An archaeology museum is a museum that specializes in the display of archaeological artifacts. Many are in the open air, such as the Ancient Agora of the Roman Forum. Others display artifacts inside buildings, such as National Museum of Beirut and Cairo's Museum of Egyptian Antiquities. Still others, display artifacts both outside and inside, such as the Tibes Indigenous Ceremonial Center; some archaeology museums, such as the Western Australian Museum, may exhibit maritime archaeological materials. These appear in a wing of the Maritime Museum; this Museum has developed a'museum-without-walls' through a series of underwater wreck trails. Open-air museum
National Museum (Malaysia)
The National Museum is a museum located on Jalan Damansara in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The museum is situated in close proximity to the Perdana Lake Gardens and it provides an overview of Malaysian history and culture; the National Museum is a palatial structure built in the style of Rumah Gadang, an aspect of Minangkabau architecture. Its facade comprises elements of modern features, it was opened on 31 August 1963, it serves as a repository of Malaysia's rich cultural and historical heritage. The National Museum is a three-storey structure 109.7 metres long and 15.1 metres wide, 37.6 metres high at the central point. The museum houses four main galleries allotted to natural history; the displays range from free-standing tableaux showing cultural events like weddings and costumes. The National Museum was established on the site of the former Selangor Museum, it was built by the British and Selangor governments in 1898 following the formation of the Federated Malay States in 1896. On 10 March 1945, during the end of World War II, the right wing of the museum was bombed and destroyed by the US B-29 bomber, from the Allied Forces.
The museum's collection was moved to the Perak Museum in Taiping. After World War II, the left wing of Selangor Museum was still in use as a historical site. On the brink of the independence of the Federation of Malaya, Prime Minister Tunku Abdul Rahman conceived the idea to build a museum to house national historical and cultural treasures as well as specimens of flora and fauna; the old museum structure was demolished to make way for a new museum. Construction began in 1959 and was complete in 1963; the National Museum was opened on 31 August 1963 by Tuanku Syed Putra Ibni al-Marhum Syed Hassan Jamalullal, the 3rd Yang di-Pertuan Agong. On 4 April 1996 the building was gazetted under the Antiquities Act 169/1976 as an ancient monument and historical site; the museum's design by architect Ho Kok Hoe was inspired by the architecture of the Malay royal palaces and vernacular Malay architecture. The design incorporated the need for activity spaces; the large mosaic murals spanning the entrance depict the culture of the country.
The floor of the central section of the main building is decorated with special tiles which were gifts from the government of Pakistan. In addition, UNESCO facilitated consultancies by museum experts from other museums around the world. Displays and exhibits in the museum focus on local history and traditions, arts and crafts, economic activities, local flora and fauna and currency; the museum houses various galleries, each with its own theme. The ground floor showcases the geographic and natural history of the Malay peninsula starting with the Stone Age, the Bronze Age and the Iron Age, Hindu-Buddhist kingdoms to Muslim sultanate of Malacca; the ancient Malay Hindu–Buddhist states of Gangga Negara and Majapahit are referenced. Among the collections are the stone makara statue, the bronze Avalokiteshvara of Bidor, the model of Bujang Valley temple in Kedah, displaying region's ancient legacy such as Javan Borobudur and Majapahit vessel; the exhibit continues to the Muslim Sultanate of Malacca and the various states of Malaysia.
The display demonstrate the importance of Malaccan sultanate for Malaysian national identity. The second floor is dedicated to the colonial history leading all the way to Independence. There are copies of the royal headgear of Malay rulers. Adorning the floor of the Central Hall are blue geometric-design mosaic tiles from Pakistan, with intricate carved panels on the ceiling of the hall; the Central Hall houses temporary exhibitions. Thematic and special exhibitions are held at this hall at intervals to promote an awareness of the country's diverse culture and heritage. Foreign exhibitions are held occasionally; some of the exhibitions that were held in this hall at some point of time included'The Islamic Civilization','Our King','The World of Flowers','Durian King of Fruits','Masks from Sarawak','World Currency','Islamic Frontiers of China','American Frontiers', and'Religious Architecture from the Netherlands'. The museum places strong emphasis on the Malay World, a considerable section is devoted to the founding of the United Malay National Organisation, one of the parties of the National Front.
