and forcing a new election. Former Liberal prime minister Pierre Trudeau had announced his resignation as leader of the Liberal Party following its defeat in 1979. However, no leadership convention had been held. Trudeau rescinded his resignation and led the party to victory, winning 33 more seats than in the 1979 federal election; this enabled the Liberals to form a majority government. Clark's Tories campaigned under the slogan, "Real change deserves a fair chance", but the voters were unwilling to give Clark another chance.
The loss of the budget vote just seven months into his mandate and his subsequent defeat in the February 18 general election would result in his ouster as leader by Brian Mulroney three years later. The Socreds' abstention on the crucial budget vote contributed to the growing perception that the party had become irrelevant following the death of iconic leader Réal Caouette. Social Credit lost all of its seats; the party declined into obscurity after this election, though it nominally continued to exist until 1993. The new house was regionally polarized. While the Liberals were shut out west of Manitoba, the Tories won only 14 seats east of Ontario. Voter turn-out was 69.3%. Notes: "% change" refers to change from previous election. Changes to party standings from previous election: Social Credit MP Richard Janelle crossed the floor to join the PC Party. PC MP John Diefenbaker died during the parliamentary session. A New Democrat was elected in the subsequent by-election. Xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote.
Number of parties: 9 First appearance: none Final appearance: Union populaire Final appearance before hiatus: Marxist–Leninist Party of Canada List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in Canada 33rd Canadian ParliamentArticles on parties' candidates in this election: Independent Liberal Libertarian New Democrats Progressive Conservative Rhinoceros Riding map The Elections of 1979 and 1980, by Robert Bothwell
1981 Ontario general election
The Ontario general election of 1981 was held on March 19, 1981, to elect members of the 32nd Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, Canada. The governing Ontario Progressive Conservative Party, led by William Davis, was re-elected for a twelfth consecutive term in office; the PCs won a majority government after winning only minorities in the 1975 and 1977 elections. The Liberal Party, led by Stuart Smith, was able to maintain its standing in the Legislature, while the New Democratic Party, led by Michael Cassidy, lost a significant number of seats, allowing the Tories to win a majority. 1 Includes T. Patrick Reid, a Liberal MPP, re-elected in 1977 as a Liberal-Labour candidate. In 1981 he was re-elected as a straight Liberal. A number of unregistered parties fielded candidates in this election. There were a number of Rhinoceros Party candidates in the Toronto area, the party may have fielded candidates elsewhere in the province; the Workers Communist Party a single candidate, Judy Darcy.
Ronald G. Rodgers, founder of the Détente Party of Canada, contested a Toronto constituency. Social Credit leader Reg Gervais announced prior to the election that he planned to run in Nickel Belt, but could not follow through and resigned at a meeting of nominated candidates where John Turmel was appointed interim leader of the Ontario Social Credit Party during the campaign, though there has never been independent confirmation of this. Algoma: Bud Wildman 7096 Vyrn Peterson 4770 Dan Koob 1567Algoma—Manitoulin: John Lane 7160 Ernest Massicotte 2986 Peter Boychuk 2336Armourdale: Bruce McCaffrey 15938 Tim Rutledge 8997 Bob Hebdon 4240Beaches—Woodbine: Marion Bryden 9590 Paul Christie 9266 Wayne Cook 3140 Rhino Flosznik 252Bellwoods: Ross McClellan 5111 Walter Bardyn 4746 Tina Gabriel 2186 Sylvie Baillargeon 246 Ronald G. Rodgers 180Brampton: Bill Davis 24973 Bob Callahan 9391 David Moulton 6034 Jim Bridgewood 390Brantford: Phil Gillies 12847 Mac Makarchuk 9588 Herb German 5896Brant—Oxford—Haldimand: Robert Nixon 13067 Ian Birnie 6034 W.
