A rusk is a hard, dry biscuit or a twice-baked bread. It is sometimes used as a baby teething food. In the United Kingdom, the name refers to a wheat-based food additive. Rusk is called sukhary in Azerbaijani, it is made from a stale bread and buns. In Baku, some bakeries use their stale buns and bread for making rusks; the price of rusk in those bakeries is low, as the bakeries do this to avoid wasting the leftover bread and buns. Sponge rusk is similar to biscotti but it is made out of twice-baked yellow cake batter; the yellow cake batter is baked into a rectangular cake pan. It is eaten with Cuban coffee or as an accompaniment to ice cream, custard, or other dessert dishes. Tvebak is a Danish type of rusk. A biscotte is a French type of rusk, they are sold packaged in supermarkets. A Finnish type of rusk is called korppu a dried piece of bun, flavored with cinnamon and sugar. Korppu is a common coffee bread eaten after having been dipped in coffee. A sour version, called hapankorppu, is a flat rusk made from rye flour and salt, can be eaten like bread.
Zwieback is a form of rusk eaten in Germany. Like the Danish and French words, the name refers to being cooked twice; the term paximadi covers various forms of Greek rusk, made from barley or chickpea flour, softened with wine, water or oil before eating. Paximadi form the basis of the Cretan snack dakos. In India rusk is a traditional dried bread, it is known as papay, russ or cake rusk in Hindi and Urdu or katti toos in Bengali. It is eaten during tea time with milky tea which softens the rusk; the rusk originated from Persia around the 7th century and is common throughout north India and some parts of the south. In Pakistan, It is known as russ or cake rusk, it is found in large round biscuit shapes, but comes in long rectangular shapes. It is eaten in breakfast with milk tea. Sometimes called Papay In Iran, rusk is called nān-e sokhāri, it is made from wheat flour, skimmed milk powder, vegetable oil, malt extract, soy flour, salt and water. It is eaten as a dunking biscuit with Persian chai; the most common brand of naan sukhaari is Vitana.
In Italy, this form is called fette biscottate. In Japan, rusk is a delicacy made from baguette, cake or croissant, it is sweet. In the Levant this form is called qurshalla in Jordan, it is made from flour, oil or butter, yeast or baking powder, sometimes a small amount of cardamon. It is topped with roasted sesame seeds, black caraway seeds, or anise, eaten as a dunking biscuit with herbal tea. Beschuit known as Dutch crispbakes, are light, rather crumbly, rusks as eaten in the Netherlands and Belgium. In the Netherlands it is customary to serve beschuit met muisjes at the birth of a baby. Beschuiten are eaten as a breakfast food with a variety of toppings, most butter and sprinkles in flavours such as chocolate or fruit, or cheese. A longtime Dutch tradition is to serve strawberries on beschuit topped with some sugar or whipped cream. Beschuit is always sold in rolls, they are made by first baking a flat round bread, slicing it, baking each half again at a lower heat, in the oven after the main baking is over.
Etymologically, biscotto and beschuit come from Latin bis+coctus. In Norway, rusk is referred to as kavring, is similar to the Swedish skorpor. Crushed kavring, called strøkavring, is used, amongst other things, for making kjøttkaker and in the traditional dessert tilslørte bondepiker. Kavring is broken up and can be served with regular, soured or cultured milk; the Philippine version of rusk is called biscocho. Cake rusks are called mamon tostado. In Portuguese, rusk is called tosta. "Tosta" word means a hard, biscuit-textured slice of bread - it can be sweet, but most it is savory. It can have various thicknesses; when ground, it is called "pão ralado" ground bread and has various culinary uses. The Russian version is called sookhar', they are either baked a second time from sweet challah-like bread, sliced in biscotti fashion or just made of leftover stale bread, cut into small cubes and air-dried or baked at a low temperature. The first one is like a cookie, good with milk, tea, coffee or cacao.
The second one is added to soup, clear or otherwise, softening up from absorbed liquids and accompanying it instead of bread. It became a tradition in order not to waste any leftover bread that always was a staple in Russian cuisine, was hard labored for, respected for thousands of years. There is a lot of folklore and sayings about bread in Russian language, paying due respect to this grain food, one of the cornerstones of Slavic nations' life and history. Rusks is a traditional Afrikaner breakfast meal or snack, they have been dried in South Africa since
Thyme is any member of the genus Thymus of aromatic perennial evergreen herbs in the mint family Lamiaceae. Thymes are relatives of the oregano genus Origanum, they have culinary and ornamental uses, the species most cultivated and used for culinary purposes being Thymus vulgaris. Ancient Egyptians used thyme for embalming; the ancient Greeks used it in their baths and burnt it as incense in their temples, believing it was a source of courage. The spread of thyme throughout Europe was thought to be due to the Romans, as they used it to purify their rooms and to "give an aromatic flavour to cheese and liqueurs". In the European Middle Ages, the herb was placed beneath pillows to aid sleep and ward off nightmares. In this period, women often gave knights and warriors gifts that included thyme leaves, as it was believed to bring courage to the bearer. Thyme was used as incense and placed on coffins during funerals, as it was supposed to assure passage into the next life; the name of the genus of fish Thymallus, first given to the grayling, originates from the faint smell of thyme that emanates from the flesh.
