Holyoke is a city in Hampden County, United States, that lies between the western bank of the Connecticut River and the Mount Tom Range. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 39,880; as of 2017, the estimated population was 40,341. Sitting 8 miles north of Springfield, Holyoke is part of the Springfield Metropolitan Area, one of the two distinct metropolitan areas in Massachusetts. Holyoke is among the early planned industrial cities in the United States. Built in tandem with the Holyoke Dam to utilize the water power of Hadley Falls, it is one of a handful of cities in New England built on the grid plan. During the late 19th century the city produced an estimated 80% of the writing paper used in the United States and was home to the largest paper mill architectural firm in the country, as well as the largest paper and alpaca wool mills in the world. Although a smaller number of businesses in Holyoke work in the paper industry today, it is still referred to as "The Paper City". Today the city contains a number of specialty manufacturing companies, as well as the Massachusetts Green High Performance Computing Center, an intercollegiate research facility which opened in 2012.
Holyoke is home to the Volleyball Hall of Fame and known as the "Birthplace of Volleyball", as the internationally played Olympic sport was invented and first played at the local YMCA chapter by William G. Morgan in 1895. While working for the Holyoke Water Power Company in the 1880s, hydraulic engineer Clemens Herschel invented the Venturi meter to determine the water use of individual mills in the Holyoke Canal System; this device, the first accurate means of measuring large-scale flows, is used in a number of engineering applications today, including waterworks and carburators, as well as aviation instrumentation. Powered by these municipally owned canals, Holyoke has among the lowest energy rates in the Commonwealth, as of 2016 between 85% and 90% of the city's energy was carbon neutral, with administrative goals in place to reach 100% in the immediate future. English colonists arrived in the Connecticut River Valley in 1633, when traders from the Plymouth Plantation established a post at Windsor, Connecticut.
In 1636, Massachusetts Bay Colony assistant treasurer and Puritan iconoclast William Pynchon led a group of settlers from Roxbury, Massachusetts to the Valley to establish Springfield on land scouts had found to be advantageous for farming and trading. This settlement was built north of the Connecticut River's first major falls, Enfield Falls, where seagoing vessels had to transfer cargo into smaller shallops to continue northward on the river. Due to its proximity to the banks of the river Springfield became a successful settlement on the Bay Path to Boston, as well as the Massachusetts Path to Albany; the settlement spanned both sides of the river but was partitioned in 1774 with the land on the western bank becoming West Springfield, Massachusetts. This area allotted to landowners on the east side of the river in Springfield, was settled by colonists by 1655. Holyoke as a geographic entity was incorporated as a parish; the area's first post office, "Ireland", was established June 3, 1822, with Martin Chapin as first postmaster.
Another, "Ireland Depot", was established February 26, 1847, with John M. Chapin as first postmaster, assumed the town name upon Holyoke's incorporation. Though the name Hampden was considered, the area was subsequently named for earlier Springfield settler William Pynchon's son-in-law, Elizur Holyoke, who had first explored the area in the 1650s. Following land acquisitions and development by the Hadley Falls Company, the town of Holyoke was incorporated on March 14, 1850; the first official town meeting took place a week on March 22, 1850. A part of Northampton known as Smith's Ferry was separated from the rest of the town by the creation of Easthampton in 1809; the shortest path to downtown Northampton was on a road near the Connecticut River oxbow, subject to frequent flooding. The neighborhood became the northern part of Holyoke in 1909. Holyoke had few inhabitants until the construction of the dam and the Holyoke Canal System in 1849 and the subsequent construction of water-powered mills paper mills, the first and last to operate in the city, being those of the Parsons Paper Company.
At one point over 25 paper mills were in operation in the city. The Holyoke Machine Company, manufacturer of the Hercules water turbine, was among many industrial developments of the era. Holyoke's population rose from just under 5,000 in 1860 to over 60,000 in 1920. Due to this staggering growth the municipality was incorporated as a city on April 7, 1873, only 23 years after its initial incorporation as the "Town of Holyoke"; that year the city elected its first mayor, William B. C. Pearsons, who, a quarter-century earlier, had established himself among the first lawyers in the city, was the first editorial writer of the area newspaper-of-record, the Hampden Freeman, best known as the Holyoke Transcript-Telegram. In 1888, Holyoke's paper industry spurred the foundation of the American Pad & Paper Company, which as of 2007 is one of the largest suppliers of office products in the world. Holyoke was previously the location of the headquarters of the American Writing Paper Company, a trust company established in 1899 with the merging of 23 rag paper mills, 13 of which were located in Holyoke.