E. Jefferies 2899Brock: Bob Welch 10547 Bill Andres 6882 Heather Lee Kilty 4204Burlington South: George Kerr 19037 Pearl Cameron 8953 Michael C. Wright 4942Cambridge: Bill Barlow 12597 Monty Davidson 11748 John Giles 4527 George Molson Barrett 549Carleton: Bob Mitchell 17846 Hans Daigeler 8621 Judy Wasylycia-Leis 5446 Andrew Dana Dynowski 383Carleton East: Bob MacQuarrie 15714 Bernard Grandmaitre 14028 Evelyn Gigantes 11579Carleton-Grenville: Norm Sterling 15202 Paul Raina 5764 Alan White 2391Chatham—Kent: Andy Watson 9471 Ron Franko 6508 Darcy Want 6466Cochrane North: René Piché 5910 Jean-Paul Bourgeault 5722 Emil Touchette 4426 Richard Coatsworth 274Cochrane South: Alan Pope 12540 John Sullivan 6975 Cliff Simpson 2777Cornwall: George Samis 9484 Jim Kirkey 7817 Brian Lynch 5333Don Mills: Dennis Timbrell 17516 Murad Velshi 5368 Michael Lee 4487Dovercourt: Tony Lupusella 5491 Gil Gillespie 5197 John Burigana 3416 Vince Corriero 258 Mel Doig 162Downsview: Odoardo Di Santo 8644 Joseph Volpe 7991 Ross Charles 5475Dufferin—Simcoe: George McCague 18101 Larry MacKenzie 6702 Ed Robinson 4007Durham East: Sam Cureatz 14900 Bruce McArthur 8648 Jim Potticary 7226 Jeff Hubbell 253Durham West: George Ashe 17029 Norman Wei 7446 Hugh Peacock 6578 Bill Leslie 1215Durham—York: Ross Stevenson 14404 Gary Adamson 6330 Margaret Wilbur 4314Eglinton: Roy McMurtry 17386 Keith Polson 5606 Eileen Elmy 3324 Angelo R. Cosentini 466Elgin: Ron McNeil 13119 Maurice Dillon 7306 Gord Campbell 3250Erie: Ray Haggerty 8796 Cam McKnight 5271 Barrie MacLeod 3586Essex North: Dick Ruston 9187 Marcel Lefebvre 5911 Ron Arkell 4812Essex South: Remo Mancini 10454 Wayne Patterson 5008 Blake Sanford 4349Etobicoke: Ed Philip 10373 Aileen Anderson 8024 Laureano Leone 7132Fort William: Mickey Hennessy 13038 Paul Lannon 7585 Mike Burns 3381Frontenac—Addington: J. Earl McEwen 10558 Murray Gorham 10218 Vincent Maloney 2374 Ross Baker 409 Sally Hayes 322Grey: Bob McKessock 13334 John Young 8793 Joan Stone 1629 Eric Biggins 284Grey—Bruce: Eddie Sargent 14006 Bob Rutherford 7767 Frank Butler 1455Haldimand—Norfolk: Gordon Miller 16254 Clarence Abbott 8775 Lois Berry 3744Halton—Burlington: Julian Reed 13395 Fran Baines 12877 Chris Cutler 3500Hamilton Centre: Sheila Copps 9734 Mike Davison 6930 Brenda Riis 4039Hamilton East: Robert W. Mackenzie 12773 Mike Riley 8365 Gabe Macaluso 6351Hamilton Mountain: Brian Charlton 11008 Duncan Beattie 10811 Vince Agro 8956Hamilton West: Stuart Smith 12106 Alec Murray 9788 Joy Warner 4255 Elizabeth Rowley 260Hastings—Peterborough: Jim Pollock 11528 Dave Hobson 8741 Elmer Buchanan 2968High Park—Swansea: Yuri Shymko 1147
The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, most pink-collar jobs. Members of the working class rely for their income upon their earnings from wage labour. In Marxist theory and socialist literature, the term working class is used interchangeably with the term proletariat and includes all workers who expend both physical and mental labour to produce economic value for the owners of the means of production; as with many terms describing social class, working class is defined and used in many different ways. The most general definition, used by Marxists and many socialists, is that the working class includes all those who have nothing to sell but their labour power and skills. In that sense it includes both white and blue-collar workers and mental workers of all types, excluding only individuals who derive their income from business ownership and the labour of others.