Few if at all were any mentions made of the involvement of the Malayan Chinese Association and the Malayan Indian Congress, which three parties worked together to achieve Independence of Malaya on 31 August 1957. Other galleries include the Natural History Gallery. In the vicinity of the museum building, there are a number of outdoor displays of transportation in Malaysia and present. An interesting exhibit is the Melaka Bullock Cart which resembles the early American horse-drawn wagon. Of unparalleled interest are the Steam Locomotive made by Kitson & Co, put into service in 1921 until it ceased operation in 1969, it covered 1.5 million rail miles. On display are motorised vehicles, including antiqued civic vehicles and private vehicles, including an early 1.3 litre Proton Saga, the first national car launched on July 9th 1985. National Museum holds regular thematic exhibitions featuring specific aspects of life and world culture. Another attraction of the museum is an original-size old Terengganu timber palace known as Istana Satu.
It was erected by Sultan Zainal Abidin III, Sultan of Terengganu in 1884 in the compound of Kota Is
Istana Negara, Jalan Istana
The Royal Museum along Jalan Istana was the former residence of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia. It stands on a 13 acre site, located on a commanding position on the slope of a hill of Bukit Petaling overlooking the Klang River, along Jalan Syed Putra, it was replaced by the new national palace as the official residence of the King in 2011. In 2013, it was converted into The Royal Museum and referred as "Old Istana Negara"; the palace was a double-storey mansion called The Big House built in 1928 by a local Chinese millionaire, Chan Wing. During the Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945, it was used as the residence of the Japanese Governor. After the surrender of the Japanese on 15 August 1945, the British Military Administration commandeered it for a senior military officers mess from the rank of brigadier. With the formation of the Federation of Malaya in 1950, the Selangor State Government rented the residence from the owners for Straits Dollars 5,000 a month until Merdeka or Independence in 1957.
It was renovated to become the palace of His Majesty the Sultan of Selangor. In 1957, the owners sold the property of 13 acres to the Federal Government at an agreed valuation of Straits Dollars 1.4 Million. The Federal Government converted the residence into the Istana Negara for the newly created sovereign post of Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaya, about to achieve independence that August as scheduled. Since it has undergone several renovations and extensions, but the most extensive upgrading was carried out in 1980, as it was the first time that the installation ceremony of the Yang di-Pertuan Agong was held at the Istana Negara. Prior to this the Installation Ceremonies were held at the Tunku Abdul Rahman Hall in Jalan Ampang, Kuala Lumpur with the first one held in 1957. After the Istana Negara moved to the new palace at Jalan Duta in December 2011, it was used for a royal exhibition called Raja Kita, in conjunction with the installation of Tuanku Abdul Halim Mu'adzam Shah as the 14th Yang di-Pertuan Agong in 2012.
The exhibition started on 15 April 2012 and is extended on 8 December 2012. Over 314,757 visitors, both local and foreign visited the exhibition between 15 April and 7 December, it was decided that starting in 2013, two guards in Malay traditional attire would be stationed at the main gateway of the old Istana Negara to revive the nostalgia and tradition of the Malay Sultanate. Information and Culture Minister Rais Yatim said the practice will help retain the old palace as a must-visit tourist destination. Several rooms and halls at the old Istana Negara will be open to visitors to learn of their use to the previous thirteen Kings who lived in this old royal palace. An inventory will be drawn up of the collections in the palace in the effort to conserve them. Rais Yatim requested the Royal Malaysia Police and the Department of Museums to collaborate in managing the collections......... The building is nestled within an 11.34-hectare compound with a variety of plants and flowers, swimming pool and indoor badminton hall.
As the palace grounds are not opened to members of the public or tourists, the Main Palace Entrance is a favourite picture spot for tourists. The whole area is fenced up and the Royal Insignia of His Majesty is placed on each steel bar between two pillars of the fence. At the front of the Istana Negara, there is the main entrance. On each side of the arch, are two guard posts to shelter two members of the cavalry in their full dress uniform similar to the ones at Buckingham Palace, London. From 2013 onwards, the full dress uniform will be in Malay traditional attire as it was during the Malay Sultanate era. In the grounds of the palace is a guard house for the members of the Royal Malay Regiment, one of the two Household Division units in the Malaysian Armed Forces. There is a six hole golf course, tennis courts and a lake in the far end of the grounds; the driveway, lined with cypresses and casuarinas, leads to two entrances – an entrance to the West Wing and the other to the East Wing. The Balai Rong Seri or throne room is located in the East Wing and was used only for official and customary functions.