Thyme is best cultivated in a sunny location with well-drained soil. It is planted in the spring, thereafter grows as a perennial, it can be dividing rooted sections of the plant. It tolerates drought well; the plants are found growing wild on mountain highlands. In some Levantine countries, Assyria, the condiment za'atar contains thyme as a vital ingredient, it is a common component of the bouquet garni, of herbes de Provence. Thyme is sold both dried. While summer-seasonal, fresh greenhouse thyme is available year-round; the fresh form is more flavourful, but less convenient. However, the fresh form can last many months if frozen. Fresh thyme is sold in bunches of sprigs. A sprig is a single stem snipped from the plant, it is composed of a woody stem with paired flower clusters spaced 1⁄2 to 1 inch apart. A recipe may measure thyme by the sprig, or by the tablespoon or teaspoon. Dried thyme is used in Armenia in tisanes. Depending on how it is used in a dish, the whole sprig may be used, or the leaves removed and the stems discarded.
When a recipe specifies "bunch" or "sprig", it means the whole form. It is acceptable to substitute dried for whole thyme. Leaves may be removed from stems either by scraping with the back of a knife, or by pulling through the fingers or tines of a fork. Thyme retains its flavour on drying better than many other herbs. Oil of thyme, the essential oil of common thyme, contains 20–54% thymol. Thyme essential oil contains a range of additional compounds, such as p-cymene, myrcene and linalool. Thymol, an antiseptic, is an active ingredient in various commercially produced mouthwashes such as Listerine. Before the advent of modern antibiotics, oil of thyme was used to medicate bandages. Thymus citriodorus – various lemon thymes, orange thymes, lime thyme Thymus herba-barona is used both as a culinary herb and a ground cover, has a strong caraway scent due to the chemical carvone. Thymus praecox, is cultivated as an ornamental. Thymus pseudolanuginosus is grown as a ground cover. Thymus serpyllum is an important nectar source plant for honeybees.
All thyme species are nectar sources, but wild thyme covers large areas of droughty, rocky soils in southern Europe and North Africa, as well as in similar landscapes in the Berkshire and Catskill Mountains of the northeastern US. The lowest growing of the used thyme is good for walkways, it is an important caterpillar food plant for large and common blue butterflies. Thymus vulgaris is a used culinary herb, it has medicinal uses. Common thyme is a Mediterranean perennial, best suited to well-drained soils and full sun. S. S. Tawfik, M. I. Abbady, Ahmed M. Zahran and A. M. K. Abouelalla. Therapeutic Efficacy Attained with Thyme Essential Oil Supplementation Throughout γ-irradiated Rats. Egypt. J. Rad. Sci. Applic. 19: 1-22. Flora of China: Thymus Flora Europaea: Thymus Rohde, E. S.. A Garden of Herbs. Easter, M.. International Thymus Register and Checklist
Qurabiya is a shortbread-type biscuit made with ground almonds. Versions are found in most countries of the former Ottoman Empire, with various different forms and recipes. Cookies appear to have their origins in 7th century Persia, modern day Iran, shortly after the use of sugar became common in the region. A recipe for a shortbread cookie similar to ghorayebah but without almonds, called in Arabic khushkanānaj gharib, is given in the earliest known Arab cookbook, the 10th-century Kitab al-Ṭabīḫ. Kurabiye appears in the Ottoman cuisine in the 15th century. There is some debate about the origin of the words; some give no other origin for the Turkish word kurabiye than Turkish, while others have given Arabic or Persian. Among others, linguist Sevan Nişanyan has given an Arabic origin, in his 2009 book of Turkish etymology, from ġurayb or ğarîb. However, as of 2019, Nişanyan's online dictionary now gives the earliest known recorded use in Turkish as the late 17th century, with an origin from the Persian gulābiya, a cookie made with rose water, from gulāb, related to flowers.
He notes that the Syrian Arabic words ġurābiye/ġuraybiye derive from the Turkish. In Tabriz, they are made of almond flour, egg white, vanilla and pistachio, it is served with tea, customarily placed on top of the teacup to make it soft before eating. Called ghoriba in Morocco and other parts of the Maghreb, the popular cookies use semolina instead of white flour, giving a distinctive crunch; the Greek version, called kourabiedes or kourabiethes resembles a light shortbread made with almonds. Kourabiedes are sometimes made with brandy Metaxa, for flavouring, though vanilla, mastika or rose water are popular. In some regions of Greece, Christmas kourabiedes are adorned with a single whole spice clove embedded in each biscuit. Kourabiedes are shaped either into crescents or balls baked till golden, they are rolled in icing sugar while still hot, forming a rich butter-sugar coating. Kourabiedes are popular for special occasions, such as Christmas or baptisms. Kurabii name of the Bulgarian cuisine and the many varieties of cookie, a popular sweet variety.
