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Melancholia

Melancholia is a mental condition characterized by extreme depression, bodily complaints, sometimes hallucinations and delusions. Melancholia is a concept from pre-modern medicine. Melancholy was one of the four temperaments matching the four humours. In the 19th century, "melancholia" could be physical as well as mental, melancholic conditions were classified as such by their common cause rather than by their properties, it is the predecessor of the mental health diagnosis of clinical depression and still exists as a subtype for major depression known as melancholic depression. The name "melancholia" comes from the old medical belief of the four humours: disease or ailment being caused by an imbalance in one or more of the four basic bodily liquids, or humours. Personality types were determined by the dominant humor in a particular person. According to Hippocrates and subsequent tradition, melancholia was caused by an excess of black bile, hence the name, which means "black bile", from Ancient Greek μέλας, "dark, black", χολή, "bile".

In the complex elaboration of humorist theory, it was associated with the earth from the Four Elements, the season of autumn, the spleen as the originating organ and cold and dry as related qualities. In astrology it showed the influence of Saturn, hence the related adjective saturnine. Melancholia was described as a distinct disease with particular mental and physical symptoms in the 5th and 4th centuries BC. Hippocrates, in his Aphorisms, characterized all "fears and despondencies, if they last a long time" as being symptomatic of melancholia.. Other symptoms mentioned by Hippocrates include: poor appetite, sleeplessness, agitation. Despite the early age, the Hippocratic clinical description of melancholia shows significant overlaps with contemporary nosography of depressive syndromes (6 symptoms out of the 9 included in DSM diagnostic criteria for a Major Deprssive. In the middle ages the humoral, somatic paradigm for understanding sustained sadness lost primacy in front of the prevailing religious perspective.

Sadness came to be a vice (λύπη in the Greek vice list by Evagrius Ponticus, tristitia vel acidia in the 7 vice list by Gregorius Magnus. When a patient could not be cured of the disease it was thought that the melancholia was a result of demonic possession. In his study of French and Burgundian courtly culture, Johan Huizinga noted that "at the close of the Middle Ages, a sombre melancholy weighs on people's souls." In chronicles, sermons in legal documents, an immense sadness, a note of despair and a fashionable sense of suffering and deliquescence at the approaching end of times, suffuses court poets and chroniclers alike: Huizinga quotes instances in the ballads of Eustache Deschamps, "monotonous and gloomy variations of the same dismal theme", in Georges Chastellain's prologue to his Burgundian chronicle, in the late fifteenth-century poetry of Jean Meschinot. Ideas of reflection and the workings of imagination are blended in the term merencolie, embodying for contemporaries "a tendency", observes Huizinga, "to identify all serious occupation of the mind with sadness".

Painters were considered by Vasari and other writers to be prone to melancholy by the nature of their work, sometimes with good effects for their art in increased sensitivity and use of fantasy. Among those of his contemporaries so characterised by Vasari were Pontormo and Parmigianino, but he does not use the term of Michelangelo, who used it not seriously, of himself. A famous allegorical engraving by Albrecht Dürer is entitled Melencolia I; this engraving has been interpreted as portraying melancholia as the state of waiting for inspiration to strike, not as a depressive affliction. Amongst other allegorical symbols, the picture includes a truncated rhombohedron; the image in turn inspired a passage in The City of Dreadful Night by James Thomson, and, a few years a sonnet by Edward Dowden. The most extended treatment of melancholia comes from Robert Burton, whose The Anatomy of Melancholy treats the subject from both a literary and a medical perspective. Burton wrote in the 17th century that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness melancholia.

But to leave all declamatory speeches in praise of divine music, I will confine myself to my proper subject: besides that excellent power it hath to expel many other diseases, it is a sovereign remedy against despair and melancholy, will drive away the devil himself. Canus, a Rhodian fiddler, in Philostratus, when Apollonius was inquisitive to know what he could do with his pipe, told him, "That he would make a melancholy man merry, him, merry much merrier than before, a lover more enamoured, a religious man more devout." Ismenias the Theban, Chiron the centaur, is said to have cured this and many other diseases by music alone: as now they do those, saith Bodine, that are troubled with St. Vitus's Bedlam dance. In 10th century Persian physician Al-Akhawayni describes Melancholia as a chronic illness and relates it to brain, one of the main aspects of his view on Melancholia, he describes Melancholia's initial clinical manifestations as "suffering from an unexplained fear, inability to answer questions or providing false answers, self-laughing and self-crying and speaking meaninglessly, yet with no fever"In the Encyclopédie of Diderot and d'Alembert, the causes of mela

1996 Fiesta Bowl

The 1996 Tostitos Fiesta Bowl game was a post-season college football bowl game which served as the Bowl Alliance's designated national championship game for the 1995 college football season. Played on January 2, 1996, at Sun Devil Stadium in Tempe, the game matched the two top-ranked teams in the nation, No. 1 Nebraska of the Big Eight and No. 2 Florida of the Southeastern Conference. Nebraska won the national championship by defeating Florida, 62–24; the game was billed as a classic No. 1 vs. No. 2 matchup, featuring two different but potent offenses. Oddsmakers had made Nebraska about a 3-point favorite going into the game. However, many experts picked Florida to win, as it was thought that Nebraska's option attack would not succeed well on Sun Devil Stadium's grass field, that the passing arm of Florida quarterback Danny Wuerffel would be too deadly for Nebraska to stop. Nebraska, the defending national champion, opened the season by pounding Oklahoma State, 64–21, it set the tone for a season in which no opponent came within 14 points, including three top-10 ranked opponents whom the Huskers defeated by a combined score of 134–49.