These include ceremonial occasions of taking the royal pledge, the installation rite, the appointment of a new prime minister and the federal government which included investiture ceremonies and the taking of oaths by the government ministers and state governors. This is where the presentation and acceptance of foreign diplomatic appointments are held, it sometimes serves as a banquet hall. The second hall on the first floor is the Dewan Mengadap where the King receives honoured guests such as Head of States and foreign dignitaries; this hall doubles as a resting place of Governors during the Conference of Rulers. The other rooms are Bilik Permaisuri and Bilik Menteri. Bilik Duta is where the King grants audience to the Prime Minister and where honoured guests are received; the Queen receives her guests at the Bilik Permaisuri while the Bilik Menteri is the rest room for guests......... The Conference of Rulers is held at the Bilik Mesyuarat Raja-Raja situated in the West Wing; the new RM 997 million Istana Negara complex is located near Kuala Lumpur.
The court moved to new palace in December 2011. The construction was completed in 2011 at a total cost of RM997 million. Works Minister Shaziman Abu Mansor said the palace is now "Kuala Lumpur's most amazing architectural achievement, surpassing the Twin Towers". Royal Regalia of Malaysia Notes Bibliographybin Haji Taha, Adi. Pameran Raja Kita. Kuala Lumpur: Department of Museums and Antiqui
National Textile Museum
The National Textile Museum is a museum in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The museum is open daily from 9 am to free admission, it is adjacent to the Sultan Abdul Samad Building. Designed by Arthur Benison Hubback in an Indo-Saracenic Revival architecture, the building was completed in 1905 to house the headquarters for the Federated Malay States Railways. After the FMSR moved to the Railway Administration Building in 1917, the building was handed to the Selangor Public Works department, has subsequently housed various government and commercial occupants, including the Selangor Water Department, the Malaysian Central Bank, Agricultural Bank of Malaysia, Malaysian Craft and the High Court, before being converted for use as the National Textile Museum and opened to the public on 9 January 2010; the building is designated as JKR Building 26. It was gazetted as a historical building in 1983; the museum building is a 2.5-floor building, occupying an area of 3,145.3 m2. Pohon Budi Gallery Pelangi Gallery Teluk Berantai Gallery Ratna Sari Gallery The museum is accessible within walking distance south west of SP7 KJ13 Masjid Jamek LRT Station of RapidKL.
List of museums in Malaysia List of tourist attractions in Malaysia
The Governor's Museum is a museum in St. Paul's Hill, Malacca City, Malaysia; the museum building was used as the official residence and office of the Dutch Governor of Malacca. The building was used as the official residence of the Yang di-Pertua Negeri of Melaka until September 1996; the museum was opened to the public in 2002. The museum exhibits the personal belongings of various governors of Melaka since the independence of Malaya. List of museums in Malaysia List of tourist attractions in Malacca Similar British colonial residences: The Istana in Singapore. Suffolk House and The Residency in Penang. Carcosa in Kuala Lumpur
The Stadthuys is a historical structure situated in the heart of Malacca City, the administrative capital of the state of Malacca, Malaysia in a place known as the Red Square. The Stadhuys is known for nearby red clocktower, it was built by the Dutch in 1650 as the office of the Dutch Deputy Governor. When Malacca was handed over to the British in the 19th century, the Malacca Free School was opened in the vicinity of the Stadthuys on 7 December 1826, by missionaries residing in the state, in response to a letter dated 19 April 1825, signed by a J. Humprey, J. W. Overee and A. W. Baumgarten, which called for an English institutional education to be built in Malacca; the school which the British provided free education to residents was renamed Malacca High School in 1871 upon a takeover by the British government, moved out to its present site at Chan Koon Cheng Road in 1931. Situated at Laksamana Road, beside the Christ Church, the supposed oldest remaining Dutch historical building in the Orient, is now home to the History and Ethnography Museum.
