Sussex, New Brunswick
Sussex is a city in Kings County, New Brunswick, Canada. Sussex straddles the Kennebecasis River, 70 km northeast of Saint John, is a major dairy product producer in the province, it is home to Atlantic Canada's largest hot air balloon festival. Sussex is known as Cow Town, Suss Town, Dairy Town and the Mural Capital of Atlantic Canada; the Town of Sussex is located in south central New Brunswick, between the province's three largest cities, Saint John and Fredericton. In 1857 the European and North American Railway was opened, connecting the farming communities of the Kennebecasis River valley with Saint John and Moncton. Sussex was incorporated in accordance with Chapter 44 of the Town Incorporation Act of 1896 and was established as a Town on June 2, 1904; the settlers were for the most part British Loyalists who had fled the American Revolution in 1776, with many Irish refugees of the potato famine from the mid-19th century settling in the nearby farming communities. In 1885, the Sussex Military Camp was established on the eastern edge of the town.
The facility was closed following the Second World War and the town purchased the land to expand the municipal boundaries. Today the agricultural exhibition and some areas remain as open land on the former site of Camp Sussex. Sussex underwent several changes in the post-war period. In the early 1960s, several local roads were upgraded as part of the Trans-Canada Highway project which saw Route 2 pass north of the town between Fredericton and Moncton. At the same time, a series of local roads in the Kennebecasis River valley were designated as Route 1, running from an interchange with the Trans-Canada at Sussex, southwest to Saint John; the creation of Sussex as a highway interchange in this post-war period led to some transportation planners in New Brunswick calling for the consolidation or closure of the Fredericton, Saint John and Moncton airports to be replaced by a single airport located in Sussex to serve all three population centres of southern New Brunswick. Sussex is still considered the best strategically located town, being in the centre of what has been called New Brunswick's "Golden Triangle".
Potash was subsequently discovered in large quantities in the area surrounding Sussex, with the deposit being the second largest in the world after an area in Saskatchewan. Three mines were built near the town, two at Penobsquis, 8 km to the east, another at Cassidy Lake, 10 km to the southwest. CN Rail built track to serve both mines. Since 2003, natural gas has been produced from the McCully field near Sussex. Recent drops of the potash market combined with underground structural issues caused the Potash Corporation of Saskatchewan to close its Penobsquis/Picadilly mining operation in 2018. Sussex began to see a growing tourism trade, with many flocking to see the collection of wood-constructed covered bridges throughout the central area of Kings County; as the heart of Kings County with its 16 covered bridges, Sussex is known as the Covered Bridge Capital of Atlantic Canada. Eight of these wooden structures are within a ten-minute drive of town hall. An agricultural fair draws visitors each August, as well as the establishment of southern New Brunswick's only alpine ski hill in the Caledonia Mountains southeast of the town at Poley Mountain.
26 murals were created during the summers of 2006 and 2007, establishing its reputation as the Mural Capital of Atlantic Canada. An international hot air balloon festival is held every September, Canada's largest outdoor flea market each August; the town entered economic difficulty during the late 1990s after the Cassidy Lake potash mine flooded, resulting in hundreds of lay-offs. Another significant blow came in October 2002 with a realignment of the Trans-Canada Highway between Fredericton and Moncton which no longer passed through Sussex, instead carrying the province's east-west interprovincial traffic 30 km north of the town. At the same time, Route 1 was extended east on the old Trans-Canada alignment to an interchange at River Glade near Petitcodiac and Route 10 was extended on the old Trans-Canada from an interchange with the new Route 2 alignment at Young's Cove Road south to Sussex. Today, Sussex is a regional service centre for the surrounding agricultural communities of the upper Kennebecasis River valley, as well as a highway service centre on Route 1, the primary highway between Moncton and Saint John, as well as being the most travelled route in the Maritimes to the United States.
