In biology, a pair bond is the strong affinity that develops in some species between a mating pair consisting of a male and a female, leading to the production and rearing of offspring and a lifelong bond. Pair-bonding is a term coined in the 1940s, used in sociobiology and evolutionary biology circles; the term implies either a lifelong monogamous relationship or a stage of mating interaction in monogamous species. It is sometimes used in reference to human relationships. Monogamous voles have greater density and distribution of vasopressin receptors in their brain when compared to polygamous voles; these differences are located in the dopamine-mediated reward pathway. Peptide arginine vasopressin and oxytocin act in this region to coordinate rewarding activities such as mating, regulate selective affiliation; these species-specific differences have shown to correlate with social behaviors, in monogamous prairie voles are important for facilitation of pair bonding. When compared to montane voles, which are polygamous, monogamous prairie voles appear to have more of these AVP and oxytocin neurotransmitter receptors.
It is important that these receptors are in the reward centers of the brain because that could lead to a conditioned partner in the prairie vole compared to the montane vole which would explain why the prairie vole forms pair bonds and the montane vole does not. According to evolutionary psychologists David P. Barash and Judith Lipton, from their 2001 book The Myth of Monogamy, there are several varieties of pair bonds: Short-term pair-bond: a transient mating or associations Long-term pair-bond: bonded for a significant portion of the life cycle of that pair Lifelong pair-bond: mated for life Social pair-bond: attachments for territorial or social reasons, as in cuckold situations Clandestine pair-bond: quick extra-pair copulations Dynamic pair-bond: e.g. gibbon mating systems being analogous to "swingers" Humans can experience some or all of the above-mentioned varieties of pair bonds in their lifetime. These bonds can last a lifetime, same age or with different age groups. In a biological sense there are two main types of pair bonds exhibited in humans: social pair bonding and sexual pair bonding.
The social pair bond is a strong behavioral and psychological relationship between two individuals, measurably different in physiological and emotional terms from general friendships or other acquaintance relationships. On the other hand, the sexual pair bond is a behavioral and physiological bond between two individuals with a strong sexual attraction component. In this bond the participants in the sexual pair bond prefer to have sex with each other over other options. Social pair bonds are more wide-ranging than their sexual counterparts due to the sexual nature involved in the latter. In humans and other mammals, these pair bonds are created by a combination of social interaction and biological factors including neurotransmitters like oxytocin and dopamine. Pair bonds are a biological phenomenon and are not equivalent to the human social institution of marriage. Marriage can be associated with a social pair bond. Marriage can be a consequence of pair vice versa. Pair bonding in humans helps explain extreme "bonds" that we may share with others but are unable to articulate in terms of contemporary "love".
Close to ninety percent of known avian species are monogamous, compared to five percent of known mammalian species. The majority of monogamous avians form long-term pair bonds which result in seasonal mating: these species breed with a single partner, raise their young, pair up with a new mate to repeat the cycle during the next season; some avians such as swans, bald eagles, California condors, the Atlantic Puffin are not only monogamous, but form lifelong pair bonds. When discussing the social life of the bank swallow and Barash state: For about four days prior to egg-laying, when copulations lead to fertilizations, the male bank swallow is busy, attentively guarding his female. Before this time, as well as after—that is, when her eggs are not ripe, again after his genes are safely tucked away inside the shells—he goes seeking extra-pair copulations with the mates of other males…who, of course, are busy with defensive mate-guarding of their own. In various species, males provide parental care and females mate with multiple males.
For example, recent studies show that extra-pair copulation occurs in monogamous birds in which a "social" father provides intensive care for its "social" offspring. A University of Florida scientist reports that male sand gobies work harder at building nests and taking care of eggs when females are present – the first time such “courtship parental care” has been documented in any species. In the cichlid species Tropheus moorii, a male and female will form a temporary monogamous pair bond and spawn. T. moorii broods exhibit genetic monogamy. Another mouth brooding cichlid - the Lake Tanganyika cichlid has been shown that mating pairs maintain pair bonds at least until the shift of young from female to male. More the Australian Murray cod has been seen maintaining pair bonds over 3 years As noted above, different species of voles vary in their sexual behavior, these differences correlate with expression levels of vasopressin receptors in reward ar
A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species in the form of a scientific paper. Its purpose is to give a clear description of a new species of organism and explain how it differs from species which have been described or are related; the species description contains photographs or other illustrations of the type material and states in which museums it has been deposited. The publication in which the species is described gives the new species a formal scientific name; some 1.9 million species have been identified and described, out of some 8.7 million that may exist. Millions more have become extinct. A name of a new species becomes valid with the date of publication of its formal scientific description. Once the scientist has performed the necessary research to determine that the discovered organism represents a new species, the scientific results are summarized in a scientific manuscript, either as part of a book, or as a paper to be submitted to a scientific journal.
