Transport in Scotland
The transport system in Scotland is generally well-developed. Only 29% of the network in Scotland is electrified, as opposed to 40% across Great Britain as a whole. This results in trains being run on diesel fuel rather than by overhead electricity. The railway network is owned by Network Rail, the organisation responsible for all of the railway infrastructure. Rail services are provided under franchises awarded by the government, the current holder of the Scottish franchise is Abellio ScotRail. Intercity services are operated by CrossCountry, TransPennine Express, Virgin Trains East Coast. On 1 January 2006, a new agency Transport Scotland was created that would oversee the regulation of railways in Scotland, Services from Inverness, Fort William, Glasgow Central and Edinburgh Waverley to London Euston. Glasgow South Western Line – operated by Abellio ScotRail Services linking Carlisle, Kilmarnock, Glasgow Central, Troon, within Scotland, 95% of passenger service trains are operated by ScotRail, with the remaining 5% being cross border.
Until 2005, services within the former Strathclyde Regional Council area were provided by ScotRail on behalf of Strathclyde Partnership for Transport. Recent expansion of the network in Scotland has seen the addition of a new line from Hamilton to Larkhall. The Borders Railway, opened in September 2015, is by far the longest new line, the table below shows all the major railway lines in Scotland. The first proper railway in Scotland was the Garnkirk and Glasgow, the first inter-city railway was the Edinburgh and Glasgow, opened in 1842. By 1850 Scotlands major cities were linked to other and to the English rail network. The second half of the 19th century saw a rapid expansion, at the same time trains became more comfortable and more frequent whilst the cost of travel declined relative to wages. Railways did, play an important part in moving freight, especially heavy loads such as coal and steel, after World War 1 the independent Scottish companies were merged into the London Midland and Scottish and London and North Eastern companies.
A Scottish company had considered, but rejected as being probably not financially viable. Since the 1920s and 30s saw a decline in passenger and freight business, at this time some lesser-used lines were closed to passenger traffic. After World War 2 the railways were nationalised, very quickly the Scottish Region moved into a position where revenue was not covering operating expenses and after 1951 closures resumed
The LDV Convoy is a panel van that was manufactured by LDV Limited between 1996 and 2006. The Convoy was a development of the Leyland DAF400 Series, for information on the vehicle history prior to the 1984 Freight Rover 300 Series, see Freight Rover Sherpa. Alongside the original there was a new wide-bodied variant – the 300 series. Of the 300 Series the 285 and 310 models were single wheel, the 300 and 350 models being twin. While capacity for the 200 series remained at 5.4 m³, that of the 300 series ranged from 7.6 m³ to 11.4 m³, depending on the combination of wheelbase and roof profile. For those who needed yet more space, a Luton-style body was offered, built on either the 255 or 350 chassis-cabs, providing capacities of 11.3 m³ or 15.6 m³, and a maximum payload of almost 2 tonnes. The chassis-cab formed the basis for a standard- and wide-bodied drop-side pick-up, in 255,280,285,310 and 350 versions, again available with either short- or long-wheelbases. Of course, the chassis-cab could be ordered on its own, again in a choice of widths and lengths, so that bespoke bodywork could be fitted, with the added option of either single or double cabs.
The 200 series continued to be offered as minibus or crewbus, with Freight Rover becoming part of Leyland DAF the 300 series was superseded by the 400 series, which offered air suspension and a 2. 5-litre Peugeot-sourced diesel engine. At this stage, it was given a new radiator grille, following the sell-off of the van business from the insolvent Leyland DAF in 1993, LDV Limited was formed. In 1996 the 400 van received a facelift and was renamed the Convoy, the Convoy was available in 2.8 tonne,3.1 tonne and 3.5 tonne variants with load volume capacities up to 12.9 cubic metres. The van would become popular as a minibus and would come in pick-up. The last Convoy was built in 2006, succeeded by the Maxus, LDV Limited LDV Pilot LDV Maxus 2004 LDV website
The Fiat Ducato is a light commercial vehicle developed by the Sevel joint venture between Fiat and PSA Peugeot Citroën, produced since 1981. In Europe, it is produced at the Sevel Sud factory, in Val di Sangro, since 1981, more than 2.6 million Fiat Ducatos have been produced. The Ducato is the most common base used in Europe. The Ducato was first launched in 1981, and was the result of Fiats collaboration with PSA Peugeot Citroën, the vehicles were manufactured at the Sevel Val di Sangro plant in Atessa, central Italy, together with the similar Alfa Romeo AR6, Citroën C25 and Peugeot J5 versions. The Peugeot J5 was sold as the Talbot Express in the United Kingdom, the collaboration of Fiat and PSA had earlier produced the Fiat 242 and Citroën C35 from 1974. For the Fiat, engines were 2.0 litre 4-cylinder petrol or 1.9 diesel, trim levels were base, S and SX. Model variants were named according to carrying capacity, Ducato 10, Ducato 13, Ducato 14 and Ducato Maxi 18. The Ducato Mk1 was very popular as a basis for campervan conversions, a short-wheelbase version was sold as Fiat Talento.