At one point the company was the largest producer of fine papers in the world, however incompetent leadership lacking technical knowledge of the industry, a
Best of the Best (1989 film)
Best of the Best is a 1989 American martial arts film directed by Bob Radler, produced by Phillip Rhee, who co-stars in the film. The film starred Eric Roberts, James Earl Jones and Christopher Penn; the plot revolves around a team of American martial artists facing a team of South Korean martial artists in a karate tournament. Several subplots pop up in the story - moral conflicts, the power of the human spirit triumphing over adversity and the meaning of life are some themes. Set and filmed in Los Angeles and Seoul, South Korea, between February 13 and April 6, 1989, Best of the Best was released on November 10, 1989. Alexander Grady, a widower and father of a five-year-old son is chosen to represent the United States of America in an international martial arts tournament against Team Korea. Once a rising star in the martial arts world, he suffered a shoulder injury that forced him into retirement. Chosen for the team are Tommy Lee, a skilled fighter and martial arts instructor, Travis Brickley, an brash fighter with a short fuse.
Coached by veteran trainer Frank Couzo, the team begins training. Their chances of winning are non-existent, as the Koreans train all year long, enjoy the full funding of the country's government and are known as the best the sport has to offer. Travis starts out deliberately antagonistic to the other members of his team Tommy. More drama arises when a second assistant coach, Catherine Wade, is hired, whose more spiritual approach leads to conflict with Couzo's more aggressive coaching techniques. Further complicating the situation is the fact that Tommy is pitted against the Korean team's best fighter; when Wade learns of Tommy's past with Dae-Han she berates Coach Couzo for putting Tommy in the ring with him. The two come to an understanding after Couzo reveals that he was coaching the team in the tournament in which Tommy's brother died, has since lived with the guilt, realizing that he didn't push his team hard enough. In a conversation with Alex, Tommy reveals he's not scared of Dae Han, but rather scared that when faced with his opponent, he will kill him.
When his son is hit by a car, Alex returns home despite Couzo's warnings that he will be cut from the team over any missed training. When he returns asking to be let back on, Couzo stubbornly refuses. Tommy quits after knocking out Virgil during practice; the three remaining teammates approach Couzo and try to convince him to get Alex and Tommy back, as they need them to win. Impressed by how the team has come together, The coach allows Alex back on the team. Tommy changes his mind and just catches the team at the airport where he learns that the coach has gotten his ticket. In the first two matches of the tournament and Sonny are out classed by their Korean opponents. Travis does his best to psyche up the team with his brash attitude, going point for point with his Korean counterpart, but loses in a tie-breaker brick-breaking competition. Alex dominates his match with his opponent, Sae Jin Kwon, but takes a devastating axe-kick to his shoulder which dislocates it. Instead of giving up, he implores Tommy to "pop" the shoulder back into place and resumes the fight defeating his opponent with one arm.
Tommy faces Dae Han. After a slow start, Tommy gets the upper hand and delivers a series of blows that force Dae Han on the defensive; as the match nears its end, Tommy has brought the American team within two points of outright victory, Dae Han can stand. Tommy prepares to end the fight, but realizing that the battered Dae Han would not survive his final attack, Tommy hesitates and lets the clock run out, saving the man's life but forfeiting the overall victory. Couzo consoles Tommy afterwards, telling him, "You won that match, don't forget that". At the medal ceremony, Dae Han praises him for his honorable act, he apologizes for the death of Tommy's brother, in return offers himself as a brother. Tommy accepts, Dae Han places his medal around Tommy's neck before the two men embrace. Sae Jin Kwon walks up to Alex and states his long-time admiration for him as a fighter, before handing over his medal; the other members of Team Korea follow suit, awarding their medals to their respective American opponents.