Sussex is home to Kingswood University, the only college in Canada owned by the Wesleyan Church. The town is home to a maritime beverage. Sussex claims to be the birthplace of the ice cream cone. Sussex titles itself as the Dairy Capital of New Brunswick, her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II visited the town as part of her Golden Jubilee tour of Canada. On October 12, 2002, she attended the opening of a new wing of Sussex Elementary School, unveiling a commemorative plaque at the event, she visited Princess Louise Park for an agricultural exhibition. While there, it was announced. Both appearances drew thousands of visitors from Sussex and beyond. CJCW AM 590, local radio station CITA 107.3 FM, a Moncton Christian radio station rebroadcaster CBC Radio One 106.7 FM Kings County Record - weekly newspaper The largest hot air balloon festival in Atlantic Canada is held each summer in Sussex. On the weekend after Labour Day, Sussex hosts
Dr. Andrea Schöpp is a German curler from Garmisch-Partenkirchen, she lectures part-time in statistics at the University of Munich. Schöpp is a seven-time European champion, two-time World champion and 1992 Winter Olympics champion. Schöpp has skipped every team she has played for in international events- except when she plays at the European Mixed Curling Championships, where she plays third for her brother, Rainer. Schöpp made her international debut in 1980, at the age of 15, she skipped the German team to a bronze medal at the European championships that year. She won silver medals at the Worlds in 1986 and 1987 and a bronze 1989, she continues to curl. Her fourth-place finish at the 2006 Ford World Women's Curling Championship was her highest placement since 1996 at the Worlds, she won the 2010 World Curling Championship in Swift Current, Canada with an extra-end victory over Scotland's Eve Muirhead. Schöpp won a gold medal at the 2008 European Mixed Curling Championship as a part of the team skipped by her brother Rainer.
Schöpp studied statistics at the University of Munich and earned her diploma in 1991. She completed her doctorate in 1996, has been employed by the University of Munich from 1991. Schöpp's brother, Rainer Schöpp, is a curler, she was born hours before Monika Wagner, in the same hospital. Alternative Parametrisierungen Bei Korrelierten Bivariaten Binären Responsevariablen. Vol. 1, Anwendungsorientierte Statistik. 1997. ISBN 978-3-631-30775-5 Andrea Schöpp on the World Curling Federation database Andrea Schöpp on the World Curling Tour database Andrea Schöpp on the CurlingZone database Evans, Hilary. "Andrea Schöpp". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Curling Team Schöpp
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada. It stands on the south bank of the Ottawa River in the eastern portion of southern Ontario. Ottawa borders Gatineau, Quebec; as of 2016, Ottawa had a city population of 964,743 and a metropolitan population of 1,323,783 making it the fourth-largest city and the fifth-largest CMA in Canada. Founded in 1826 as Bytown, incorporated as Ottawa in 1855, the city has evolved into the political centre of Canada, its original boundaries were expanded through numerous annexations and were replaced by a new city incorporation and amalgamation in 2001 which increased its land area. The city name "Ottawa" was chosen in reference to the Ottawa River, the name of, derived from the Algonquin Odawa, meaning "to trade". Ottawa has the most educated population among Canadian cities and is home to a number of post-secondary and cultural institutions, including the National Arts Centre, the National Gallery, numerous national museums. Ottawa has the highest standard of living in low unemployment.
With the draining of the Champlain Sea around ten thousand years ago, the Ottawa Valley became habitable. Local populations used the area for wild edible harvesting, fishing, trade and camps for over 6500 years; the Ottawa river valley has archaeological sites with arrow heads and stone tools. Three major rivers meet within Ottawa, making it an important trade and travel area for thousands of years; the Algonquins called the Ottawa River Kichi Sibi or Kichissippi meaning "Great River" or "Grand River". Étienne Brûlé regarded as the first European to travel up the Ottawa River, passed by Ottawa in 1610 on his way to the Great Lakes. Three years Samuel de Champlain wrote about the waterfalls in the area and about his encounters with the Algonquins, using the Ottawa River for centuries. Many missionaries would follow the early traders; the first maps of the area used the word Ottawa, derived from the Algonquin word adawe, to name the river. Philemon Wright, a New Englander, created the first settlement in the area on 7 March 1800 on the north side of the river, across from the present day city of Ottawa in Hull.
He, with five other families and twenty-five labourers, set about to create an agricultural community called Wrightsville. Wright pioneered the Ottawa Valley timber trade by transporting timber by river from the Ottawa Valley to Quebec City. Bytown, Ottawa's original name, was founded as a community in 1826 when hundreds of land speculators were attracted to the south side of the river when news spread that British authorities were constructing the northerly end of the Rideau Canal military project at that location; the following year, the town was named after British military engineer Colonel John By, responsible for the entire Rideau Waterway construction project. The canal's military purpose was to provide a secure route between Montreal and Kingston on Lake Ontario, bypassing a vulnerable stretch of the St. Lawrence River bordering the state of New York that had left re-supply ships bound for southwestern Ontario exposed to enemy fire during the War of 1812. Colonel By set up military barracks on the site of today's Parliament Hill.
