The Alborz spelled as Alburz, Elburz or Elborz, is a mountain range in northern Iran that stretches from the border of Azerbaijan along the western and entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea and runs northeast and merges into the Aladagh Mountains in the northern parts of Khorasan. This mountain range is divided into Western and Eastern Alborz Mountains; the Western Alborz Range runs south-southeastward along the western coast of the Caspian Sea. The Central Alborz runs from west to east along the entire southern coast of the Caspian Sea, while the Eastern Alborz runs in a northeasterly direction towards the northern parts of the Khorasan region southeast of the Caspian Sea. Mount Damavand, the highest mountain in Iran measuring 5,610.0 m, is located in the Central Alborz Mountains. The name Alborz is derived from that of Harā Barazaitī, a legendary mountain in the Avesta, the main text of Zoroastrianism. Harā Barazaitī reflects Proto-Iranian *Harā Bṛzatī. *Bṛzatī is the feminine form of the adjective *bṛzant- "high", the ancestor of modern Persian boland and Barz/Berazandeh, cognate with Sanskrit Brihat.
Harā may be interpreted as "watch" or "guard", from an Indo-European root *ser- "protect". In Middle Persian, Harā Barazaitī became Harborz, Modern Persian Alborz, a cognate with Elbrus, the highest peak of the Caucasus. Zoroastrians may identify the range with the dwelling place of the Peshyotan, the Zoroastrian Ilm-e-Kshnoom sect identify Mount Davamand as the home of the Saheb-e-Dilan. In his epic Shahnameh, the poet Ferdowsi speaks of the mountains "as though they lay in India." This could reflect older usage, for numerous high peaks were given the name and some reflect it to this day, for example, Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus Mountains, Mount Elbariz in the Kerman area above the Strait of Hormuz. All these names reflect the same Iranian language compound, share an identification as the legendary mountain Harā Bərəzaitī of the Avesta; the Alborz mountain range forms a barrier between the Iranian plateau. It is only 60–130 km wide and consists of sedimentary series dating from Upper Devonian to Oligocene, prevalently Jurassic limestone over a granite core.
Continental conditions regarding sedimentation are reflected by thick Devonian sandstones and by Jurassic shales containing coal seams. Marine conditions are reflected by Carboniferous and Permian strata that are composed of limestones. In the Eastern Alborz Range, the far eastern section is formed by Mesozoic rocks, while the western part of the Eastern Alborz Range is made of Paleozoic rocks. Precambrian rocks can be found chiefly south of the city of Gorgan situated in the southeast of the Caspian Sea and in much smaller portions in the central and western parts of the Central Alborz Range; the central part of the Central Alborz Range is formed of the Triassic and Jurassic rocks, while the northwestern section of the range is made of the Jurassic rocks. Thick beds of the Tertiary green volcanic tuffs and lavas are found in the southwestern and south-central parts of the range; the far northwestern part of the Alborz that constitutes what is called the Western Alborz Range or the Talish Mountains is made of the Upper Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary deposits with a strip of Paleozoic rocks and a band of Triassic and Jurassic rocks in the southern parts, both in a northwest-southeast direction.
As the Tethys Sea was closed and the Arabian Plate collided with the Iranian Plate and was pushed against it, with the clockwise movement of the Eurasian Plate towards the Iranian Plate and their final collision, the Iranian Plate was pressed from both sides. The collisions caused the folding of the Upper Paleozoic and Paleogene rocks, the Cenozoic volcanism to form the Alborz Mountains in the Miocene; the Alpine orogeny began, with Eocene volcanism in southwestern and south-central parts of the Alborz and continued with the uplift and folding of the older sedimentary rocks in the northwestern and eastern parts of the range during the orogenic phases of importance that date from the Miocene and the Pliocene epochs. While the southern slopes of the Alborz Mountains are semiarid or arid with irregular and low precipitation, the northern slopes of the range are humid in the western parts of the Central Alborz. In the southern slopes or the Elburz Range forest steppe ecoregion, the higher elevations are arid with few trees.