Eric Roberts as Alexander "Alex" Grady James Earl Jones as Coach Frank Couzo Phillip Rhee as Tommy Lee Christopher Penn as Travis Brickley John Dye as Virgil Keller David Agresta as Sonny Grasso Tom Everett as Assistant Coach Don Peterson Sally Kirkland as Kathryn Wade Louise Fletcher as Mrs. Grady Edan Gross as Walter Grady Hee Il Cho as Korean Coach Simon Rhee as Dae Han Park James Lew as Sae Jin Kwon Ken Nagayama as Yung Kim Ahmad Rashād as Broadcaster Ho Sik Pak as Han Cho Dae Kyu Chang as Tung Sung Moon Emilie Hagen as Baby Walter Originally released as a vinyl record album, cassette and CD, re-released on CD in 2004. Tales of Power - Jim Capaldi Best of the Best- Stubblefield & Hall American Hotel - Kirsten Nash Something so Strong - Jim Capaldi The Devil Made Me Do It - Golden Earring Radar Love - Golden Earring Backroads - Charlie Major Original Score Medley - Paul Gilman Someday I'm Gonna Ride in a Cadillac - Charlie Major Professional critics were universally negative about the film, a
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog
Hill Street Blues
Hill Street Blues is an American serial police drama that aired on NBC in primetime from 1981 to 1987 for 146 episodes. The show chronicled the lives of the staff of a single police station located on the fictional Hill Street, in an unnamed large city, with "blues" being a slang term for police officers for their blue uniforms; the show received critical acclaim, its production innovations influenced many subsequent dramatic television series produced in the United States and Canada. Its debut season was rewarded with eight Emmy Awards, a debut season record surpassed only by The West Wing; the show received 98 Emmy nominations during its run. MTM Enterprises developed the series on behalf of NBC, appointing Steven Bochco and Michael Kozoll as series writers; the writers were allowed considerable creative freedom and created a series that brought together a number of emerging ideas in TV drama for the first time. Each episode featured a number of intertwined storylines, some of which were resolved within the episode, with others developing over a number of episodes throughout a season.
The conflicts between the work lives and private lives of the individual characters were large elements of storylines. The series featured a strong focus on the workplace struggle between "what is right" and "what works"; every episode began with a pre-credit sequence consisting of briefing and roll call at the beginning of the day shift. Many episodes were written to take place over the course of a single day, concluded with Capt. Frank Furillo and public defender Joyce Davenport in a domestic situation in bed, discussing how their respective days went; the series dealt with real-life issues and employing used language and slang to a greater extent than had been seen before, which brought a sense of verisimilitude to the production. The filming of Hill Street Blues employed what was, at that time, a unique style of camera usage for weeknight television productions, incorporating techniques such as filming being held close in with action cuts between stories. Rather than studio cameras, handhelds were used to enhance this style.
Extensive use of overheard, off-screen dialogue aurally-augmented the "documentary" feel with respect to the filmed action of a scene. Although filmed in Los Angeles, the series is set in a generic unnamed inner-city location with a feel of a U. S. urban center in the Midwest or Northeast. Bochco intended this fictional city to be a hybrid of Chicago and Pittsburgh; the program's focus on failure and those at the bottom of the social scale is pronounced much in contrast to Bochco's project L. A. Law. Inspired by police procedural detective novels such as Ed McBain's 1956 Cop Hater, the show has been described as Barney Miller out of doors; some trace the origins of this shift to the death of Michael Conrad midway through season four, leading to the replacement of the beloved Sgt. Esterhaus by Sgt. Stan Jablonski, played by Robert Prosky; the series' influence was seen in such series as NYPD Blue, Law & Order and ER. In 1982, St. Elsewhere was hyped as Hill Street Blues in a hospital; the theme song for "Hill Street Blues" was written by Mike Post, was released as a single and reached #10 on the US Billboard's Hot 100 in November 1981.
It was an Adult Contemporary hit in the U. S. and in Canada. Pilot: Brandon Tartikoff commissioned a series from MTM Productions, which assigned Bochco and Kozoll to the project; the pilot was produced in 1980, but was held back as a mid-season replacement so as not to get lost among the other programs debuting in the fall of 1980. Barbara Bosson, married to Bochco, had the idea to fashion the series into four- or five-episode story "arcs". Robert Butler directed the pilot, developing a look and style inspired by the 1977 documentary The Police Tapes, in which filmmakers used handheld cameras to follow police officers in the South Bronx. Butler went on to direct the first four episodes of the series, Bosson had hoped he would stay on permanently. However, he felt he was not being amply recognized for his contributions to the show's look and style and left to pursue other projects, he would return to direct just one further episode, "The Second Oldest Profession" in season two. Season 1: The pilot aired on Thursday, January 15, 1981, at 10:00 pm, which would be the show's time slot for nearly its entire run.
