Ayer Keroh is a town situated in the state of Malacca, Malaysia. Ayer Keroh houses two main industrial areas which are the Ayer Keroh Industrial Area and Taman Tasik Utama Industrial Area. Ayer Keroh has become home to medical students from all over Malaysia as well as foreigners due to it being the location of Malacca-Manipal Medical College. Since its inception in 1997, it has produced many doctors who are serving the needs of their respective countries, it is the location of the Malacca campus of Multimedia University, established in 1996 and is the first private university approved by the Government of Malaysia. The Malacca campus houses the Centre for Foundation Studies and Extension Education and three Faculties: Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Faculty of Information Science and Technology and Faculty of Business and Law. Here is the industrial campus of Technical University of Malaysia Malacca; the industrial campus is located at Taman Tasik Utama Industrial site. It houses all temporary faculties, the chancelorry office.
Besides that, Ayer Keroh is the home of Kolej Yayasan Saad, a residential school. KYS International School shares a campus with Kolej Yayasan Saad; the International School is staffed by expatriate teachers and specialises in teaching Cambridge A Levels to high performing students from all over Malaysia. The Pantai Hospital Ayer Keroh, established in 1986 and moved to its current location in August 1995, is a private hospital located in the town, offering wide range of medical services and facilities to the residents; the town is a major tourist spot of the state, apart from the old Malacca City, due to its recent hosting of various interesting attractions. List of tourist attractions here are: Aborigines Museum Ayer Keroh Overhead Bridge Restaurant - The Air Keroh Overhead Bridge Restaurant is a bridge restaurant built over the E2 expressway, it provides A&W Restaurants, KFC, Malay cuisine. Ayer Keroh Lake Ayer Keroh Square Bee Gallery Malacca Garden of Thousand Flowers – Garden of a Thousand Flowers is a park in Ayer Keroh.
The park is under the management of Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council. The park was officiated by Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi on 30 June 2007; the park spans over an area of 5.3 hectares. It features walking tracks, pergola, prayer room and rest area. Entry to the park is free. Malacca Bird Park Malacca Botanical Garden Malacca Forestry Museum Malacca Butterfly and Reptile Sanctuary Malacca Craft Centre Malacca Crocodile Farm Malacca International Trade Centre Malacca Planetarium Malacca Wonderland Malacca Zoo Mini Malaysia and ASEAN Cultural Park Prison Products Gallery World's Bees MuseumTourist attractions The Ayer Keroh toll is the main entry point into Malacca state using the North–South Expressway; this makes it accessible from any part of Peninsular Malaysia. The town is about 2 hours drive from one hour from Seremban. Ayer Keroh is about 3 hours drive from Singapore. States and federal territories of Malaysia
Central Melaka District
The Central Malacca District is a district in the state of Malacca, Malaysia. The capital of Malacca state, Malacca City, is in this district; this district is the major destination of tourists in Malacca as most historical spots are situated within it. Central Malacca is administrated by the two local authorities, which are Historical Malacca City Council and Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council. Central Malacca consists of 44 towns and 95 villages. Mukims in Central Malacca are: Batu Berendam Bukit Katil Cheng Krubong Peringgit Sungai Udang Tanjung Kling Umbai There are around more than 503,000 residents in Central Malacca, which composes of 303,000 Malays, 169,000 Chinese, 22,000 Indians and others.. The main economy sector of the district is industry, in which Cental Malacca has ten industrial areas with a total area of 1,309 hectares; the second most important economy sector for the district is tourism, where the major tourist attractions are located at Malacca City, Ayer Keroh and Besar Island.
The third most important economy sector is agriculture, in which 55% of Central Malacca area is used for rubber plantation, palm oil plantation and rice fields. For primary and secondary education, there are 87 primary schools and 35 high schools in Central Melaka. For higher education and universities in the district are Technical University of Malaysia Melaka, Melaka Foundation College, Melaka Malay Female Teacher's Institute, Melaka Industrial Institute and Multimedia University; the Melaka Public Library at Bukit Baru is the state library of Melaka. Another libraries are located at the Melaka State Jonker Street. Galleries in Central Melaka are Bee Gallery Melaka, Gallery of Admiral Cheng Ho, Jehan Chan Art Gallery, Macau Gallery Melaka and Melaka Art Gallery. Museums in Central Melaka are Aborigines Museum, Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum, Beauty Museum, Cheng Ho Cultural Museum, Chitty Museum, Democratic Government Museum, Education Museum, Governor's Museum and Ethnography Museum, Kite Museum, Melaka Al-Quran Museum, Melaka Islamic Museum, Melaka Literature Museum, Melaka Stamp Museum, Melaka Sultanate Palace Museum, Melaka UMNO Museum and Islamic World Museum, Malaysia Architecture Museum, Malaysia Prison Museum, Malaysia Youth Museum, Maritime Museum, People's Museum, Pulau Besar Museum, Royal Malaysian Customs Department Museum, Royal Malaysian Navy Museum, Straits Chinese Jewellery Museum, Submarine Museum, Toy Museum and World's Bees Museum.