When used non-academically in the United States, however, it refers to a section of society dependent on physical labour when compensated with an hourly wage. For certain types of science, as well as less scientific or journalistic political analysis, for example, the working class is loosely defined as those without college degrees. Working-class occupations are categorized into four groups: unskilled labourers, artisans and factory workers. A common alternative, sometimes used in sociology, is to define class by income levels; when this approach is used, the working class can be contrasted with a so-called middle class on the basis of differential terms of access to economic resources, cultural interests, other goods and services. The cut-off between working class and middle class here might mean the line where a population has discretionary income, rather than sustenance; some researchers have suggested that working-class status should be defined subjectively as self-identification with the working-class group.
This subjective approach allows people, rather than researchers. In feudal Europe, the working class as such did not exist in large numbers. Instead, most people were part of the labouring class, a group made up of different professions and occupations. A lawyer and peasant were all considered to be part of the same social unit, a third estate of people who were neither aristocrats nor church officials. Similar hierarchies existed outside Europe in other pre-industrial societies; the social position of these labouring classes was viewed as ordained by natural law and common religious belief. This social position was contested by peasants, for example during the German Peasants' War. In the late 18th century, under the influence of the Enlightenment, European society was in a state of change, this change could not be reconciled with the idea of a changeless god-created social order. Wealthy members of these societies created ideologies which blamed many of the problems of working-class people on their morals and ethics.
In The Making of the English Working Class, E. P. Thompson argues that the English working class was present at its own creation, seeks to describe the transformation of pre-modern labouring classes into a modern, politically self-conscious, working class. Starting around 1917, a number of countries became ruled ostensibly in the interests of the working class; some historians have noted that a key change in these Soviet-style societies has been a massive a new type of proletarianization effected by the administratively achieved forced displacement of peasants and rural workers. Since four major industrial states have turned towards semi-market-based governance, one state has turned inwards into an increasing cycle of poverty and brutalization. Other states of this sort have either collapsed, or never achieved significant levels of industrialization or large working classes. Since 1960, large-scale proletarianization and enclosure of commons has occurred in the third world, generating new working classes.
Additionally, countries such as India have been undergoing social change, expanding the size of the urban working class. Karl Marx defined the working class or proletariat as individuals who sell their labour power for wages and who do not own the means of production, he argued. He asserted that the working class physically build bridges, craft furniture, grow food, nurse children, but do not own land, or factories. A sub-section of the proletariat, the lumpenproletariat, are the poor and unemployed, such as day labourers and homeless people. Marx considered them to be devoid of class consciousness. In The Communist Manifesto, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels argued that it was the destiny of the working class to displace the capitalist system, with the dictatorship of the proletariat, abolishing the social relationshi
Communist Party of Canada
The Communist Party of Canada is a communist political party in Canada founded in 1922. Although it is now a political party without any parliamentary representation, the party's candidates have been elected to the Parliament of Canada, the Ontario legislature, the Manitoba legislature, various municipal governments across the country; the party has contributed to trade union organizing and labour history in Canada and anti-war activism, many other social movements. The Communist Party of Canada is the second oldest active party after the Liberal Party of Canada. In 1993 the party was de-registered and had its assets seized, forcing it to begin a successful thirteen-year political and legal battle to maintain registration of small political parties in Canada; the campaign culminated with the final decision of Figueroa v. Canada, changing the legal definition of a political party in Canada. Despite its continued presence as a registered political party, the CPC places the vast majority of its emphasis on extra-parliamentary activity what it terms "the labour and people's movements", as reflected in its programme "Canada's Future is Socialism".
The Canadian Communist Party began as an illegal organization in a rural barn near the town of Guelph, Ontario, on May 28 and 29, 1921. Many of its founding members had worked as labour organizers and as anti-war activists and had belonged to groups such as the Socialist Party of Canada, One Big Union, the Socialist Labor Party, the Industrial Workers of the World, other socialist, Marxist, or Labour parties or clubs and organizations; the first members felt inspired by the Russian Revolution, radicalised by the negative aftermath of World War I and the fight to improve living standards and labour rights, including the experience of the Winnipeg General Strike. The Comintern accepted the party affiliation as its Canadian section in December 1921, thus it adopted a similar organizational structure and policy to Communist parties around the world; the party alternated between illegality during the 1920s and 1930s. Because of the War Measures Act in effect at its time of creation, the party operated as the "Workers' Party of Canada" in February, 1922 as its public face, in March began publication of a newspaper, The Worker.