The Huskers averaged 400 yards rushing. Florida, behind the passing of future Heisman Trophy winner Danny Wuerffel, had racked up impressive offensive numbers, though through the air, they emerged unbeaten through a brutal SEC schedule, having throttled rivals Tennessee and Florida State, whipping Arkansas 34–3 in the 1995 SEC Championship Game. Florida, like Nebraska, had been tested. Florida received the opening kickoff and drove to the Nebraska 5, before settling for a 23-yard Bart Edmiston field goal. Aided by good field position, the Huskers countered on their opening series with a 53-yard scoring drive, capped by a 16-yard cross-field throwback pass from Tommie Frazier to Lawrence Phillips; the Gators blocked the Huskers' extra point, Nebraska led 6–3. Late in the period, Florida went back ahead on a short 1-yard sneak from Wuerffel and led 10–6; as the Gators scored, CBS' Terry Donahue stated, "Nebraska better not get too far behind." The Huskers put the game out of reach with a 29-point explosion in the second quarter.

Phillips began the quarter with a dazzling 42-yard touchdown run. On the next possession, Florida took over at its own 22, but was pushed back into the shadow of its own end zone. On second down, the Huskers appeared to have sacked Wuerffel in the end zone for a safety, but officials ruled his forward progress had brought him out to the 1. On the next play from scrimmage, Jamel Williams blitzed and sacked Wuerffel untouched in the middle of the end zone, forcing the resulting safety, denied from the play before, the score was 15–10. A 1-yard dive from freshman Ahman Green and a Kris Brown field goal made the margin 15 points. Cornerback Michael Booker picked off a Wuerffel pass and returned it 42 yards for another Nebraska score, this one making it 32–10. Nebraska forced a punt and added a second Brown field goal to take a decisive 35–10 advantage into the locker room. Florida continued to struggle against Nebraska's blitzing defense. On their second possession of the second half, Wuerffel was intercepted by Eric Stokes at the Nebraska 28.

The Huskers' first two possessions both ventured deep into Florida territory before turning it over on an interception and on downs. Frazier broke through the line for a blazing 35-yard touchdown run in the third, putting the Huskers further in front at 42–10. Florida countered with a 77-yard scoring drive, capped by a 35-yard pass from Wuerffel to Ike Hilliard, a two-point conversion made the score 42–18; the Huskers took over possession at their own 20 with less than a minute remaining in the third quarter. What followed was one of the most memorable plays in Nebraska football and Fiesta Bowl history; the RunOn second down from the Nebraska 25, Cornhuskers quarterback Tommie Frazier ran an option play to the right, decided to keep the ball rather than pitch. He gained 11 yards before being met by a group of Florida defenders at the 36-yard line, which he dragged 10 yards before shrugging them off and breaking free, streaking 75 yards down the sideline to give Nebraska a 49–18 lead. Frazier had broken no less than seven tackles on the play.

Frazier would finish the game with 199 yards rushing. Nebraska set records for most rushing yards in a bowl game, with 524, the most points in the second quarter of a bowl game, with 29; the fourth quarter was something of an anti-climax, with the result having more or less been decided. After the Huskers were forced to punt for the first time in the game, Florida muffed the catch and Nebraska recovered. Frazier orchestrated another touchdown drive on the short field, ending with a 15-yard Lawrence Phillips touchdown run; the ensuing PAT was blocked to leave the score at 55–18. Nebraska backup quarterback Brook Berringer came in to relieve Frazier and led the Huskers on one last scoring drive, which he capped himself with a 1-yard quarterback sneak, the Huskers led 62–18. Reidel Anthony of Florida returned. Florida attempted a two-point conversion. Nebraska defensive tackle Christian Peter recovered and returned it for two points but the play had been blown dead. Third-string quarterback Matt Turman drove the Huskers to the Florida goal line before taking a knee to run out the clock.

Nebraska claimed a second consecutive national championship. They were the first team to win back-to-ba

Caledonia River

The Caledonia River is a perennial river of the West Gippsland catchment, located in the Alpine region of the Australian state of Victoria. The Caledonia River rises below Minogues Lookout within the Snowy Range of the Great Dividing Range; the river flows south south by west and south, joined by the five tributaries including the Caledonia River East Branch, before reaching its confluence with the Macalister River, near The Sisters, in the Shire of Wellington. The river descends 743 metres over its 34-kilometre course. Rivers of Victoria "West Gippsland Regional Catchment Strategy". West Gippsland Catchment Management Authority. 2012. ISBN 978-0-9805562-8-5. "Latrobe Catchment Ecosystem". West Gippsland Catchment Management Authority. 2012. Archived from the original on 6 April 2011