Nature-related tourist attractions in Central Melaka are Melaka Tropical Fruit Farm and Sungai Udang Recreational Forest. There are two major roads in Central Melaka, which are 87 km federal roads. Districts of Malaysia
Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council
Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council is a local authority which administers Hang Tuah Jaya, the northern of Central Malacca District and the southern of Alor Gajah District of Malacca, Malaysia. This agency comes under the Malacca state government. MPHTJ are responsible for public health and sanitation, waste removal and management, town planning, environmental protection and building control and economic development and general maintenance functions of urban infrastructure; the MPHTJ main headquarters is located at Melaka Mall in Hang Tuah Jaya. Hang Tuah Jaya Municipal Council was established under Section 3 of the Local Government Act 1976, as a Local Authority of Hang Tuah Jaya, they began operations on 1 January 2010. Tn Haji Mansor bin Sudin Administrative Region consists of Nine Mukim as described below: Six in the Central Malacca District Some Mukim Batu Berendam Some Mukim Bukit Baru Some Mukim Bukit Katil Some Mukim Bachang Some Mukim Peringgit Some Mukim Ayer MolekOne in Alor Gajah District Some Mukim Durian TunggalTwo in Jasin District Some Mukim Ayer Panas Some Mukim KesangMukim can be either a subdivision of a district or a subdivision of sub-district Management Department Financial Department Enforcement Department Valuation and Assets Management Department Town Planning Department Engineering Department Licensing Department Corporate Community Service Department Internal Audit Department Legislation Department Melaka Mall, Hang Tuah Jaya and UTC Malacca MBHTJ official portal
Malacca City, is the capital city of the Malaysian state of Malacca. As of 2010 it has a population of 484,885, it is the oldest Malaysian city on the Straits of Malacca, having become a successful entrepôt in the era of the Malacca Sultanate. The present-day city was founded by Parameswara, a Sumatran prince who escaped to the Malay Peninsula when Srivijaya fell to the Majapahit. Following the establishment of the Malacca Sultanate, the city drew the attention of traders from the Middle East, South Asia, East Asia, as well as the Portuguese, who intended to dominate the trade route in Asia. After Malacca was conquered by Portugal, the city became an area of conflict when the sultanates of Aceh and Johor attempted to take control from the Portuguese. Following a number of wars between these territories, Aceh declined in influence while Johor survived and expanded its influence over territory lost to Aceh in Sumatra when Johor co-operated with the Dutch who arrived to establish dominance over Java and Maluku Islands.
However, due to royal internal strife between the Malay and Bugis, the Johor-Riau Empire was divided into the sultanates of Johor and Riau-Lingga. This separation became permanent when the British arrived to establish their presence in the Malay Peninsula; the Dutch, who felt threatened in the presence of the British, began conquering the Riau-Lingga Sultanate along with the rest of Sumatra, while Johor came under British influence following the signing of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. When the British succeeded in extending their influence over the Malay Peninsula, the city soon became an area of development under the Straits Settlements as part of the British Empire; the development and burgeoning prosperity were, halted when the Japanese arrived in World War II and occupied the area from 1942 to 1945. During the occupation, many of the city's residents were taken and forced to construct the Death Railway in Burma. After the war, the city was remained as the capital of Malacca; the status as a capital remained until the formation of Malaysia in 1963, in 2008 it was listed, together with George Town of Penang, as a UNESCO World Heritage Site for its long history.
The economy of Malacca City is based on tourism. As the economic centre of the state of Malacca, it hosts several international conferences and trade fairs; the city is located along the Maritime Silk Road, proposed by China in 2013. Among the tourist attractions in Malacca City are A Famosa, Jonker Walk, Little India, Portuguese Settlement, Maritime Museum, Christ Church, Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum and Taming Sari Tower. According to legend, the site, now Malacca City was named Malaka when Parameswara, a Sumatran prince arrived there. While he was resting under a tree known as a Malacca tree, he saw his warrior's hunting dogs were challenged and kicked into a river by a tiny mouse deer. Amused by this, he chose to name the site Malaka after the tree; when the city came under Portuguese administration, its name was spelled "Malaca", under Dutch administration as "Malakka" or "Malacka", under British rule, "Malacca". The Straits of Malacca were named after the city at the time of the Malacca Sultanate.