The Alfa Romeo AR6 was a badge engineered Ducato sold by Alfa Romeo on the Italian market only and it was available in two different wheelbase lengths, and as passenger van, commercial van or pick-up truck. It was the commercial vehicle sold by Alfa Romeo. The Citroën C25 was a 2.5 tonne capacity van produced from October 1981 until 1993, the C25 succeeded the dated corrugated Citroën Type H post war one tonne van. The C25’s engines are mounted, the petrol one is a Peugeot 504 unit whilst the diesel one is from the Citroën CX diesel. Both units are coupled to a Citroën gearbox, in February 1982, the range was extended to include a pick up truck and a minibus. In 1991, the C25 series 2 was launched with an enlarged grille, in 1994, the C25 was replaced by the Jumper. The Peugeot J5 was a 2.5 tonne capacity van and its powertrains are as per the Citroën C25. In 1991, the J5 series 2 was launched with a new front grille and it was replaced in 1994 by the Peugeot Boxer, which was based on the second generation Fiat Ducato.
The Talbot Express van, sold solely in the United Kingdom, was the last Talbot motor vehicle to be produced. Production of this version for the United Kingdom began in 1982 and continued until 1994. Its Citroën/Peugeot petrol and diesel engines are transversely mounted driving the front wheels, a 4x4 option was available although now very rare
Buses is a United Kingdom magazine, focusing mainly on the British public bus industry. It was originally published by Ian Allan Publishing, and from March 2012 it was published by Key Publishing, Buses was published as Buses Illustrated from 1949 until 1968. The current editor is Alan Millar, based in Scotland and it produces a yearbook, published in August every year for the next year. Buses is published on the third Thursday of each month, sam Clark has been working on the title since March 2013 and really made the title his own. He is who one contacts if advertising or promotional ideas are needed, charles Dunbar, 1949–1950 E J Smith, 1950–1959 Alan Townsin, 1959–1965 John Parke, 1965–1980 Stephen C Morris, 1980–1999 Alan Millar, 1999– Official website
The Mercedes-Benz Sprinter is a vehicle built by Daimler AG of Stuttgart, Germany as a van, chassis cab and pickup truck. In the past the Sprinter has been sold under the Mercedes-Benz, Freightliner, in the United States it is built from complete knock down kits by Freightliner. They are now marketed by Mercedes-Benz. Rebadged and re-engined Sprinters are sold by Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles as the Volkswagen LT, the first generation Sprinter was launched in Europe in 1995 to replace the famous but outdated Mercedes-Benz TN van dating from 1977. It was voted International Van of the Year for 1995, the first generation North American Sprinter was launched in 2001 in the U. S. and was originally branded as a Freightliner. Units sold to the rest of North America were badged as Mercedes-Benz until 2003 when they received Dodge branding, units in the United States and Canada, but not in Mexico, could be purchased as a Dodge or Freightliner from 2003. The product was launched and supported by DaimlerChrysler Vans LLC, a division based in Huntersville.
Key individuals from DaimlerChrysler Commercial Vehicle Division and Freightliner Trucks were selected to spearhead the effort, nearly all of the original staff were retained, though the base of operations shifted from North Carolina to Auburn Hills, Michigan. The remainder of DaimlerChrysler Vans LLC remained active in Huntersville as an engineering, upfitter certification, for 2003, DaimlerChrysler introduced a Dodge branded version of the Sprinter to the North American market. It was identical to the Freightliner Trucks version except for minor styling details, rather than redesign the aging Dodge Ram Van which had used the same basic body and layout since the 1970s and was discontinued in 2003, DaimlerChrysler chose to replace it with the Sprinter. The cargo versions, classified as light trucks, are subject to the 25% chicken tax if imported as a complete unit, passenger vans were not subject to the same tax classifications and were imported as an assembled unit through Mercedes-Benz in Jacksonville, Florida.