He laid out the streets of the town and created two distinct neighbourhoods named "Upper Town" west of the canal and "Lower Town" east of the canal. Similar to its Upper Canada and Lower Canada namesakes "Upper Town" was predominantly English speaking and Protestant whereas "Lower Town" was predominantly French and Catholic. Bytown's population grew to 1,000 as the Rideau Canal was being completed in 1832. Bytown encountered some impassioned and violent times in her early pioneer period that included Irish labour unrest that attributed to the Shiners' War from 1835 to 1845 and political dissension evident from the 1849 Stony Monday Riot. In 1855 Bytown was incorporated as a city. William Pittman Lett was installed as the first city clerk guiding it through 36 years of development. On New Year's Eve 1857, Queen Victoria, as a symbolic and political gesture, was presented with the responsibility of selecting a location for the permanent capital of the Province of Canada. In reality, Prime Minister John A. Macdonald had assigned this selection process to the Executive Branch of the Government, as previous attempts to arrive at a consensus had ended in deadlock.
The "Queen's choice" turned out to be the small frontier town of Ottawa for two main reasons: Firstly, Ottawa's isolated location in a back country surrounded by dense forest far from the Canada–US border and situated on a cliff face would make it more defensible from attack. Secondly, Ottawa was midway between Toronto and Kingston and Montreal and Quebec City. Additionally, despite Ottawa's regional isolation it had seasonal water transportation access to Montreal over the Ottawa River and to Kingston via the Rideau Waterway. By 1854 it had a modern all season Bytown and Prescott Railway that carried passengers and supplies the 82-kilometres to Prescott on the Saint Lawrence River and beyond. Ottawa's small size, it was thought, would make it less prone to rampaging politically motivated mobs, as had happened in the previous Canadian capitals; the government owned the land that would become Parliament Hill which they thought would be an ideal location for the Parliament Buildings. Ottawa was th
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area, segmented into four concentric circles. It is related to bowls and shuffleboard. Two teams, each with four players, take turns sliding heavy, polished granite stones called rocks, across the ice curling sheet towards the house, a circular target marked on the ice; each team has eight stones, with each player throwing two. The purpose is to accumulate the highest score for a game. A game consists of eight or ten ends; the curler can induce a curved path by causing the stone to turn as it slides, the path of the rock may be further influenced by two sweepers with brooms, who accompany it as it slides down the sheet and sweep the ice in front of the stone. "Sweeping a rock" decreases the friction, which makes the stone travel a straighter path and a longer distance. A great deal of strategy and teamwork go into choosing the ideal path and placement of a stone for each situation, the skills of the curlers determine the degree to which the stone will achieve the desired result.
This gives curling its nickname of "chess on ice". Evidence that curling existed in Scotland in the early 16th century includes a curling stone inscribed with the date 1511 uncovered when an old pond was drained at Dunblane, Scotland; the world's oldest curling stone and the world's oldest football are now kept in the same museum in Stirling. The first written reference to a contest using stones on ice coming from the records of Paisley Abbey, Renfrewshire, in February 1541. Two paintings, "Winter Landscape with a Bird Trap" and "The Hunters in the Snow" by Pieter Bruegel the Elder depict Flemish peasants curling, albeit without brooms; the word curling first appears in print in 1620 in Perth, Scotland, in the preface and the verses of a poem by Henry Adamson. The sport was known as "the roaring game" because of the sound the stones make while traveling over the pebble; the verbal noun curling is formed from the Scots verb curl. Kilsyth Curling Club claims to be the first club in the world, having been formally constituted in 1716.
Kilsyth claims the oldest purpose-built curling pond in the world at Colzium, in the form of a low dam creating a shallow pool some 100 by 250 metres in size. The International Olympic Committee recognises the Royal Caledonian Curling Club as developing the first official rules for the sport. In the early history of curling, the playing stones were flat-bottomed stones from rivers or fields, which lacked a handle and were of inconsistent size and smoothness; some early stones had holes for the thumb, akin to ten-pin bowling balls. Unlike today, the thrower had little control over the'curl' or velocity and relied more on luck than on precision and strategy; the sport was played on frozen rivers although purpose-built ponds were created in many Scottish towns. For example, the Scottish poet David Gray describes whisky-drinking curlers on the Luggie Water at Kirkintilloch. In Darvel, East Ayrshire, the weavers relaxed by playing curling matches using the heavy stone weights from the looms' warp beams, fitted with a detachable handle for the purpose.