A scientific species description must fulfill several formal criteria specified by the nomenclature codes, e.g. selection of at least one type specimen. These criteria are intended to ensure that the species name is clear and unambiguous, for example, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature states that "Authors should exercise reasonable care and consideration in forming new names to ensure that they are chosen with their subsequent users in mind and that, as far as possible, they are appropriate, euphonious, do not cause offence."Species names are written in the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet, but many species names are based on words from other languages, Latinized. Once the manuscript has been accepted for publication, the new species name is created. Once a species name has been assigned and approved, it can not be changed except in the case of error. For example, a species of beetle was named by a German collector after Adolf Hitler in 1933 when he had become chancellor of Germany.
It is not clear whether such a dedication would be considered acceptable or appropriate today, but the name remains in use. Species names have been chosen on many different bases. Most common is a naming for the species' external appearance, its origin, or the species name is a dedication for a certain person. Examples would include a bat species named for the two stripes on its back, a frog named for its Bolivian origin, an ant species dedicated to the actor Harrison Ford. A scientific name in honor of a person or persons is a known as a taxonomic patronym. A number of humorous species names exist. Literary examples include the genus name Borogovia, named after the borogove, a mythical character from Lewis Carrol's poem "Jabberwocky". A second example, Macrocarpaea apparata was named after the magical spell "to apparate" from the Harry Potter novels by J. K. Rowling, as it seemed to appear out of nowhere. In 1975, the British naturalist Peter Scott proposed the binomial name Nessiteras rhombopteryx for the Loch Ness Monster.
Species have been named by scientists in recognition of supporters and benefactors. For example, the genus Victoria was named in honour of Queen Victoria of Great Britain. More a species of lemur was named after the actor John Cleese in recognition of his work to publicize the plight of lemurs in Madagascar. Non-profit ecological organizations may allow benefactors to name new species in exchange for financial support for taxonomic research and nature conservation. A German non-profit organisation, BIOPAT - Patrons for Biodiversity has raised more than $450,000 for research and conservation through sponsorship of over 100 species using this model. An individual example of this system is the Callicebus aureipalatii, named after the Golden Palace casino in recognition of a $650,000 contribution to the Madidi National Park in Bolivia in 2005; the International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants discourages this practice somewhat: "Recommendation 20A. Authors forming generic names should comply with the following...
Not dedicate genera to persons quite unconcerned with botany, phycology, or natural science in general." Early biologists published entire volumes or multiple-volume works of descriptions in an attempt to catalog all known species. These catalogs featured extensive descriptions of each species and were illustrated upon reprinting; the first of these large catalogs was Aristotle's History of Animals, published around 343 B. C. Aristotle included descriptions of creatures fish and invertebrates, in his homeland, several mythological creatures rumored to live in far-away lands, such as the manticore. In 77 A. D. Pliny the Elder dedicated several volumes of his Natural History to the description of all life forms he knew to exist, he appears to have read Aristotle's work, since he writes about many of the same far-away mythological creatures. Toward the end of the 12th century, Konungs skuggsjá, an Old Norse philosophical didactic work, featured several descriptions of the whales and monsters of the Icelandic seas.