The cargo version of model is re-assembled at a plant in Ladson. Like its predecessor, the version is imported as a complete unit. The previous reassembly facility in Gaffney, South Carolina continues to be used by Freightliner Custom Chassis Corporation, the Sprinter van was sold as the Mercedes-Benz Transporter T1N due to Toyota using the name Toyota Sprinter, a version of the Corolla. The model 314 of the first generation is still assembled by Iran Khodro Diesel and it is used as ambulance car. Since 2013 the 2000-2006 Sprinter model has revived in Russia markets only as Mercedes-Benz Sprinter Classic, however the Mk.2 Sprinter is sold in Russian market. The Sprinter Classic is built by the Gorky Automobile Plant at Nizhny Novgorod, the second generation Sprinter was introduced in Europe in 2006. It was voted Van of the Year 2007 and again in 2008 by Professional Van,2012 Information and Fuel Consumption Figures
Park and ride bus services in the United Kingdom
Park and ride bus services in the United Kingdom are bus services designed to provide intermodal passenger journeys between a private mode of transport and a shared mode bus. The common model of bus based park and ride model is transfer from a car to a public transport bus, although schemes may be used by pedestrians. Park and ride commonly refers to permanent schemes operated as part of the transport system. ‘Park and ride bus’ can be used to temporary and seasonal schemes, services operated for private or specialised users. Bus services can be permanent, seasonal, or only operate on days of the week. An exception is Northern Ireland, where the state concern Translink promotes and operates all public transport park, schemes are often specially marketed with a specific brand separately from other standard local bus services. This is sometimes not necessarily using the park and ride. Public transport schemes mostly operate at a net loss, with the budgetary cost justified by the reduction in traffic congestion, the car parking is free, with revenue for the scheme being achieved through fares or travel passes taken by the bus operator.
Implementation of public park and ride bus services in the UK accelerated through the 1980s and 1990s. Permanent schemes range in size from an area with provision of less than 10 cars. Schemes predominantly serve a town or smaller city, while rail based mode. Larger regional bus schemes exist, such as at Ferrytoll in Fife, large scale adoption in other towns continued from the 1980s with increased car ownership. As well as car drivers and ride bus services may be used by pedestrians, several schemes offer bicycle lockers to allow use of the bus by cyclists. For foot passengers, although the journey may be quicker than regular bus services, sites are usually located near to the major approach routes to the centre, usually near to motorway junctions or beside the main arterial routes. Some sites, such as the village on Ellon, are located some distance from the central destination, larger regional sites exist, with longer journey times, such as Ferrytoll in Fife, Scotland. In larger cities, space permitting, sites may be located at transport hubs or interchange stations further inside the urban area, most schemes do not allow for overnight parking and cater for daytime and early evening usage.
Users who miss the last bus may often find their cars locked in, other schemes are open late on designated late shopping nights. Many sites are operational five or more days a week, some schemes are often supplemented using additional sites with car parks normally used for other purposes during the week that only operate as park and ride on a Saturday or Sunday
Articulated buses in the United Kingdom
Articulated buses were rarely used in the United Kingdom compared to other countries, until the turn of the millennium. This was historically due to the UK preference for the bus for use on high capacity routes. As of June 2006, there were over 500 articulated buses in the UK, the majority of this fleet was used in London, although in August 2008 it was announced these buses would be withdrawn by end of 2011. Until 1980 articulated buses were illegal for British roads due to their length, following an exemption, the first trials in the UK used vehicles by MAN and Leyland-DAB. The first to carry passengers on a service was a MAN Bendibus demonstrator with City of Oxford Motor Services in late 1979. Leyland-DAB articulated buses, built by the British-Danish joint venture, Leyland-DAB bus, four models of their National bodied buses were imported, and used on extended trial by South Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive, purchased in 1979. These vehicles wore a green and cream livery, and, an example was exhibited by private London operator Capital Citybus with route blinds and markings for Red Arrow service.