When Parliament allowed the War Measures Act to lapse in 1924, the underground organization was dissolved and the party's name was changed to the Communist Party of Canada. The party's first actions included establishing a youth organization, the Young Communist League of Canada, solidarity efforts with the Soviet Union. By 1923 the party had raised over $64,000 for the Russian Red Cross, a large sum of money at that time, it initiated a Canadian component of the Trade Union Educational League which became an organic part of the labour movement with active groups in 16 of 60 labour councils and in mining and logging camps. By 1925 party membership stood at around 4,500 people, composed of miners and lumber workers, of railway and garment workers. Most of these people came from immigrant communities like Ukrainians; the party, working with the TUEL, played a role in many bitter strikes and difficult organizing drives, in support of militant industrial unionism. From 1922 to 1929, the provincial wings of the WPC/CPC affiliated with the Canadian Labour Party, another expression of the CPC's "united front" strategy.
The CLP operated as a federated labour party. The CPC came to lead the CLP organization in several regions of the country, including Quebec, did not run candidates during elections. In 1925 William Kolisnyk became the first communist elected to public office in North America, under the banner of the CLP in Winnipeg; the CLP itself, never became an effective national organization. The Communists withdrew from the CLP in 1928-1929 following a shift in Comintern policy, as the organization folded. From 1927 to 1929, the party went through a series of policy debates and internal ideological struggles in which advocates of the ideas of Leon Trotsky, as well as proponents of what the party called "North American Exceptionism", were expelled. Expellees included Maurice Spector, the editor of the party's paper The Worker and party chairman, Jack MacDonald who resigned as the party's general secretary for factionalism, was expelled; the Secretary of the Women's Bureau and general editor of the Woman Worker Florence Custance was only saved from expulsion from the Party due to her untimely death in 1929.
Her feminism and advocacy of birth control, for example, were well-known to the mainstream press, but her radical contemporaries questioned her political sympathies and gave her few chances to shine. MacDonald sympathetic to Trotskyist ideas, joined Spector in founding the International Left Opposition Canada, which formed part of Trotsky's so-called Fourth International Left Opposition; the party expelled supporters of Nikolai Bukharin and of Jay Lovestone's Right Opposition, such as William Moriarty. The communists disagreed over strategy, the socialist identity of the Soviet Union, over Canada's status as an imperialist power. While some communists like J. B. Salsberg expressed sympathy with these positions, after debates that dominated party conventions for a couple of years by the early 1930s, the vast majority of members had decided to continue with the party. Tim Buck won election as party general secretary in 1929, he remained in the position until 1962. The stock market crash in late 1929 signalled the beginning of a long and protracted economic crisis in Canada and internationally.
The crisis led to widespread unemployment, povert
1949 Canadian federal election
The Canadian federal election of 1949 was held on June 27 to elect members of the House of Commons of Canada of the 21st Parliament of Canada. It was the first election in Canada in thirty years in which the Liberal Party of Canada was not led by William Lyon Mackenzie King. King had retired in 1948, was replaced as Liberal leader and Prime Minister by Louis St. Laurent, it was the first federal election with Newfoundland voting, having joined Canada in March of that year, the first election since 1904 in which the parts of the Northwest Territories were granted representation. The Liberal Party was re-elected with its fourth consecutive government, winning just under 50% of the vote; this victory was the largest majority in Canadian history to that point and remains, by any measure, the largest-ever majority won by the Liberal Party. As of 2017, it remains the third largest majority government in Canadian history; the Progressive Conservative Party, led by former Premier of Ontario George Drew, gained little ground in this election.
Smaller parties, such as the social democratic Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, Social Credit, a party that advocated monetary reform, lost support to the Liberals, to a lesser extent, the Conservatives. Notes: * The party did not nominate candidates in the previous election. X - less than 0.005% of the popular vote xx - less than 0.05% of the popular vote List of Canadian federal general elections List of political parties in Canada 21st Canadian Parliament
Ontario New Democratic Party
The Ontario New Democratic Party is a social-democratic political party in Ontario, Canada. The Ontario NDP, led by Andrea Horwath since March 2009 forms the Official Opposition in Ontario following the 2018 general election, it is a provincial section of the federal New Democratic Party. It was formed in October 1961 from the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation and the Ontario Federation of Labour. For many years, the Ontario NDP was the most successful provincial NDP branch outside the national party's western heartland, it had its first breakthrough under its first leader, Donald C. MacDonald in the 1967 provincial election, when the party elected 20 Members of Provincial Parliament to the Ontario Legislative Assembly. After the 1970 leadership convention, Stephen Lewis became leader, guided the party to Official Opposition status in 1975, the first time since the Ontario CCF did it twice in the 1940s. After the party's disappointing performance in the 1977 provincial election, that included losing second party status, Lewis stepped down and Michael Cassidy was elected leader in 1978.