Many a wife would keep her husband's brass curling stone handle on the mantelpiece, brightly polished until the next time it was needed. Central Canadian curlers used'irons' rather than stones until the early 1900s. Outdoor curling was popular in Scotland between the 16th and 19th centuries because the climate provided good ice conditions every winter. Scotland is home to the international governing body for curling, the World Curling Federation in Perth, which originated as a committee of the Royal Caledonian Curling Club, the mother club of curling. Today, the sport is most established in Canada, having been taken there by Scottish emigrants; the Royal Montreal Curling Club, the oldest established sports club still active in North America, was established in 1807. The first curling club in the United States was established in 1830, the sport was introduced to Switzerland and Sweden before the end of the 19th century by Scots. Today, curling is played all over Europe and has spread to Brazil, Australia, New Zealand and Korea.
The first world championship for curling was limited to men and was known as the Scotch Cup, held in Falkirk and Edinburgh, Scotland, in 1959. The first world title was won by the Canadian team from Regina, skipped by Ernie Richardson. Curling was one of the first sports, popular with women and girls. Curling has been a medal sport in the Winter Olympic Games since the 1998 Winter Olympics, it includes men's, women's and mixed doubles tournaments. In February 2002, the International Olympic Committee retroactively decided that the curling competition from the 1924 Winter Olympics (originally called Semaine des Sports d'Hiver, or Int
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Université libre de Bruxelles
The Université Libre de Bruxelles, abbreviated ULB, is a French-speaking private research university in Brussels, Belgium. The Free University of Brussels was established in 1834 by Belgian lawyer Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen and split into the French-speaking ULB and Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel in 1970, it is one of the most important Belgian universities. A major research center open to Europe and the world, it has about 24,200 students, 33% of whom come from abroad, an cosmopolitan staff. In 2018, ULB was globally ranked 175th by 151th by Shanghai Ranking. Brussels has two universities whose names mean Free University of Brussels in English: the French-speaking Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Dutch-speaking Vrije Universiteit Brussel. Neither uses the English translation; when the Belgian State was formed in 1830 by nine breakaway provinces from the Kingdom of the Netherlands, it had three state universities, in Ghent, Liège and Leuven, but no university in the new capital, Brussels.
Since the government was reluctant to fund another state university, a group of Freemasons and intellectuals led by Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen and Auguste Baron planned to create a private university, permitted under the Belgian Constitution. After the Catholic Church sponsored the foundation of the Catholic University of Mechlin in 1834, the Université Libre de Belgique opened on 20 November 1834. In 1836, it changed its name to Université Libre de Bruxelles; the school's football team won the bronze medal at the 1900 Summer Olympics. As part of its commitment to academic freedom, the ULB closed down in 1941 rather than collaborate with the Nazi occupation of Belgium. Since 1935, some courses have been taught in both Dutch. Beginning in 1963, all faculties offered courses in both languages. In October 1969, shortly after the language dispute at the Catholic University of Leuven, the French and Dutch entities of the ULB separated into two distinct universities. With the act of 28 May 1970, the Vrije Universiteit Brussel and the Université Libre de Bruxelles became two separate legal and scientific entities.
November 20, called Saint Verhagen for Pierre-Théodore Verhaegen, is a holiday for students of both the Université Libre de Bruxelles and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel. The ULB comprises three main campuses: the Solbosch campus, on the territories of Brussels and Ixelles municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region, the Plaine campus in Ixelles, the Erasmus campus in Anderlecht, beside the Erasmus Hospital; the main and largest campus of the university is the Solbosch, which hosts the administration and general services of the university. It includes most of the faculties of the humanities, the École polytechnique, the large library of social sciences, among the museums of the ULB, the Museum of Zoology and Anthropology, the Allende exhibition room and the M. De Ghelderode Museum; the Plaine campus hosts the Faculty of Pharmacy. There are the Experimentariums of physics and chemistry, the Museum of Medicinal Plants and Pharmacy and student housing; this site is served by the metro station: Delta.
The Erasmus campus houses the Erasmus Hospital and the Pôle Santé, the Faculty of Medicine, the School of Public Health and the Faculty of Motor Sciences. There is the School of Nursing, the Museum of Medicine and the Museum of Human Anatomy and Embryology; this site is served by the metro station: Erasmus. The university has buildings and activities in the Brussels municipality of Auderghem, outside of Brussels, in Charleroi on the Aéropole Science Park and Nivelles. Institute for European Studies Interfacultary School of Bio-Engineering School of Public Health High Institute of Physical Education and Kinesiotherapy Institute of Work Sciences Institute of Statistics and Operational Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics University of California, University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, Université de Montréal, Waseda University, Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris VI, BeiHang University, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Université de Lausanne, Université de Genève, University Ouaga I Pr.
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