Among the displays in the museum are traditional costumes and artifacts throughout the history of Malacca, which makes it Malacca's premier museum. Christ Church, Malacca Francis Xavier De Witt, Dennis. History of the Dutch in Malaysia. Malaysia: Nutmeg Publishing. ISBN 978-983-43519-0-8. Tourism Malaysia - Stadthuys The Stadthuys of Malacca, Holland Focus Dutch Square, AmazingMelaka.com Video: 5 short clips of Melaka Stadthuys square
The Bujang Valley is a sprawling historical complex and has an area of 224 square kilometres situated near Merbok, between Gunung Jerai in the north and Muda River in the south. It is the richest archaeological area in Malaysia; these archaeological remains show. In Sanskrit the term bhujanga refer to serpent, thus the name itself is translated into "Serpent Valley"; the area consists of ruins. More than fifty ancient tomb temples, called candi, have been unearthed; the most impressive and well-preserved of these is located in Merbok. The Bujang Valley Archaeological Museum is located here. In the area of Bujang Valley known as Sungai Batu, excavations have revealed jetty remains, iron-smelting sites, a clay brick monument dating back to AD 110, making it the oldest man-made structure to be recorded in Southeast Asia; the local rulers adopted Indian cultural and political models earlier than those of Kutai in eastern Borneo, in southern Celebes or Tarumanegara in western Java, where remains showing Indian influence have been found dating from the early 5th century.
Relics found in the Bujang Valley are now on display at the archaeological museum. Items include inscribed stone caskets and tablets, metal tools and ornaments, ceramics and Hindu icons. For the past two decades, students from universities around Malaysia have been invited for research and have done their graduate works at the Valley. Much of the historical links is still vague considering not many of the scriptures and writings survive; the temples did not survive the onslaught of age because their wooden roofing has rotted and withered over the past 1,200 years. The museum itself is inadequate and not organised, much of the findings are elsewhere scattered from Museum Negara to Singapore. Folk stories and oral history provide place for a magnificent kingdom of jewels and gold. Outside peninsular and insular Southeast Asia, oral history in India suggests the presence of golden chariots and jewels in hidden caves at Bujang Valley and Mount Jerai; some visitors to the antiquity department at Muzium Negara has eyewitness accounts of magnificent objects such as a 10-feet-tall Raja Bersiung Throne and various idols and items from the Valley.
On 1 December 2013, it was reported that, a 1,200-year-old Hindu Temple at the site, identified as Candi No. 11, had been demolished by a land developer. Candi 11 was amongst 17 registered candi. In the face of public criticism, the Kedah State Government sought to deflect blame by claiming that it was powerless to do anything because the land was owned and further, that the site had not been gazetted as a historical site. After the controversy, the Tourism and Heritage Ministry has agreed to consider gazetting the Bujang Valley as heritage site Before the 1970s, the research in Bujang Valley was done by western archaeologists, the most prominent ones include H. G. Quaritch Wales, Dorothy Wales, Alastair Lamb. After the 1970s, local archaeologists were trained to continue the research there. With the strong support of the Malaysian Government and reconstructions of sites were done in Bujang Valley by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and University of Malaysia in collaboration with The Department of Museums and Antiquity.
The most prominent local archaeologist who did research in the Bujang Valley was Nik Hassan Shuhaimi Nik Abdul Rahman who wrote and publish countless books and articles on this topic. He introduced a periodisation of the history of Bujang Valley as well as a theory which explains about the process of indigenisation of the Indian Culture which formed the socio-economic make up of the polity. Other earlier local archaeologist who contributed to the research of Bujang Valley include Leong Sau Heng, Mohd Supian Sabtu, Kamarudin Zakaria, Zulkifli Jaafar, Zuliskandar Ramli. After 2008, The Centre for Global Archaeological Research from University Sains Malaysia, led by Mohd Mokhtar Saidin explored a new archaeological complex which reveals dozens of new sites, said to be dated from 2nd Century C. E. Presently, a number of new researchers are being trained in local and foreign universities to continue the research in Bujang Valley in the future, they were trained in a number important sub-disciplines of archaeology which include Epigraphy, Hindu-Buddhist Architecture, historical archaeology, Maritime Archaeology and Palinology which will contribute immensely to future research.
In 2014 candi 11 was demolished by the developer for building of the housing project, the issue was highlighted by media, as the result of that the government now employed a security guard to safeguard some candis particularty the Candi Batu Pahat at museum site. The Bujang Valley is in the process of being nominated by Malaysia into the UNESCO World Heritage List since 2013. In 2017, the government announced that they will make more research and conservation efforts in the valley to preserve its outstanding universal value; the site's inclusion to the world heritage list is backed by diplomats from India, Thailand, Vietnam, the Philippines, Timor-Leste, Japan, Nepal, Laos, Papua New Guinea and Sri Lanka. Claudius Ptolemaeus, known in English as Ptolemy, was a Greek geographer and astrologer who had written about Golden Chersones