Malacca was established when Parameswara, who had escaped from Palembang in Sumatra, decided to build a new kingdom following Malay Srivijaya's fall in 1377 after being attacked by Javanese Majapahit. Before he reached the site, he arrived in Temasek, which he decided to make the centre of the new Malay Kingdom's administration, but when Parameswara lived there, he killed Temagi, a Regent of Singapura who served under the Siamese King to take over the throne from Temagi. Fearing further reprisals by Siam when the news reached the Siamese Kingdom, Parameswara decided to move to a new place. After he left Temasek, it was attacked by Majapahit. Parameswara headed to the north of Malay Peninsula and arrived at Muar, where he tried to establish another new kingdom at either Biawak Busuk or Kota Buruk, but found the locations unsuitable. Parameswara continue his journey to the north, where he visited Sening Ujong before arriving at a Malay fishing village at the mouth of Bertam River, he decided to stop there to rest.
While he was resting under a tree, he saw his follower's hunting dogs fighting with a small mouse deer before they were kicked into a river by the deer. Amused by this, he thought. Soon, the site became the centre of the Malay world in the 15th and 16th centuries and the most prosperous entrepôt in the Malay Archipelago. During this time, many Arabs, Gujaratis, Tamils and Chinese come to trade. Other groups found riches in the prosperous entrepôt including the Japanese and Jews. To prevent the Malaccan empire from falling to the Siamese and Majapahit, he forged a relationship with the Ming dynasty of China for protection. Following the establishment of this relationship, the prosperity of the Malacca entrepôt was recorded by the first Chinese visitor, Ma Huan, who travelled together with Admiral Zheng He. On his descriptions, he wrote. Inside the walled towers was a second fortification, a kind of citadel, within whose confines were the merchants' godowns, the treasury and food storehouses; the Malacca River divided the city into two equal halves, the southern half being the inner citadel and the ruler's compound and the northern half, reached by a bridge some distance from the river mouth, containing the reside
Malacca dubbed "The Historic State", is a state in Malaysia located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, next to the Strait of Malacca. The state is bordered by Negeri Sembilan to Johor to the south; the exclave of Cape Rachado borders Negeri Sembilan to the north. Its capital is Malacca City, 148 kilometres south east of Malaysia's capital city Kuala Lumpur, 235 kilometres north west of Johor's largest city Johor Bahru, 95 km north west of Johor's second largest city, Batu Pahat; this historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008. Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, the local monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511; the head of state is Governor, rather than a Sultan. Various ethnic customs and traditions blended in Malacca. Peaceful life of the people of Malacca races due to the life that gave birth to the Malay, Indian and Nyonya, Portuguese and Eurasian. Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a fishing village inhabited by local inhabitants known as Orang Laut.
Malacca was founded by Parameswara known as Iskandar Shah. He found his way to Malacca around 1402 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits. According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river during a hunt, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided and there to found an empire on that spot, he named it the Malacca tree. In collaboration with allies from the sea-people, the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as an international port by compelling passing ships to call there, establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade. In Malacca during the early 15th century, Ming China sought to develop a commercial hub and a base of operation for their treasure voyages into the Indian Ocean.
Malacca had been a insignificant region, not qualifying as a polity prior to the voyages according to both Ma Huan and Fei Xin, was a vassal region of Siam. In 1405, the Ming court dispatched Admiral Zheng He with a stone tablet enfeoffing the Western Mountain of Malacca as well as an imperial order elevating the status of the port to a country; the Chinese established a government depot as a fortified cantonment for their soldiers. Ma Huan reported; the rulers of Malacca, such as Parameswara in 1411, would pay tribute to the Chinese emperor in person. In 1431, when a Malaccan representative complained that Siam was obstructing tribute missions to the Ming court, the Xuande Emperor dispatched Zheng He carrying a threatening message for the Siamese king saying "You, king should respect my orders, develop good relations with your neighbours and instruct your subordinates and not act recklessly or aggressively."Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He's fleet.
To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, according to local folklore, a daughter of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married locals and settled in Bukit Cina. "In the 9th month of the year 1481 envoys arrived with the Malacca again sent envoys to China in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while Malaccan envoys were returning to Malacca from China in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked the Malaccans, killing some of them while castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was in control of Champa and sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back, because they did not want to fight against another state, a tributary to China without permission from the Chinese, they requested to confront the Vietnamese delegation to China, in China at the time, but the Chinese informed them since the incident was years old, they could do nothing about it, the Emperor sent a letter to the Vietnamese ruler reproaching him for the incident.