Some saw use as airport buses with British Airways, and as non-PSV exhibit buses, SYT placed an order for 13 buses of the DAB bodied type, which saw service in a blue and cream liveried City Clipper circular service and the X91 Fastline route. These buses survived privatisation of the PTEs and saw service with the privatised operator Mainline in Sheffield and Rotherham and they were loaned for demonstration to London Buses, with one seeing service with the Selkent division in 1992. A single November 1992 built articulated Mercedes-Benz O405G was bought by Grampian Regional Transport and this bus survived into 2008 as a unique member of the First Aberdeen fleet as their 10046. Articulated buses were first introduced in London in the early 2000s, FirstGroup, in collaboration with Volvo Buses and Wrightbus, developed the Wright StreetCar. FirstGroup branded this the ftr concept, for use in the introduction of new bus transit schemes. The ftr is used in York and Swansea, use of conventional articulated buses has extended beyond London, into the other English regions, as well as Scotland and Wales.
Cardiff Bus secured the first Statutory Quality Bus Partnership in the UK which prompted the introduction of high technology artics, while Arriva has the largest single fleet, in London, First operates the most artics in the UK, across its subsidiary companies. The majority of UK articulated buses are based in London, driven by the tendering specification system of Transport for London, the introduction of bendy buses in London caused several issues, including safety and fare evasion. By 2008, the London fleet stood at 393 buses, in 2006, Cardiff Bus took delivery of 19 Scania OmniCitys valued at £4.5 million or £235,000 each. The buses operate every five minutes, the buses operate every 10 minutes on the Baycar route between Cardiff city centre and Cardiff Bay in a blue livery. In early 2000 Travel West Midlands took delivery of 11 Mercedes-Benz O405 articulated buses for its route 67 between Castle Vale and Birmingham
Plaxton is an English builder of bus and coach vehicle bodies based in Scarborough. The Plaxton of today is the successor to a business founded in Scarborough in 1907 by Frederick William Plaxton and it became a subsidiary of Alexander Dennis in May 2007. The business was founded as a workshop, and expanded into building contracting. As a building contractor, Plaxtons built a number of buildings in Scarborough. Soon after World War I Plaxtons diversified and began to build charabanc bodies on Ford Model T chassis, of more importance at the time was the construction of automobile bodywork. This included bodywork for Rolls-Royce and Daimler, but principally for Crossley car chassis and this activity continued through the 1920s, but the depression of 1929-1933 created difficulties for manufacture of luxury automobiles. As a result, the manufacture of charabanc, and coach bodies became more important through the late 1920s, customers during this time tended to be local to the Scarborough area, Scarborough being a popular seaside resort.
By 1936 the company felt justified in construction of a new manufacturing facility in Seamer Road. This allowed increased production, and Plaxtons became popular with independent operators throughout Northern England. Many of these operators purchased their vehicles through independent dealers, rather than directly from the factory, in this regard, Plaxtons sales were through Lancashire Motor Traders Ltd of Manchester and Arlington Motor Co Ltd of London. The company became known as FW Plaxton & Son by 1937, as the founders son, FW Plaxton junior was to be known as Eric to avoid confusion with his father. Plaxtons built a number of different coach designs through the 1930s, the style typically consisted of a very rounded front profile at the windscreen area with side windows that sloped backwards at the front, were upright at the centre, and sloped forward at the back. Bodywork for the Bedford WTB chassis was particularly distinctive, sloping severally from the bottom of the front wheel arch to the roofline, the WTB chassis was very popular choice for operators at that time, together with the Dodge RBF and SBF.