These descriptions were brief and erroneous, a description of the mermaid and a rare island-like sea monster called Hafgufu was included. The author was hesitant to mention the beast for fear of it
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms a species. The moment of extinction is considered to be the death of the last individual of the species, although the capacity to breed and recover may have been lost before this point; because a species' potential range may be large, determining this moment is difficult, is done retrospectively. This difficulty leads to phenomena such as Lazarus taxa, where a species presumed extinct abruptly "reappears" after a period of apparent absence. More than 99 percent of all species, amounting to over five billion species, that lived on Earth are estimated to have died out. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described. In 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth with only one-thousandth of one percent described. Through evolution, species arise through the process of speciation—where new varieties of organisms arise and thrive when they are able to find and exploit an ecological niche—and species become extinct when they are no longer able to survive in changing conditions or against superior competition.
The relationship between animals and their ecological niches has been established. A typical species becomes extinct within 10 million years of its first appearance, although some species, called living fossils, survive with no morphological change for hundreds of millions of years. Mass extinctions are rare events. Only have extinctions been recorded and scientists have become alarmed at the current high rate of extinctions. Most species that become extinct are never scientifically documented; some scientists estimate that up to half of presently existing plant and animal species may become extinct by 2100. A 2018 report indicated that the phylogenetic diversity of 300 mammalian species erased during the human era since the Late Pleistocene would require 5 to 7 million years to recover. A dagger symbol placed next to the name of a species or other taxon indicates its status as extinct. A species is extinct. Extinction therefore becomes a certainty when there are no surviving individuals that can reproduce and create a new generation.
A species may become functionally extinct when only a handful of individuals survive, which cannot reproduce due to poor health, sparse distribution over a large range, a lack of individuals of both sexes, or other reasons. Pinpointing the extinction of a species requires a clear definition of that species. If it is to be declared extinct, the species in question must be uniquely distinguishable from any ancestor or daughter species, from any other related species. Extinction of a species plays a key role in the punctuated equilibrium hypothesis of Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. In ecology, extinction is used informally to refer to local extinction, in which a species ceases to exist in the chosen area of study, but may still exist elsewhere; this phenomenon is known as extirpation. Local extinctions may be followed by a replacement of the species taken from other locations. Species which are not extinct are termed extant; those that are extant but threatened by extinction are referred to as threatened or endangered species.
An important aspect of extinction is human attempts to preserve critically endangered species. These are reflected by the creation of the conservation status "extinct in the wild". Species listed under this status by the International Union for Conservation of Nature are not known to have any living specimens in the wild, are maintained only in zoos or other artificial environments; some of these species are functionally extinct, as they are no longer part of their natural habitat and it is unlikely the species will be restored to the wild. When possible, modern zoological institutions try to maintain a viable population for species preservation and possible future reintroduction to the wild, through use of planned breeding programs; the extinction of one species' wild population can have knock-on effects, causing further extinctions. These are called "chains of extinction"; this is common with extinction of keystone species. A 2018 study indicated that the 6th mass extinction started in the Late Pleistocene could take up to 5 to 7 million years to restore 2.5 billion years of unique mammal diversity to what it was before the human era.
Extinction of a parent species where daughter species or subspecies are still extant is called pseudoextinction or phyletic extinction. The old taxon vanishes, transformed into a successor, or split into more than one. Pseudoextinction is difficult to demonstrate unless one has a strong chain of evidence linking a living species to members of a pre-existing species. For example, it is sometimes claimed that the extinct Hyracotherium, an early horse that shares a common ancestor with the modern horse, is pseudoextinct, rather than extinct, because there are several extant species of Equus, including zebra and donkey. However, as fossil species leave no genetic material behind, one cannot say whether Hyracotherium evolved into more modern horse species or evolved from a common ancestor with modern horses. Pseudoextinction is much easier to demonstrate for larger taxonomic groups; the coelacanth, a fish related to lungfish and tetrapods, was consi
Primorskaya Oblast was an administrative division of the Russian Empire and the early Russian SFSR, created on October 31, 1856 by the Governing Senate. The name of the region means Maritime or Coastal; the region was established upon a Russian conquest of Daur people that used to live along Amur River. Before the conquest, the territory belonged to the Chinese region of Manchuria; the Amur river region was raided by the 1651 Russian expedition of Yerofey Khabarov, after which the indigenous Daur people were either killed or flee away further onto territory of the Qing Dynasty. Before the conquest, the territory belonged to the Chinese region of Manchuria; the precursor of Primorskaya Oblast was the Albazino Voivodeship that existed 1882-1886 and was removed upon the conclusion of the Sino-Russian border conflicts which led to signing of the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk. At first it was part of the Eastern Siberian General Government, but since 1884 within the Cis-Amur General Government; the oblast included the whole northeastern portion of Russia and territories of the Cis-Amur region.