Juniper is the most common tree in the inaccessible areas and high elevations, while shrubs are pistachio and almond. But in the northern slopes, the Caspian Hyrcanian mixed forests ecoregion is forested; the natural vegetation of this region grows in distinct zones: the Hyrcanian forests on the lowest levels. The wild cypress is the dominant form of vegetation in some valleys, while olive trees grow in the western valleys of the Central Alborz near the Sefidrud; the bezoar ibex, Blanford's fox, Rüppell's fox, red fox, Persian fallow deer, wild boar, Syrian brown bear, Persian leopard, Indian wolf, goose, griffon vulture, eagle are among important animals and birds found in the Alborz Mountains. The extinct Caspian tiger lived in the Alborz Mountains. Due to the great snowy winters of the Alborz Mountains, there are several ski resorts in different places of the range; some consider. Some of most importan
Valiasr Street or Pahlavi Street is a tree-lined street in Tehran, dividing the metropolis into western and eastern parts built in 1922 to 1927, considering the end of asphalt plan it ended in 1933. It is considered one of Tehran's main thoroughfares and commercial centres, it is the longest street in the Middle East, was reported as one of the longest in the world by former BBC journalist Rageh Omaar during the television documentary Welcome to Tehran. The street was called the Pahlavi Street. After the 1979 Islamic Revolution the street's name was changed to Mossadeq Street and to Valiasr. Valiasr Street is the hub of different activities in Tehran and innumerable shops and restaurants as well a large number of parks, cultural centers are situated along this long avenue. Valiasr Avenue is the main Shopping street in whole Iran. Many foreign chain stores have branches on this street like Benetton Group, Adidas, etc. Many important shopping centers of Tehran are located on the Valiasr street like the Tandis Center, the Safavieh Mall, the Eskan Shopping center and many more.
Many luxury jewellery and accessories stores like Rolex, Tag Heuer, etc. are located on this street. Furthermore, hundreds of other local stores are located at Valiasr. Many Restaurants and hotels are distributed on this street. Tehran City Theatre Mellat Park and Saéi Park Many Cinemas Valiasr runs from the Tehran's railway station in the south of the city to the Tajrish square in the north. Valiasr runs for 12 miles, north to south, is filled with traffic at all hours until the early hours of the morning; the shops stay open late and the kiosks sell fresh fruit juice and newspapers. List of upscale shopping districts google earth Pictures of Tehran
An urban park or metropolitan park known as a municipal park or a public park, public open space, or municipal gardens, is a park in cities and other incorporated places to offer recreation and green space to residents of, visitors to, the municipality. The design and maintenance is done by government agencies on the local level, but may be contracted out to a park conservancy, friends of group, or private sector company. Common features of municipal parks include playgrounds, hiking and fitness trails or paths, bridle paths, sports fields and courts, public restrooms, boat ramps, and/or picnic facilities, depending on the budget and natural features available. Park advocates claim that having parks near urban residents, including within a 10-minute walk, provide multiple benefits. A park is an area of open space provided for recreational use owned and maintained by a local government. Grass is kept short to discourage insect pests and to allow for the enjoyment of picnics and sporting activities.
Trees are chosen for their beauty and to provide shade, with an increasing emphasis on reducing an urban heat island effect. Some early parks include the La Alameda de Hércules, in Seville, a promenaded public mall, urban garden and park built in 1574, within the historic center of Seville; the Városliget in the City of Pest, what is today Budapest, was a city property when afforestation started in the middle of the 18th century, from the 1790s with the clear aim to create a public park. Between 1799 and 1805 it was rented out to the Batthyány family to carry out such a project but the city had taken back control and in 1813 announced a design competition to finish the park. An early purpose-built public park, although financed was Princes Park in the Liverpool suburb of Toxteth; this was laid out to the designs of Joseph Paxton from 1842 and opened in 1843. The land on which the park was built was purchased by Richard Vaughan Yates, an iron merchant and philanthropist, in 1841 for £50,000; the creation of Princes Park showed great foresight and introduced a number of influential ideas.
First and foremost was the provision of open space for the benefit of townspeople and local residents within an area, being built up. Secondly it took the concept of the designed landscape as a setting for the suburban domicile and re-fashioned it for the provincial town in a most original way. Nash's remodelling of St James's Park from 1827 and the sequence of processional routes he created to link The Mall with Regent's Park transformed the appearance of London's West End. With the establishment of Princes Park in 1842, Joseph Paxton did something similar for the benefit of a provincial town, albeit one of international stature by virtue of its flourishing mercantile sector. Liverpool had a burgeoning presence in global maritime trade before 1800, during the Victorian era its wealth rivalled that of London itself; the form and layout of Paxton's ornamental grounds, structured about an informal lake within the confines of a serpentine carriageway, put in place the essential elements of his much-imitated design for Birkenhead Park in Birkenhead.