The Chinese Emperor ordered the Malaccans to raise soldiers and fight back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked them again. In April 1511, Alfonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships, they conquered the city on 24 August 1511. After seizing the city Afonso de Albuquerque spared the Hindu and Burmese inhabitants but had the Muslim inhabitants massacred or sold into slavery, it soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they controlled Asian trade centred there. Their Malaccan rule was hampered by administrative and economic difficulties. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organisation of the network; the centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.
The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546, 1549. The Dutch launched several attacks on the Portuguese colony during
Malaysia is a country in Southeast Asia. The federal constitutional monarchy consists of 13 states and three federal territories, separated by the South China Sea into two sized regions, Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Peninsular Malaysia shares a land and maritime border with Thailand and maritime borders with Singapore and Indonesia. East Malaysia shares land and maritime borders with Brunei and Indonesia and a maritime border with the Philippines and Vietnam. Kuala Lumpur is the national capital and largest city while Putrajaya is the seat of federal government. With a population of over 30 million, Malaysia is the world's 44th most populous country; the southernmost point of continental Eurasia, Tanjung Piai, is in Malaysia. In the tropics, Malaysia is one of 17 megadiverse countries, with large numbers of endemic species. Malaysia has its origins in the Malay kingdoms which, from the 18th century, became subject to the British Empire, along with the British Straits Settlements protectorate.
Peninsular Malaysia was unified as the Malayan Union in 1946. Malaya was restructured as the Federation of Malaya in 1948, achieved independence on 31 August 1957. Malaya united with North Borneo and Singapore on 16 September 1963 to become Malaysia. In 1965, Singapore was expelled from the federation; the country is multi-cultural, which plays a large role in its politics. About half the population is ethnically Malay, with large minorities of Malaysian Chinese, Malaysian Indians, indigenous peoples. While recognising Islam as the country's established religion, the constitution grants freedom of religion to non-Muslims; the government system is modelled on the Westminster parliamentary system and the legal system is based on common law. The head of state is the king, known as the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, he is an elected monarch chosen from the hereditary rulers of the nine Malay states every five years. The head of government is the Prime Minister; the country's official language is a standard form of the Malay language.
English remains an active second language. Since independence, Malaysian GDP has grown at an average of 6.5% per annum for 50 years. The economy has traditionally been fuelled by its natural resources, but is expanding in the sectors of science, tourism and medical tourism. Today, Malaysia has a newly industrialised market economy, ranked fourth largest in Southeast Asia and 38th largest in the world, it is a founding member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the East Asia Summit and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, a member of Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement. The name "Malaysia" is a combination of the word "Malay" and the Latin-Greek suffix "-sia"/-σία; the word "melayu" in Malay may derive from the Tamil words "malai" and "ur" meaning "mountain" and "city, land", respectively. "Malayadvipa" was the word used by ancient Indian traders. Whether or not it originated from these roots, the word "melayu" or "mlayu" may have been used in early Malay/Javanese to mean to accelerate or run.
This term was applied to describe the strong current of the river Melayu in Sumatra. The name was adopted by the Melayu Kingdom that existed in the seventh century on Sumatra. Before the onset of European colonisation, the Malay Peninsula was known natively as "Tanah Melayu". Under a racial classification created by a German scholar Johann Friedrich Blumenbach, the natives of maritime Southeast Asia were grouped into a single category, the Malay race. Following the expedition of French navigator Jules Dumont d'Urville to Oceania in 1826, he proposed the terms of "Malaysia", "Micronesia" and "Melanesia" to the Société de Géographie in 1831, distinguishing these Pacific cultures and island groups from the existing term "Polynesia". Dumont d'Urville described Malaysia as "an area known as the East Indies". In 1850, the English ethnologist George Samuel Windsor Earl, writing in the Journal of the Indian Archipelago and Eastern Asia, proposed naming the islands of Southeast Asia as "Melayunesia" or "Indunesia", favouring the former.