The second episode aired two nights later. NBC had ordered 13 episodes and the season was supposed to end on May 25 with a minor cliffhanger. Instead, growing critical acclaim prompted NBC to order an additional four episodes to air during the May sweeps. Bochco and Kozoll fashioned this into a new story arc, which aired as two two-hour episodes to close the season. In the first series' original ending, Officer Joe Coffey, is shot dead during a vehicle stop; however on the producers decided that Coffey should remain, so the scene was edited to show him being wounded and taken to hospital. In early episodes, the opening theme had several audible edits; the end credits for the pilot
Easthampton is a city in Hampshire County, United States. The city is on the southeastern edge of the Pioneer Valley near the five colleges in the college towns of Northampton and Amherst; the population was 16,053 at the 2010 census. Easthampton was first settled by European immigrants beginning in 1664 and was part of Northampton. In 1785, Easthampton was established as a “district” by Massachusetts, in 1809, it was incorporated as a town. Easthampton is the youngest town in Hampshire County by date of incorporation; the town grew around the Manhan River, both through its phase as a agricultural community and through the Industrial Revolution, when mills and factories were first built in Easthampton in connection with textile manufacturing and its offshoots. The first of these, the Williston-Knight Button Company, was established in 1847 by Samuel Williston, son of the town's first minister, a Congregationalist named Payson Williston; the company specialized in cloth-covered buttons – a coveted item at the time – and to facilitate the operation of the machinery, a local brook was dammed, creating Nashawannuck Pond.
Other mills soon opened nearby, a number of them specializing in elastic and rubber thread manufacturing. Following this spurt of industrial development, the town's first high school and first national bank opened in 1864, a town hall was built in 1869. Constables were replaced by the town's first police officer in 1871, the same year that Easthampton became a regular stop on the railroad; the town's public library opened in 1881, fourteen years in 1895 the community was introduced to two new innovations and streetcars. With the influx of new residents came a number of new churches, founded for Catholic, Episcopalian and Methodist parishioners, as well as a second Congregational church. In 1899, the West Boylston Manufacturing Company and the Hampton Company, both specializing in cloth production, moved to Easthampton, recruiting a larger immigrant labor force from Poland and Canada. During World War I, the town's mills all obtained federal wartime contracts and did well financially, but long before the Great Depression hit, many factories owners were laying off employees, seeking mergers with other companies, or looking for buyers for their facilities.
World War II provided some relief for the Easthampton economy, as several of the older textile companies as well as newer heavy manufacturing corporations received another round of federal contracts. However, beginning in the early 1960s a number of critical closures hit the town hard. Revitalization attempts began with the opening of a new industrial park and continued with a joint government-private industrial mall which has failed to solve higher rates of unemployment and poverty compared to Hampshire County. Small farms and well-established small businesses remain the economic core of Easthampton. Easthampton changed its charter in 1996 to become a city; the downtown area since 1996 has attracted a small community of artists and young people migrating due to Easthampton's lower cost of living compared to nearby Northampton, a hub of the bohemian community regionally. Small stores around Main Street, Union Street, Cottage Street have changed business due to the influx of this new demographic.
This growth has produced new arts and cultural events such as the monthly Art Walk Easthampton, held each "Second Saturday", in which visual and performance artists showcase their talents at venues around the city. Easthampton is just south of the geographic center of Hampshire County, it is bordered by Southampton and Westhampton to its west, by Holyoke in Hampden County to its east and south, by Northampton to its north. It has a river boundary with Hadley to its northeast across the Connecticut River; the western flanks of Mount Tom and Mount Nonotuck form its eastern boundary. Massachusetts Route 10 passes through the center of Easthampton as Main Street and Northampton Street, leading northeast 5 miles to the center of Northampton and southwest 4 miles to Southampton. Massachusetts Route 141 leads southeast from the center of Easthampton 6 miles past Mount Tom to Holyoke. Interstate 91 and U. S. Route 5 cross the northeast tip of Easthampton near the Connecticut River, leading north to Northampton and south to Holyoke.
According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the city of Easthampton has a total area of 13.6 square miles, of which 13.3 square miles are land and 0.3 square miles, or 2.02%, are water. The Manhan River crosses Easthampton north of the city center, flowing into The Oxbow, a former channel of the Connecticut River, at the northeast end of the city. In 1797, the town was divided into four school districts. By the middle of the 19th century, the town offered over twelve small schools. Over the following century, the town began to reduce the number of small schools and to build schools suited for higher volume. In 1897, an eight-room school was constructed on Maple Street; the Maple Street School was enlarged to 16 rooms. The junior high school was consolidated here from 1950 to 1962. After 1962, this school was used for elementary classes. Mount Holyoke College graduate Sarah Chapin, the last principal of girls at Williston Seminary, became the town's first high school principal in 1864. Chapin designed the initial curriculum, served as principal until ill health in 1891.