The latter commenced in 1843 with the help of public finance and deployed the ideas which Paxton had pioneered at Princes Park on a more expansive scale. Frederick Law Olmsted praised its qualities. Indeed, Paxton is credited as having been one of the principal influences on Olmsted and Calvert's design for New York's Central Park of 1857. Another early public park, the Peel Park, England, opened on 22 August 1846. In The Politics of Park Design: A History of Urban Parks in America, Professor Galen Cranz identifies four phases of park design in the U. S. In the late 19th century, city governments purchased large tracts of land on the outskirts of cities to form "pleasure grounds": semi-open, charmingly landscaped areas whose primary purpose was to allow city residents the workers, to relax in nature; as time passed and the urban area grew around the parks, land in these parks was used for other purposes, such as zoos, golf courses and museums. These parks continue to draw visitors from around the region and are considered regional parks, because they require a higher level of management than smaller local parks.
According to the Trust for Public Land, the three most visited municipal parks in the United States are Central Park in New York, Lincoln Park in Chicago, Mission Bay Park in San Diego. In the early 1900s, according to Cranz, U. S. cities built neighborhood parks with swimming pools and civic buildings, with the intention of Americanizing the immigrant residents. In the 1950s, when money became available after World War II, new parks continued to focus on both outdoor and indoor recreation with services, such as sports leagues using their ball fields and gymnasia; these smaller parks were built in residential neighborhoods, tried to serve all residents with programs for seniors, adults and children. Green space was of secondary importance; as urban land prices climbed, new urban parks in the 1960s and after have been pocket parks. One example of a pocket park is Chess Park in California; the American Society of Landscape Architects gave this park a General Design Award of Honor in 2006. These small parks provide greenery, a place to sit outdoors, a playground for children.
All four types of park continue to exist in urban areas. Because of the large amount of open space and natural habitat in the former pleasure grounds, the
A cinematheque is a small motion-picture theater that specializes in important, avant-garde, or art-house films. Part of a university or private archive, a cinematheque may have only one screen, but larger ones have multiple screens. In 1935 Henri Langlois and Georges Franju founded a film club to show old films from which originated the Cinémathèque Française in 1936; the idea to archive old films was by no means self-evident at the time. Langlois was able to save many films. In 1933, the British Film Institute was founded in London. In 1938 Henri Storck, André Thirifays and Pierre Vermeylen founded the Cinémathèque Royale de Belgique in Belgium. In 1938, the International Federation of Film Archives was founded in Paris. North AmericaCanadaCinémathèque québécoise in Montreal Pacific Cinémathèque in Vancouver TIFF Cinematheque in Toronto Cinematheque Waterloo in Waterloo Winnipeg Film Group's Cinematheque in WinnipegUnited StatesThe Screen at Santa Fe University of Art and Design American Cinematheque in Los Angeles New Beverly Cinema in Los Angeles San Francisco Cinematheque in San Francisco Gene Siskel Film Center in Chicago Cleveland Cinematheque in Cleveland University of Virginia Cinematheque in Charlottesville Cinematheque at University of Wisconsin–MadisonMexicoCineteca Nacional in Mexico City Filmoteca de la UNAM in Mexico CitySouth AmericaCinemateca Uruguaya in Montevideo, Uruguay Cinemateca Nacional de Venezuela in Caracas, Venezuela Cinemateca Brasileira in São Paulo, Brazil Sinematek Indonesia in Jakarta, Indonesia Broadway Cinematheque in Hong Kong China Film Archive in Beijing, China Korean Film Archive in Seoul, South Korea Seoul Art Cinema in Seoul, South Korea Cinematheque Busan in Busan, South Korea Asian Film Archive in Singapore Hanoi Cinematheque in Hanoi, Vietnam Jerusalem Cinematheque in Jerusalem, Israel Tel Aviv Cinematheque in Tel Aviv, Israel Haifa Cinematheque in Haifa, Israel Herzliya Cinematheque in Herzliya, Israel Holon Cinematheque in Holon, Israel Sderot Cinematheque in Sderot, Israel Rosh Pina Cinematheque in Rosh Pinna, Israel Tehran Cinematheque in Tehran, Iran Pardis Gholhak Cinematheque in Tehran, Iran Australian Cinémathèque in the Queensland Gallery of Modern Art, Queensland Melbourne Cinematheque in Melbourne, Victoria Adelaide Cinémathèque in the Mercury Cinema, South Australia Cinémathèque royale de Belgique in Brussels, Belgium Cinémathèque de la Ville de Luxembourg in Luxembourg City, Luxembourg Bulgarian National Film Archive in Sofia, Bulgaria Cinémathèque Française in Paris, France Cinémathèque