In modern terminology, "Malay" remains the name of an ethnoreligious group of Austronesian people predominantly inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and portions of the adjacent islands of Southeast Asia, including the east coast of Sumatra, the coast of Borneo, smaller islands that lie between these areas. The state that gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1957 took the name the "Federation of Malaya", chosen in preference to other potential names such as "Langkasuka", after the historic kingdom located at the upper section of the Malay Peninsula in the first millennium CE; the name "Malaysia" was adopted in 1963 when the existing states of the Federation of Malaya, plus Singapore, North Borneo and Sarawak formed a new federation. One theory posits the name was chosen so that "si" represented the inclusion of Singapore, North Borneo, Sarawak to Malaya in 1963. Politicians in the Philippines contemplated renaming their state "Malaysia" before the modern country took the name. Evidence of modern human habitation in Malaysia dates back 40,000 years.
In the Malay Peninsula, the first inhabitants are thought to be Negritos. Traders and settlers from India and China arrived as early as the first century AD, establishing trading ports and coastal towns in the second and third centuries, their presence resulted in strong Indian and Chinese influences on the local cultures, the people of the Malay Peninsula adopted the religions of Hinduism and Buddhism. Sanskrit inscriptions appear as early as the fifth century; the Kingdom of
A local government is a form of public administration which, in a majority of contexts, exists as the lowest tier of administration within a given state. The term is used to contrast with offices at state level, which are referred to as the central government, national government, or federal government and to supranational government which deals with governing institutions between states. Local governments act within powers delegated to them by legislation or directives of the higher level of government. In federal states, local government comprises the third tier of government, whereas in unitary states, local government occupies the second or third tier of government with greater powers than higher-level administrative divisions; the question of municipal autonomy is a key question of public governance. The institutions of local government vary between countries, where similar arrangements exist, the terminology varies. Common names for local government entities include state, region, county, district, township, borough, municipality, shire and local service district.
Local government traditionally had limited power in Egypt's centralized state. Under the central government were twenty-six governorates; these were subdivided into villages or towns. At each level, there was a governing structure that combined representative councils and government-appointed executive organs headed by governors, district officers, mayors, respectively. Governors were appointed by the president, they, in turn, appointed subordinate executive officers; the coercive backbone of the state apparatus ran downward from the Ministry of Interior through the governors' executive organs to the district police station and the village headman. Before the revolution, state penetration of the rural areas was limited by the power of local notables, but under Nasser, land reform reduced their socioeconomic dominance, the incorporation of peasants into cooperatives transferred mass dependence from landlords to government; the extension of officials into the countryside permitted the regime to bring development and services to the village.
The local branches of the ruling party, the Arab Socialist Union, fostered a certain peasant political activism and coopted the local notables—in particular the village headmen—and checked their independence from the regime. State penetration did not retreat under Mubarak; the earlier effort to mobilize peasants and deliver services disappeared as the local party and cooperative withered, but administrative controls over the peasants remained intact. The local power of the old families and the headmen revived but more at the expense of peasants than of the state; the district police station balanced the notables, the system of local government integrated them into the regime. Sadat took several measures to decentralize power to the towns. Governors acquired more authority under Law Number 43 of 1979, which reduced the administrative and budgetary controls of the central government over the provinces; the elected councils acquired, at least formally, the right to approve or disapprove the local budget.
In an effort to reduce local demands on the central treasury, local government was given wider powers to raise local taxes. But local representative councils became vehicles of pressure for government spending, the soaring deficits of local government bodies had to be covered by the central government. Local government was encouraged to enter into joint ventures with private investors, these ventures stimulated an alliance between government officials and the local rich that paralleled the infitah alliance at the national level. Under Mubarak decentralization and local autonomy became more of a reality, local policies reflected special local conditions. Thus, officials in Upper Egypt bowed to the powerful Islamic movement there, while those in the port cities struck alliances with importers. In recent years, Mali has undertaken an ambitious decentralization program, which involves the capital district of Bamako, seven regions subdivided into 46 cercles, 682 rural community districts; the state retains an advisory role in administrative and fiscal matters, it provides technical support and legal recourse to these levels.
Opportunities for direct political participation, increased local responsibility for development have been improved. In August–September 1998, elections were held for urban council members, who subsequently elected their mayors. In May/June 1999, citizens of the communes elected their communal council members for the first time. Female voter turnout was about 70% of the total, observers considered the process open and transparent. With mayors and boards in place at the local level, newly elected officials, civil society organizations, decentralized technical services, private sector interests, other communes, donor groups began partnering to further development; the cercles will be reinstituted with a legal and financial basis of their own. Their councils will be chosen from members of the communal councils; the regions, at the highest decentralized level, will have a similar legal and financial autonomy, will comprise a number of cercles within their geographical boundaries. Mali needs to build capacity at these levels to mobilize and manage financial resources.
South Africa has a two tiered local government system comprising local munici