It was organized out of the newly acquired territories of Amur River valley, Kamchatka Oblast, Sakhalin. In 1858 the territory of the left-bank Amur River to the mouth of Ussuri River was passed to the newly established Amur Oblast. At that time the region only included four districts: Nikolayevsk, Okhotsk, Kamchatka. According to the Peking Treaty, in 1860 to the region was annexed the Ussuri Krai based on the Treaty of Aigun and the Convention of Peking. In 1880-1888 there was created a separate Vladivostok Military Governorate that included Muravyov-Amursky Peninsula and the port of Vladivostok. In 1884 Sakhalin was carved away into a separate administrative territory; the seat of the oblast was in Nikolayevsk-on-Amur, in 1880-1888 – Khabarovka, since 1888 it was moved to Vladivostok. In 1920 Primorskaya Oblast was included into the Far Eastern Republic and in 1922 transformed into Primorskaya Governorate. In 1932-1939 there existed a region with the same name, part of the Far Eastern Krai of the Russian SFSR.
Amur Acquisition 1855 Treaty of Shimoda, Japan-Russia delimitation treaty on Sakhalin and Kurile islands "История Советского Приморья", под ред. А. И. Крушанова. Дальневосточное книжное издательство. Владивосток, 1976. Ilyinykh, V. Sviryukova, V. Primorskaya Oblast. Historical Encyclopedia of Siberia. 2009. Map of the Moscow Tsardom before the 1689 Treaty of Nerchinsk. "History.ru" Map of Qing dynasty in 17th century. "History.ru" World map of the mid 18th century. "History.ru" Map of the Russian Empire in 18th century. "History.ru"
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, country or other defined zone, or habitat type. The extreme opposite of endemism is cosmopolitan distribution. An alternative term for a species, endemic is precinctive, which applies to species that are restricted to a defined geographical area; the word endemic is from New Latin endēmicus, from Greek ενδήμος, endēmos, "native". Endēmos is formed of en meaning "in", dēmos meaning "the people"; the term "precinctive" has been suggested by some scientists, was first used in botany by MacCaughey in 1917. It is the equivalent of "endemism". Precinction was first used by Frank and McCoy. Precinctive seems to have been coined by David Sharp when describing the Hawaiian fauna in 1900: "I use the word precinctive in the sense of'confined to the area under discussion'...'precinctive forms' means those forms that are confined to the area specified." That definition excludes artificial confinement of examples by humans in far-off botanical gardens or zoological parks.
Physical and biological factors can contribute to endemism. The orange-breasted sunbird is found in the fynbos vegetation zone of southwestern South Africa; the glacier bear is found only in limited places in Southeast Alaska. Political factors can play a part if a species is protected, or hunted, in one jurisdiction but not another. There are two subcategories of endemism: neoendemism. Paleoendemism refers to species that were widespread but are now restricted to a smaller area. Neoendemism refers to species that have arisen, such as through divergence and reproductive isolation or through hybridization and polyploidy in plants. Endemic types or species are likely to develop on geographically and biologically isolated areas such as islands and remote island groups, such as Hawaii, the Galápagos Islands, Socotra. Hydrangea hirta is an example of an endemic species found in Japan. Endemics can become endangered or extinct if their restricted habitat changes, particularly—but not only—due to human actions, including the introduction of new organisms.
There were millions of both Bermuda petrels and "Bermuda cedars" in Bermuda when it was settled at the start of the seventeenth century. By the end of the century, the petrels were thought extinct. Cedars ravaged by centuries of shipbuilding, were driven nearly to extinction in the twentieth century by the introduction of a parasite. Bermuda petrels and cedars are now rare. Principal causes of habitat degradation and loss in endemistic ecosystems include agriculture, urban growth, surface mining, mineral extraction, logging operations and slash-and-burn agriculture
Bad Deutsch-Altenburg is a market town and spa in the district of Bruck an der Leitha in Lower Austria in Austria. The town lies in the Lower Austrian Industrieviertel region, on the right riverbank of the Danube River and the Danube-Auen National Park, south-west of Hainburg an der Donau and Devín Gate. On 8 August 2013 it recorded 40.5C, the highest temperature recorded in Austria. The health resort is centered on iodine and sulfur springs, which are one of the most powerful in Central Europe; the settlement in the Duchy of Austria, located around a medieval castle at the site of the former Roman camp of Carnuntum, was first mentioned in 1297 and received market rights in 1579. The prefix Deutsch- was added to differ it from nearby Altenburg in Hungary. From 1916/17 it was the site of a large longwave and high frequency radio transmitter station, dismantled in the 1980s. In March 1945 numerous Jewish forced labourers were deported on a death march from the South-east wall to Bad Deutsch-Altenburg where they had to embark up the Danube to Mauthausen concentration camp.
A memorial stone marks the site of a mass grave, where exhausted prisoners shot by the security forces were buried. Seats in the municipal assembly as of 2010 elections: Social Democratic Party of Austria: 7 Austrian People's Party: 5 Team Altenburg: 5 Wir Altenburger: 1 Freedom Party of Austria: 1 Carl Hollitzer, caricaturist and cabaret artist Blessed Anton Durcovici, Catholic clergyman and Bishop of Iaşi Hannes Swoboda, politician
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features. This includes aspects of the outward appearance, i.e. external morphology, as well as the form and structure of the internal parts like bones and organs, i.e. internal morphology. This is in contrast to physiology, which deals with function. Morphology is a branch of life science dealing with the study of gross structure of an organism or taxon and its component parts; the word "morphology" is from the Ancient Greek μορφή, morphé, meaning "form", λόγος, lógos, meaning "word, research". While the concept of form in biology, opposed to function, dates back to Aristotle, the field of morphology was developed by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and independently by the German anatomist and physiologist Karl Friedrich Burdach. Among other important theorists of morphology are Lorenz Oken, Georges Cuvier, Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Richard Owen, Karl Gegenbaur and Ernst Haeckel.
In 1830, Cuvier and E. G. Saint-Hilaire engaged in a famous debate, said to exemplify the two major deviations in biological thinking at the time – whether animal structure was due to function or evolution. Comparative morphology is analysis of the patterns of the locus of structures within the body plan of an organism, forms the basis of taxonomical categorization. Functional morphology is the study of the relationship between the structure and function of morphological features. Experimental morphology is the study of the effects of external factors upon the morphology of organisms under experimental conditions, such as the effect of genetic mutation. "Anatomy" is a "branch of morphology that deals with the structure of organisms". Molecular Morphology is a term used in English-speaking countries for describing the structure of compound molecules, such as polymers and ribonucleic acid. Gross Morphology refers to the collective structures of an organism as a whole as a general description of the form and structure of an organism, taking into account all of its structures without specifying an individual structure.
Most taxa differ morphologically from other taxa. Related taxa differ much less than more distantly related ones, but there are exceptions to this. Cryptic species are species which look similar, or even outwardly identical, but are reproductively isolated. Conversely, sometimes unrelated taxa acquire a similar appearance as a result of convergent evolution or mimicry. In addition, there can be morphological differences within a species, such as in Apoica flavissima where queens are smaller than workers. A further problem with relying on morphological data is that what may appear, morphologically speaking, to be two distinct species, may in fact be shown by DNA analysis to be a single species; the significance of these differences can be examined through the use of allometric engineering in which one or both species are manipulated to phenocopy the other species. A step relevant to the evaluation of morphology between traits/features within species, includes an assessment of the terms: homology and homoplasy.
Homology between features indicate. Alternatively, homoplasy between features describes those that can resemble each other, but derive independently via parallel or convergent evolution. Invention and development of microscopy enable the observation of 3-D cell morphology with both high spatial and temporal resolution; the dynamic processes of these cell morphology which are controlled by a complex system play an important role in varied important biological process, such as immune and invasive responses. Comparative anatomy Insect morphology Morphometrics Neuromorphology Phenetics Phenotype Phenotypic plasticity Plant morphology Media related to Morphology at Wikimedia Commons