Cassidy led the party through the 1981 election. The party did poorly again, Cassidy resigned. In 1982, Bob Rae was elected leader. Under his leadership, in 1985, the party held the balance-of-power with the signing of an accord with the newly elected Liberal minority government. After the 1987 Ontario general election, the ONDP became the Official Opposition again; the 1990 Ontario general election produced the ONDP's breakthrough first government in 1990. The victory produced the first NDP provincial government east of Manitoba, but it took power just when Canada's economy was in a recession, as a result of unpopular economic policies it was defeated in 1995. Rae stepped down as leader in 1996. Howard Hampton was elected leader in at the 1996 Hamilton convention, led the party through three elections. Hampton's period as leader saw the ONDP lose official party status twice: after the 1999 and 2003 elections, he was able to regain party status the first time after the governing Progressive Conservatives revised party status requirements in accordance with that election's reduction in the number of seats in the legislature, the second time after winning a string of by-elections in the mid-2000s.
The party maintained party status after the 2007 Ontario general election and he stepped down as leader in 2009. Andrea Horwath replaced him after she was elected leader at the 2009 leadership convention in Hamilton. Under her leadership in the 2011 Ontario general election, the party elected 17 MPPs to the legislature and in the 2014 Ontario general election, the party elected 21 MPPs. Under Horwath, the party achieved its second highest seat count when it formed the Official Opposition with 40 MPPs after the 2018 Ontario general election; the NDP's predecessor, the Co-operative Commonwealth Federation, was a democratic socialist political party, founded in 1932. The Ontario CCF in turn was indirectly the successor to the 1919–23 United Farmers of Ontario–Labour coalition that formed the government in Ontario under Ernest C. Drury; as the Ontario Co-operative Commonwealth Federation under Ted Jolliffe as their first leader, the party nearly won the 1943 provincial election, winning 34 seats and forming the official opposition for the first time.
Two-years they would be reduced to 8 seats. The final glory for the Ontario CCF came in the 1948 provincial election, when party elected 21 MPPs, again formed the official opposition, they were able to defeat Premier George A. Drew in his own constituency, when the CCF's Bill Temple won in High Park though the Progressive Conservative Party of Ontario won another majority government; the breaking point for the Ontario CCF came in 1951. They were reduced to two MPP's in that year's provincial election, never recovered. In the two remaining elections while it existed, the party never had more than five members in the legislature. Jolliffe resigned as leader in 1953. Donald C. MacDonald became leader in 1953, spent the next fifteen years rebuilding the party, from two seats when he took over the party's helm, to ten times that number when he stepped down in 1970. Delegates from the Ontario CCF, delegates from affiliated union locals, delegates from New Party Clubs took part in the founding convention of the New Democratic Party of Ontario held in Niagara Falls at the Sheraton Brock hotel from 7–9 October 1961 and elected MacDonald as their leader.
The Ontario CCF Council ceased to exist formally on Sunday, 8 October 1961, when the newly elected NDP executive took over. The Ontario NDP picked up seats through the 1960s, it achieved a breakthrough in the 1967 provincial election, when its popular vote rose from 15% to 26%. The party increased its presence in the legislature from 8 to 20 seats. In that election the party ran on the themes of the cost of living, tax distribution, education costs, Canadian unity, housing. Stephen Lewis took over the party's leadership in 1970, the NDP's popularity continued to grow. With the 1975 provincial election, the governing Progressive Conservative party was reduced to a minority government for the first time in thirty years; the charismatic and dynamic Lewis ran a strong election campaign that forced the Tories to promise to implement the NDP's rent control policies. The NDP overtook the Liberals to become the Official Opposition with 29 % of the vote. However, the Tories retained power as a minority government.
Hopes were high tha
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp