A melody tune, voice, or line, is a linear succession of musical tones that the listener perceives as a single entity. In its most literal sense, a melody is a combination of pitch and rhythm, while more figuratively, the term can include successions of other musical elements such as tonal color, it may be considered the foreground to the background accompaniment. A line or part need not be a foreground melody. Melodies consist of one or more musical phrases or motifs, are repeated throughout a composition in various forms. Melodies may be described by their melodic motion or the pitches or the intervals between pitches, pitch range and release, continuity and coherence and shape; the true goal of music—its proper enterprise—is melody. All the parts of harmony have as their ultimate purpose only beautiful melody. Therefore, the question of, the more significant, melody or harmony, is futile. Beyond doubt, the means is subordinate to the end. Given the many and varied elements and styles of melody "many extant explanations confine us to specific stylistic models, they are too exclusive."
Paul Narveson claimed in 1984 that more than three-quarters of melodic topics had not been explored thoroughly. The melodies existing in most European music written before the 20th century, popular music throughout the 20th century, featured "fixed and discernible frequency patterns", recurring "events periodic, at all structural levels" and "recurrence of durations and patterns of durations". Melodies in the 20th century "utilized a greater variety of pitch resources than ha been the custom in any other historical period of Western music." While the diatonic scale was still used, the chromatic scale became "widely employed." Composers allotted a structural role to "the qualitative dimensions", "almost reserved for pitch and rhythm". Kliewer states, "The essential elements of any melody are duration and quality, loudness. Though the same melody may be recognizable when played with a wide variety of timbres and dynamics, the latter may still be an "element of linear ordering." Different musical styles use melody in different ways.
For example: Jazz musicians use the term "lead" or "head" to refer to the main melody, used as a starting point for improvisation. Rock music, other forms of popular music and folk music tend to pick one or two melodies and stick with them. Indian classical music relies on melody and rhythm, not so much on harmony, as the music contains no chord changes. Balinese gamelan music uses complicated variations and alterations of a single melody played called heterophony. In western classical music, composers introduce an initial melody, or theme, create variations. Classical music has several melodic layers, called polyphony, such as those in a fugue, a type of counterpoint. Melodies are constructed from motifs or short melodic fragments, such as the opening of Beethoven's Fifth Symphony. Richard Wagner popularized the concept of a leitmotif: a motif or melody associated with a certain idea, person or place. While in both most popular music and classical music of the common practice period pitch and duration are of primary importance in melodies, the contemporary music of the 20th and 21st centuries pitch and duration have lessened in importance and quality has gained importance primary.
Examples include musique concrète, klangfarbenmelodie, Elliott Carter's Eight Etudes and a Fantasy, the third movement of Ruth Crawford-Seeger's String Quartet 1931, which creates the melody from an unchanging set of pitches through "dissonant dynamics" alone, György Ligeti's Aventures, in which recurring phonetics create the linear form. Hocket Chord progression Parsons code, a simple notation used to identify a piece of music through melodic motion—the motion of the pitch up and down. Sequence Melody type Unified field Apel, Willi. Harvard Dictionary of Music, 2nd ed. pp. 517–19. Edwards, Arthur C; the Art of Melody, pp. xix–xxx. Holst, Imogen. Tune and Faber, London. ISBN 0-571-24198-0. Smits van Waesberghe, Joseph. A Textbook of Melody: A course in functional melodic analysis, American Institute of Musicology. Szabolcsi, Bence. A History of Melody and Rockliff, London. Trippett, David. Wagner's Melodies. Cambridge University Press; the dictionary definition of melody at Wiktionary Quotations related to Melody at Wikiquote Carry A Tune Week, list of tunes Creating and orchestrating a coherent and balanced melody
Irving C. Freese was the mayor of Connecticut. Freese attended a one-room school in East Brunswick, New Jersey, was graduated from New Brunswick High School, he first came to Norwalk in 1928, while visiting his brother Arnold. He found work as the assistant credit manager at the Norwalk Tire and Rubber Company, as a Johnson & Johnson salesman, as a cost accountant at the American Hat Company, at the Standard Safety Razor Corporation as a credit manager, he started a photography business. In October 1933, he met Elizabeth Hutchinson, the niece of the newly elected mayor of nearby Bridgeport, Jasper McLevy at his victory party, they were married in June 1934. They had a son they named Jasper, after her uncle, in August 1936. Freese was an unsuccessful candidate for mayor in 1939, 1941, 1943 and 1945. In those unsuccessful elections, he received between 600 votes apiece, he was a candidate for the Connecticut House of Representatives from Norwalk in 1946. In 1947, the citizens of Norwalk, taking notice of the sound and honest reputation of the socialist McLevy administration in Bridgeport, elected Socialist Freese as mayor with a total of 8,561 votes, the greatest plurality in the city's history.