Leyland and AEC chassis were popular for larger coaches, notably the Leyland Tiger. On the outbreak of World War II in 1939, coach production halted, many records from the early years were lost when an incendiary bomb set fire to the Seamer Road factory in 1943 causing much damage. As the factory was under control of the Ministry of Works, some adjacent land was loaned by a market gardener who subsequently joined the board years later. Production restarted at the end of 1945, and in 1951 the business was registered for the first time as a private company, two new models were exhibited at the 1950 Commercial Motor Show, with names instead of model codes for the first time. On front-engined chassis the Crusader employed the Envoys front trim, both Envoy and Crusader were produced to the new maximum dimensions of 30 ft by 8 ft, and many examples were originally fitted with rear wheel spats
The Mercedes-Benz Vario is a full-size commercial heavy van manufactured by Mercedes-Benz between 1996 and 2013. In Philippines, Mercedes-Benz rebadged version, Morales Traveller is locally made by Morales Motors, the Traveller offered as minibus or utility van. The Vario was launched in 1996 as a version of the Mercedes-Benz T2. The bodyshell remained relatively unchanged throughout its 17-year production life, the Vario proved a popular base chassis for minibuses and mini-coaches. When new regulations required disabled access, a model with a lift was made available. The Vario was fitted with several types of Mercedes-Benz engines, pre-2000 vehicles used a 5-cylinder OM602LA and 4-cylinder OM904LA, turbocharged and intercooled diesel engine. The most powerful was a 177 hp, 675Nm engine, two types of gearboxes were available, a 5-speed manual and on buses, an Allison AT545 4-speed automatic. Maximum payload was 4.4 tons with a volume of 17.4 cubic meters. A 4x4 model was available, all models had a suspension on parabolic leaf springs, all ventilated disc brakes and power steering.
On 27 September 2013 the last Vario rolled off the line in Ludwigsfelde. Between 1996 and 201390,743 units were manufactured, the Vario was succeeded in Daimler Trucks model range by heavier versions of the Mercedes-Benz Sprinter. Media related to Mercedes-Benz Vario at Wikimedia Commons Product Guide Mercedes-Benz
The Iveco Daily is a large light commercial vehicle produced by Iveco since 1978, it was sold as the Fiat Daily by Fiat until 1983. Unlike the more car-like unibody Fiat Ducato, the Daily uses a ladder frame typical of heavier commercial vehicles. The first series Daily was offered two models, the 35 and the 50. The larger one had load capacity up to 17 m³, in 1985, a turbodiesel version named TurboDaily was introduced. An Alfa Romeo badge engineered version was sold as the Alfa Romeo AR8, the Daily has no other connection with the Transit. The second generation was facelifted in 1996, it only slightly exterior-wise. The 59-12 and 59-13 models were launched, all-wheel-drive variants were made available. The Turbodaily name was dropped as all came with Unijet technology. Two new versions were released, with automatic gearshift, and CNG, two new load classes were introduced, Daily 65 and Daily 28. The Iveco Daily was made Van of the Year for the year 2000, originally there were models with three engine options, all of type 8140 of 2.8 liters. A variant was a diesel with 66 kW, but they rarely sold.
Another had turbocharger, intercooler and 78 kW, the last variant gave 92 kW and had common rail injection. Shortly after receiving the largest engine variable geometry turbocharger and an output of 107 kW, at this time, the old 8140-engine was completely replaced. The motors up to 88 kW had five-speed gearbox, while the powerful engines available with a six-speed gearbox. The model could be obtained with electronic / hydraulic controlled manual gearbox, the fourth generation was designed by Giugiaro and arrived to markets in the middle of 2006. Its available as, cabin cruiser, Minibus, the minibus is commercialized with the Irisbus brand. Certain models with engines have been sold as the Iveco EcoDaily in some European markets. For the first time since the year 2000, a version of the Daily is available starting from 2007
Transport in Wales
Transport in Wales is heavily influenced by the countrys geography. Wales is predominantly hilly or mountainous, and the main settlements lie on the coasts of North and South Wales, the main transport corridors are east-west routes, many continuing eastwards into England. Wales railway network developed in conjunction with that of the rest of the United Kingdom during the nineteenth century, the North Wales Coast Line and South Wales Main Line sought to profit from traffic between London and Ireland. Numerous railways were built to export coal and iron from South Wales, in the latter half of the nineteenth century, tourism was booming and railways served resorts such as Llandudno, Barry Island and locations along the Cambrian Coast Line. The network was rationalised during the century, with mainly east-west routes retained. As a result, the network within Wales is no longer contiguous. Devolution led to the formation of a franchise for Wales in 2003. This franchise, which includes some lines in England for completeness, is currently operated by Arriva Trains Wales.