suisse in Lausanne, Switzerland Slovenska kinoteka in Ljubljana, Slovenia Deutsche Kinemathek in Berlin, Germany Cineteca di Bologna in Bologna, Italy Cinemateca Portuguesa in Lisbon, Portugal Arhiva Nationala de Filme - Cinemateca in Bucharest, Romania Yugoslav Film Archive in Belgrade, Serbia Filmoteca Española in Madrid, Spain Cinemateket in Stockholm, Sweden Cinemateket in Oslo, Norway Cinemateket in Trondheim, Norway Cinemateket in Copenhagen, Denmark British Film Institute in London, UK National Science and Media Museum in Bradford, UK Národní filmový archiv in Prague, Czech Republic Filmoteca de Catalunya in Barcelona, Spain Cinémathèque Méliès - Les Amis de Georges Méliès in Paris, France Lists of film archives International Federation of Film Archives - Official Website Pacific Cinémathèque - Official Website Cinematheque Ontario - Official Website Cinematheque Waterloo - Official Website Winnipeg Film Group's Cinematheque - Official Website Korean Film Archive - Official Website Australian Cinémathèque - Official Website Swedish Cinematheque - Official Website Slovenian Cinematheque - Official Website
Shahid Chamran Expressway is an expressway in Tehran, leading from Tohid Square to Parkway Junction. Chamran is the oldest expressway in Tehran, is unofficially called Parkway Expressway or just Parkway for short; the expressway is named after Mostafa Chamran. As of August 2007, main intersections of Chamran Expressway, from south to north, include dissecting Bagher Khan Street, passing under Jalal-e-Ale Ahmad Expressway at Nasr Bridge, passing under Resalat Expressway and Hemmat Expressway, passing under Niayesh Expressway at Velayat Bridge, it changes its direction to west-east near Seoul Street
King of Kings
King of Kings was a ruling title employed by monarchs based in the Middle East. Though most associated with Iran the Achaemenid and Sasanian Empires, the title was introduced during the Middle Assyrian Empire by king Tukulti-Ninurta I and was subsequently used in a number of different kingdoms and empires, including the aforementioned Persia, various Hellenic kingdoms, Armenia and Ethiopia; the title is seen as equivalent to that of Emperor, both titles outranking that of king in prestige, stemming from the medieval Byzantine Emperors who saw the Shahanshahs of the Sasanian Empire as their equals. The last reigning monarchs to use the title of Shahanshah, those of the Pahlavi dynasty in Iran equated the title with "Emperor"; the rulers of the Ethiopian Empire used the title of Nəgusä Nägäst, translated into "Emperor". The female variant of the title, as used by the Ethiopian Zewditu, was Queen of Kings. In the Sasanian Empire, the female variant used was Queen of Queens; the title King of Kings was first introduced by the Assyrian king Tukulti-Ninurta I as šar šarrāni.
The title carried a literal meaning in that a šar was traditionally the ruler of a city-state. With the formation of the Middle Assyrian Empire, the Assyrian rulers installed themselves as kings over an present system of kingship in these city-states, becoming literal "kings of kings". Following Tukulti-Ninurta's reign, the title was used by monarchs of Assyria and Babylon. Assyrian rulers to use šar šarrāni include Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal."King of Kings", as šar šarrāni, was among the many titles of the last Neo-Babylonian king, Nabonidus. He used more boastful titles such as "king of the gods" and "king of the gods of the heavens and the underworld". Boastful titles claiming ownership of various things were common throughout ancient Mesopotamian history. For instance, Ashurbanipal's great-grandfather Sargon II used the full titulature of Great King, Mighty King, King of the Universe, King of Assyria, King of Babylon, King of Sumer and Akkad; the title of King of Kings appears in inscriptions of kings of Urartu.
Although no evidence exists, it is possible that the title was used by the rulers of the Median Empire, since its rulers borrowed much of their royal symbolism and protocol from Urartu and elsewhere in Mesopotamia. The Achaemenid Persian variant of the title, Xšâyathiya Xšâyathiyânâm, is Median in form which suggests that the Achaemenids may have taken it from the Medes rather than from the Mesopotamians. An Assyrian-language inscription on a fortification near the fortress of Tušpa mentions King Sarduri I of Urartu as a builder of a wall and a holder of the title King of Kings. I am Sarduri, son of Lutipri, the king of kings and the king who received the tribute of all the kings. Sarduri, son of Lutipri, says: I brought these stone blocks from the city of Alniunu. I built this wall; the Achaemenid Empire, established in 550 BC after the fall of the Median Empire expanded over the course of the sixth century BC. Asia Minor and the Lydian kingdom was conquered in 546 BC, the Neo-Babylonian Empire in 539 BC, Egypt in 525 BC and the Indus region in 513 BC.