She retired with the class of 1901 and
Television, sometimes shortened to tele or telly, is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome, or in color, in two or three dimensions and sound. The term can refer to a television set, a television program, or the medium of television transmission. Television is a mass medium for advertising and news. Television became available in crude experimental forms in the late 1920s, but it would still be several years before the new technology would be marketed to consumers. After World War II, an improved form of black-and-white TV broadcasting became popular in the United States and Britain, television sets became commonplace in homes and institutions. During the 1950s, television was the primary medium for influencing public opinion. In the mid-1960s, color broadcasting was introduced in most other developed countries; the availability of multiple types of archival storage media such as Betamax, VHS tape, local disks, DVDs, flash drives, high-definition Blu-ray Discs, cloud digital video recorders has enabled viewers to watch pre-recorded material—such as movies—at home on their own time schedule.
For many reasons the convenience of remote retrieval, the storage of television and video programming now occurs on the cloud. At the end of the first decade of the 2000s, digital television transmissions increased in popularity. Another development was the move from standard-definition television to high-definition television, which provides a resolution, higher. HDTV may be transmitted in various formats: 1080p, 720p. Since 2010, with the invention of smart television, Internet television has increased the availability of television programs and movies via the Internet through streaming video services such as Netflix, Amazon Video, iPlayer and Hulu. In 2013, 79 % of the world's households owned; the replacement of early bulky, high-voltage cathode ray tube screen displays with compact, energy-efficient, flat-panel alternative technologies such as LCDs, OLED displays, plasma displays was a hardware revolution that began with computer monitors in the late 1990s. Most TV sets sold in the 2000s were flat-panel LEDs.
Major manufacturers announced the discontinuation of CRT, DLP, fluorescent-backlit LCDs by the mid-2010s. In the near future, LEDs are expected to be replaced by OLEDs. Major manufacturers have announced that they will produce smart TVs in the mid-2010s. Smart TVs with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 functions became the dominant form of television by the late 2010s. Television signals were distributed only as terrestrial television using high-powered radio-frequency transmitters to broadcast the signal to individual television receivers. Alternatively television signals are distributed by coaxial cable or optical fiber, satellite systems and, since the 2000s via the Internet; until the early 2000s, these were transmitted as analog signals, but a transition to digital television is expected to be completed worldwide by the late 2010s. A standard television set is composed of multiple internal electronic circuits, including a tuner for receiving and decoding broadcast signals. A visual display device which lacks a tuner is called a video monitor rather than a television.
The word television comes from Ancient Greek τῆλε, meaning'far', Latin visio, meaning'sight'. The first documented usage of the term dates back to 1900, when the Russian scientist Constantin Perskyi used it in a paper that he presented in French at the 1st International Congress of Electricity, which ran from 18 to 25 August 1900 during the International World Fair in Paris; the Anglicised version of the term is first attested in 1907, when it was still "...a theoretical system to transmit moving images over telegraph or telephone wires". It was "...formed in English or borrowed from French télévision." In the 19th century and early 20th century, other "...proposals for the name of a then-hypothetical technology for sending pictures over distance were telephote and televista." The abbreviation "TV" is from 1948. The use of the term to mean "a television set" dates from 1941; the use of the term to mean "television as a medium" dates from 1927. The slang term "telly" is more common in the UK; the slang term "the tube" or the "boob tube" derives from the bulky cathode ray tube used on most TVs until the advent of flat-screen TVs.
Another slang term for the TV is "idiot box". In the 1940s and throughout the 1950s, during the early rapid growth of television programming and television-set ownership in the United States, another slang term became used in that period and continues to be used today to distinguish productions created for broadcast on television from films developed for presentation in movie theaters; the "small screen", as both a compound adjective and noun, became specific references to television, while the "big screen" was used to identify productions made for theatrical release. Facsimile transmission systems for still photographs pioneered methods of mechanical scanning of images in the early 19th century. Alexander Bain introduced the facsimile machine between 1843 and 1846. Frederick Bakewell demonstrated a working laboratory version in 1851. Willoughby Smith discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium in 1873; as a 23-year-old German university student, Paul Julius Gottlieb Nipkow proposed and patented the Nipkow disk in 1884.