As rail usage has grown during the past decades, several lines have seen rail services reintroduced, including the Cardiff City Line, the Vale of Glamorgan Line. As of 2008, there are 923 miles of railways in Wales. Arriva Trains Wales operate all mainline services wholly within Wales and these range from rural lines such as the Welsh Marches Line to the Cardiff commuter lines, and long distance routes between North and South Wales, via Chester and Shrewsbury. They operate services from Wales to Manchester, Birmingham, services to London are operated by First Great Western and Virgin Trains. First Great Western operate services from Cardiff to Portsmouth via Bristol and Southampton, the bulk of rail transport in Wales today is concentrated in the south with Cardiff Central, Cardiff Queen Street, Newport and Bridgend being the busiest stations. Most passengers travel on east-west routes, in 2005/06, there were approximately 20.1 million rail passenger journeys beginning or ending in Wales, including 13 million starting and ending in Wales.
Cardiff was the destination for almost 40 per cent of these journeys, in the north, the bulk of rail travel is concentrated around Wrexham General, Wrexham Central and Llandudno Junction to Chester section. The main South Wales Main Line and the central Valley Lines are being electrified, the only form of commuter rail system in Wales is the Valley Lines network serving Cardiff and the South Wales valleys, serving 20 stations in Cardiff and 61 stations in the surrounding area. Train frequency at the core of the network is up to every 5 minutes, the only surviving tram service within Wales is the Great Orme Tramway, a cable hauled tramway in Llandudno which survives as a tourist attraction. Cardiff and Newport had extensive tram systems until the mid 20th century, plans were mooted for a modern tram system to serve Cardiffs urban areas in late 1990s but these were shelved due to the costs of building and maintaining such a system
Bolton is a town in Greater Manchester in North West England. A former mill town, Bolton has been a centre for textiles since Flemish weavers settled in the area in the 14th century, introducing a wool. The urbanisation and development of the town coincided with the introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution. The British cotton industry declined sharply after the First World War, close to the West Pennine Moors, Bolton is 10 miles northwest of Manchester. It is surrounded by smaller towns and villages that together form the Metropolitan Borough of Bolton. The town of Bolton has a population of 139,403, historically part of Lancashire, Bolton originated as a small settlement in the moorland known as Bolton le Moors. In the English Civil War, the town was a Parliamentarian outpost in a staunchly Royalist region, in what became known as the Bolton Massacre,1,600 residents were killed and 700 were taken prisoner. Football club Bolton Wanderers play home games at the Macron Stadium, Cultural interests include the Octagon Theatre and the Bolton Museum and Art Gallery, as well as one of the earliest public libraries established after the Public Libraries Act 1850.
Bolton is a common Northern English name derived from the Old English bothl-tun, the first recorded use of the name, in the form Boelton, dates from 1185 to describe Bolton le Moors, though this may not be in relation to a dwelling. It was recorded as Bothelton in 1212, Botelton in 1257, Boulton in 1288, forms of Botheltun were Bodeltown, Botheltun-le-Moors, Boltune, Bolton-super-Moras, Bolton-in-ye-Moors, Bolton-le-Moors. The towns motto of Supera Moras means overcome difficulties, and is a pun on the Bolton-super-Moras version of the meaning literally. A Bronze Age mound was excavated in Victorian times outside Haulgh Hall, the Romans built roads from Manchester to Ribchester to the east and a road along what is now the A6 to the west. It is claimed that Agricola built a fort at Blackrod by clearing land above the forest, evidence of a Saxon settlement exists in the form of religious objects found when the Victorian parish church was built. In 1067 Great Bolton was the property of Roger de Poitou and after 1100 and it became the property of the Pilkingtons who forfeited it in the Civil War and after that the Stanleys who became Earls of Derby.
Great Bolton and Little Bolton were part of the Marsey fee, in 1212 Little Bolton was held by Roger de Bolton as plough-land, a charter to hold a market in Churchgate was granted on 14 December 1251 by King Henry III of England. Bolton became a town and borough by a charter from the Earl of Derby, William de Ferrers, on 14 January 1253. Burgage plots were laid out on Churchgate and Deansgate in the centre of the town close to where Ye Olde Man & Scythe public house. In 1337 Flemish weavers settled and introduced the manufacture of woollen cloth, more Flemish weavers, fleeing the Huguenot persecutions, settled here in the 17th century