The Achaemenids employed satrapal administration, which became a guarantee of success due to its flexibility and the tolerance of the Achaemenid kings for the more-or-less autonomous vassals. The system had its problems. Egypt was a prominent example rebelling against Achaemenid authority and attempting to crown their own Pharaohs. Though it was defeated, the Great Satraps' Revolt of 366–360 BC showed the growing structural problems within the Empire; the Achaemenid Kings used a variety of different titles, prominently Great King and King of Countries, but the most prominent title was that of King of Kings, recorded for every Achaemenid king. The full titulature of the king Darius I was "great king, king of kings, king in Fārs, king of the countries, Hystaspes’ son, Arsames’ grandson, an Achaemenid". An inscription in the Armenian city of Van by Xerxes I reads; the standard royal title of the Arsacid kings while in Babylon was Aršaka šarru, King of Kings was adopted first by Mithridates I, though he used it infrequently.
The title first began being used by Mithridates I's nephew, Mithridates II, who after adopting it in 111 BC used it extensively including it in his coinage until 91 BC. It is possible that Mithridates II's, his successors', use of the title was not a revival of the old Achaemenid imperial title (since it was not used until a decade after Mithridates II's own conque
Tehran is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area. In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city, it was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, to avoid the vying factions of the ruling Iranian dynasties; the capital has been moved several times throughout the history, Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran.
Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century. Tehran is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran were seated. Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower, completed in 2007; the Tabiat Bridge, a newly-built landmark, was completed in 2014. The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language. Tehran has an international airport, a domestic airport, a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, a large network of highways.
There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of life. According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations. October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907; the origin of the name Tehran is uncertain. Prior to Tehran being the capital of Iran Isfahan was the capital. Isfahan has a significant Armenian Population; the settlement of Tehran dates back over 7,000 years. Tehran is situated within the historical region of Media in northwestern Iran. By the time of the Median Empire, a part of the territory of present-day Tehran was a suburb of the prominent Median city of Rhages.
In the Avesta's Videvdat, Rhages is mentioned as the 12th sacred place created by Ohrmazd. In Old Persian inscriptions, Rhages appears as a province. From Rhages, Darius I sent reinforcements to his father Hystaspes, putting down the rebellion in Parthia. In some Middle Persian texts, Rhages is given as the birthplace of Zoroaster, although modern historians place the birth of Zoroaster in Khorasan. Rhages's modern-day inheritor, Ray, is a city located towards the southern end of Tehran, absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran. Mount Damavand, the highest peak of Iran, located near Tehran, is an important location in Ferdowsi's Šāhnāme, the Iranian epic poem, based on the ancient legends of Iran, it appears in the epics as the homeland of the protoplast Keyumars, the birthplace of king Manuchehr, the place where king Freydun binds the dragon fiend Aždahāk, the place where Arash shot his arrow from. During the reign of the Sassanian Empire, in 641, Yazdgerd III issued his last appeal to the nation from Rhages, before fleeing to Khorasan.
Rhages was dominated by the Parthian Mehran family, Siyavakhsh—the son of Mehran the son of Bahram Chobin—who resisted the 7th-century Muslim invasion of Iran. Because of this resistance, when the Arabs captured Rhages, they ordered the town to be destroyed and rebuilt anew by traitor aristocrat Farrukhzad. In the 9th century, Tehran was a well-known village, but less known than the city of Rhages, flourishing nearby. Rhages was described in detail by 10th-century Muslim geographers. Despite the interest that Arabian Baghdad displayed in Rhages, the number of Arabs in the city remained insignificant and the population consisted of Iranians of all classes; the Oghuz Turks invaded Rhages discretely in 1035 and 1042, but the city was recovered under the reigns of the Seljuks and the Khwarezmians. Medieval writer Najm od Din Razi declared the population of Rhages about 500,000 before the Mongol invasion. In the 13th century, the Mongols invaded Rhages, laid the city in ruins, massacred many of its inhabitants.
Following the invasion, many of the city's inhabitants escaped to Tehran. In July 1404, Castilian ambassador Ruy González de Clavijo visited Tehran while on a journey to Samarkand, the capital of Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur, who ruled Iran at the time. In his diary, Tehran was described as an unwalled region. Ital