This was a spinning disk with a spiral pattern of holes in it, so each hole scanned a line of the image. Although he never built a working model
The Cannon Group, Inc.
The Cannon Group, Inc. was an American group of companies, including Cannon Films, which produced a distinctive line of low- to medium-budget films from 1967 to 1994. The extensive group owned, amongst others, a large international cinema chain and a video film company that invested in the video market, buying the international video rights to several classic film libraries. Cannon Films was incorporated on October 23, 1967, it was formed by Chris Dewey while they were in their early 20s. They had immediate success producing English-language versions of Swedish soft porn films directed by Joseph W. Sarno: Inga, aka Jag - en oskuld and To Ingrid, My Love, aka Kvinnolek. By 1970, they had produced films on a larger production scale than a lot of major distributors, such as Joe, starring Peter Boyle, they managed this by limiting their budgets to $300,000 per picture—or less, in some cases. However, as the 1970s moved on, a string of unsuccessful films drained Cannon’s capital. This, along with changes to film-production tax laws, led to a drop in Cannon's stock price.
By 1979, Cannon had hit serious financial difficulties, Friedland and Dewey sold Cannon to Israeli cousins Menahem Golan and Yoram Globus for $500,000. The two cousins forged a business model of buying bottom-barrel scripts and putting them into production, they tapped into a ravenous market for action B-pictures in the 1980s. Although they are most remembered for the Death Wish sequels and Chuck Norris action pictures such as The Delta Force and Invasion U. S. A. and igniting a worldwide ninja craze with "The Ninja Trilogy", an anthology series which consisted of Enter the Ninja, Revenge of the Ninja, Ninja III: The Domination all starring Sho Kosugi, as well as producing the first two American Ninja films, the vigilante thriller Exterminator 2, Cannon’s output was far more varied, with musical and comedy films such as Breakin’, Breakin’ 2: Electric Boogaloo, The Last American Virgin, the U. S. release of The Apple. One of Cannon’s biggest hits was the Vietnam action B-movie Missing in Action, with Chuck Norris.
The film, was criticized as being a preemptive cash-in on the Rambo film series. James Cameron's story treatment for Rambo: First Blood Part II was floating around Hollywood in 1983, which Golan and Globus reviewed and were "inspired" by; the writers of MIA gave Cameron credit saying their film was inspired by his script treatment. But Cannon had put the prequel Missing in Action 2: The Beginning into production. Only after the two movies were completed had the company realized that the planned second movie was superior to the first one. So, the first movie produced became an awkward prequel. During these years, Cannon worked with entertainment-advertising company Design Projects, Inc. for most of the one-sheet posters, trade advertising, large billboards prominently displayed at the Cannes Film Festival each year. Substantial pre-sales of the next years' films were made based on the strong salesmanship skills of Globus, the advertising created by Design Projects; the deposits made from these sales financed production of the first film in the production line-up, which—when completed and delivered to theatre owners around the world—generated enough money to make the next film in the line-up.
Slavenburg's bank in the Netherlands provided bridge financing until the pre-sales amounts were collected. The bank was central in the Slavenburg affair, a famous case of company fraud begun in 1983 and ending in 1990 with the conviction of four members of the management team. Slavenburg's bank was discovered to be laundering the profits of organised crime, sex clubs and the underworld, as well as being complicit in financial fraud committed by private individuals. Slavenburg's was bought in 1983 by Crédit Lyonnais. By 1986, output reached an apex with 43 films in one year. Golan remained Chairman of the Board. During this year, Cannon Films released Robotech: The Movie for a limited run in Mesquite, Texas, a suburb of Dallas. Cannon was unsatisfied with Carl Macek’s first version of the movie, a straight adaptation of the anime Megazone 23, it was at their insistence that footage from The Super Dimension Cavalry Southern Cross and Megazone 23 be spliced together to produce a more action-oriented movie.
Macek recalls that although he was unhappy with this revised version, Menahem Golan, after viewing it said: "Now that’s a Cannon movie!" Robotech: The Movie was unsuccessful in its brief Texas run and saw no further release. Carl Macek has gone on record as disowning it. Film critic Roger Ebert said of Golan-Globus in 1987, "no other production organization in the world today—certainly not any of the seven Hollywood'majors'—has taken more chances with serious, marginal films than Cannon." That year, Cannon gained its greatest artistic success: its 1986 Dutch production The Assault won the 1987 Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film and a Golden Globe Award for B