In the landslide, Socialist candidates won every other office in the municipal government. Freese was elected again as a Socialist in 1949. In 1951, he broke from the Socialist Party and defeated Republican candidate Stanley Stroffolino, despite Stroffolino's endorsement by the Republicans, the Democrats and the Socialists with whom Freese had just parted company, he was elected three times after forming the Independent Party of Norwalk in 1951, 1953 and 1957. At an annual $2,500 salary, he was Norwalk's first full-time mayor, he sold his business to be able to put in a full day's work at City Hall. No aspect of city government was too small to escape his attention, he exercised his ex officio authority on city boards and commissions, granted to the mayor under the city charter, but had been used. He was known to be seen on top of the Department of Public Works snowplows as they cleared the streets after a winter storm. Irving Freese Park at 1 Main Street in downtown Norwalk is named for him. Troop 19, the oldest Boy Scout Troop in Norwalk was founded on March 3, 1930 by Freese The Irving Freese Apartments, a public housing residence at 57 Ward Street, as well as the Irving Freese Community Room at the same location are named for him.
List of elected socialist mayors in the United States
Innovation and Technology Bureau is one of the policy bureaus under the Government Secretariat of the Government of Hong Kong and is responsible for policy matters on the development of innovation and technology and information technology which are the key drivers in this endeavour. The Bureau is led by the Secretary for Innovation and Technology Nicholas Yang; the Bureau includes an Innovation and Technology Branch and oversees the operation of the Innovation and Technology Commission, the Office of the Government Chief Information Officer and the Efficiency Office. In the "Chief Executive’s 1998 Policy Address", Tung Chee-wah set up a HK$5 billion Innovation and Technology Fund to provide financial support for projects which will contribute to the improved use of innovation and technology in our industrial and commercial sectors. In 2000, the government established the Innovation and Technology Commission and the Applied Science and Technology Research Institute was established to strengthen government support for innovation and technological development.
The Hong Kong Science and Technology Parks Corporation was created in 2001 and the 22-hectare Hong Kong Science Park in Sha Tin provides laboratories and shared facilities to help technology companies design and develop new products. In order to promote application of innovation and technology in society and improve people’s daily living, the Government proposed to set up a $500 million Innovation and Technology Fund for Better Living; the ITB will consider setting different themes, such as health, education and environmental protection, so as to facilitate the participation of different sectors. The eligible applicants include non-government organisations, non-profit making organisations, professional bodies, chambers of commerce and public organisations; the projects must focus on improving people’s daily living and should not be used for profit making or any purpose other than proposals. The organisations have to sign an agreement with the government and the phased grant will be given according to the progress and achievements of the project as stated in the agreement.
A Secretariat is set up to support the daily operation of the fund. An Assessment Committee is established to assess and approve the application from the business community, relevant bureaux or departments, etc. There is a monitoring and supervision system which monitors the approved projects according to the project phases stated in the agreement; the subvented organisations must maintain a separate and proper set of accounts and records for the projects and submit the progress and financial reports on a regular basis for the Secretariat's review. The Hong Kong-Shenzhen Innovation and Technology Park is owned by the Hong Kong Science and Technology Park in which initiation and management is run by the HKSTP while inter-governmental arrangements were made by the "Joint Task Force on the Development of the Hong Kong-Shenzhen Innovation and Technology Park"; the Joint Task Force instigated an agreement between Hong Kong and Shenzhen to carry out an extensive study regarding the Lok Ma Chau Loop development in March 2008.
The HK-SZ IT Park is located at the Loop, occupying 87 hectares which were administered by Shenzhen. The study commenced in June 2009 and was completed in 2014. Two stages of public engagement and consultation were conducted between 2010 and 2012. An agreements was signed between the two regions agreeing that the Loop would operate under the principles of "applying the laws and land administration system of the HKSAR". Benefit from national policy in IT development The HK-SZ IT Park to serve as a "key base for co-operation in scientific research" Encourage scientific collaboration among Mainland and international institutes Promote "re-industrialisation" Support and assists start-ups and medium enterprises Create a "vibrant I&T ecosystem for various stakeholders in the government, industry and research sectors" Bi-annual meetings dedicated to the discussion of the development of the HK-SZ IT Park, additional meeting would be held if it is deemed necessary. Relevant reports regarding the HK-SZ IT Park progress would be submitted to facilitate annual review The Technology Voucher Programme was announced in the 2016- 2017 Budget and was launched under the Innovation and Technology Fund to help the business development of small and medium enterprise.
The TVP backs "technological services and solutions"-related initiatives and projects to enhance the applicant’s business productivity. The initial TVP would be implemented for 3 years with $500 million, providing up to a $200,000 fund for each applicant on a 2:1 matching basis. Funded projects are expected to be accomplished in a year while the fund would not cover the business operating costs; the Bureau submitted proposal of Innovation and Technology Venture Fund to the Finance Committee at Legislative Council in 2016. According to the Document, the Fund is to encourage more private organisation, venture capital funds and angel investors to invest in I&T; the Council approved HK$2 Billion to the Fund. The Innovation and Technology Venture Fund Corporation was set up; the Corporation will select venture capital funds and co-invest as Co-investment Partners in IT start-ups. The CP has the obligation to identify potential investee companies which qualify as Eligible Local IT Start-ups to the ITVFC for co-investment.
Further details as follows: ＊The application of first batch of the Fund started in 2017 and the deadline will be 15/1/2018. Therefore, the effectiveness of the Fund is yet to be evaluated; the Bureau had been advocated by former Chief Executive CY Leun