During the holiday season, a variety of jams produced via the new year with powdered sugar cookies decorated with cute shapes are called maslenki. In Turkey, Acıbadem kurabiyesi are available in bakeries. Almond cookie Polvorón Hallongrotta List of shortbread biscuits and cookies Panellets Şekerpare Un kurabiyesi
Cognac is a variety of brandy named after the town of Cognac, France. It is produced in the surrounding wine-growing region in the departments of Charente and Charente-Maritime. Cognac production falls under French appellation d'origine contrôlée designation, with production methods and naming required to meet certain legal requirements. Among the specified grapes, Ugni blanc, known locally as Saint-Emilion, is most used; the brandy must be twice distilled in copper pot stills and aged at least two years in French oak barrels from Limousin or Tronçais. Cognac matures in the same way as whiskies and wines barrel age, most cognacs spend longer "on the wood" than the minimum legal requirement. Cognac is a type of brandy, after the distillation and during the aging process, is called eau de vie, it is produced by twice distilling white wines produced in any of the designated growing regions. The white wine used in making cognac is dry and thin. Though it has been characterized as "virtually undrinkable", it is excellent for distillation and aging.
It may be made only from a strict list of grape varieties. For it to be considered a true cru, the wine must be at least 90% Ugni blanc, Folle blanche and Colombard, while up to 10% of the grapes used can be Folignan, Jurançon blanc, Meslier St-François, Sélect, Montils, or Sémillon. Cognacs which are not to carry the name of a cru are freer in the allowed grape varieties, needing at least 90% Colombard, Folle blanche, Jurançon blanc, Meslier Saint-François, Montils, Sémillon, or Ugni blanc, up to 10% Folignan or Sélect. After the grapes are pressed, the juice is left to ferment for 2-3 weeks, with the region's native, wild yeasts converting the sugar into alcohol. At this point, the resulting wine is about 7 to 8% alcohol. Distillation takes place in traditionally shaped Charentais copper alembic stills, the design and dimensions of which are legally controlled. Two distillations must be carried out. Once distillation is complete, it must be aged in Limousin oak casks for at least two years before it can be sold to the public.
It is put into casks at an alcohol by volume strength around 70%. As the cognac interacts with the oak barrel and the air, it evaporates at the rate of about 3% each year losing both alcohol and water; this phenomenon is called locally la part des anges, or "the angels' share". Because the alcohol dissipates faster than the water, the alcohol concentration drops to about 40% over time; the cognac is transferred to large glass carboys called bonbonnes stored for future blending. Since oak barrels stop contributing to flavor after four or five decades, longer aging periods may not be beneficial; the age of the cognac is calculated as that of the youngest component used in the blend. The blend is of different ages and from different local areas; this blending, or marriage, of different eaux de vie is important to obtain a complexity of flavours absent from an eau de vie from a single distillery or vineyard. Each cognac house has a master taster, responsible for blending the spirits, so that cognac produced by a company will have a consistent house style and quality.
In this respect, it is similar to the process of blending whisky or non-vintage Champagne to achieve a consistent brand flavor. A small number of producers, such as Guillon Painturaud and Moyet, do not blend their final product from different ages of eaux de vie, so produce a "purer" flavour. Hundreds of vineyards in the Cognac AOC region sell their own cognac; these are blended from the eaux de vie of different years, but they are single-vineyard cognacs, varying from year to year and according to the taste of the producer, hence lacking some of the predictability of the better-known commercial products. Depending on their success in marketing, small producers may sell a larger or smaller proportion of their product to individual buyers, wine dealers and restaurants, the remainder being acquired by larger cognac houses for blending; the success of artisanal cognacs has encouraged some larger industrial-scale producers to produce single-vineyard cognacs. According to the Bureau National Interprofessionnel du Cognac, the official quality grades of cognac are: V.
S. or ✯✯✯ designates a blend in which the youngest brandy has been stored for at least two years in cask. V. S. O. P. or Reserve designates a blend in which the youngest brandy is stored for at least four years in a cask. XO or Napoléon designates a blend in which the youngest brandy is stored for at least six years; the minimum storage age of the youngest brandy used in an XO blend has been increased to 10 years in April 2018. The Napoleon designation unofficial, will be used to denote those blends with a minimum age of six years that do not meet the revised XO definition. Hors d'âge is a designation which BNIC states is equal to XO, but in practice the term is used by producers to market a high-quality product beyond the official age scale; the names of the grades are in English because the historical cognac trade in the 18th century involved the British. Cognac is classified by crus defined geographic denominations where the grapes are grown
Vicia faba known in the culinary sense as the broad bean, fava bean, or faba bean is a species of flowering plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae. It is of uncertain origin and cultivated as a crop for human consumption, it is used as a cover crop, the bell bean, which has smaller beans. Varieties with smaller, harder seeds that are fed to horses or other animals are called field bean, tic bean or tick bean. Horse bean, Vicia faba var. equina Pers. is a variety recognized as an accepted name. Some people suffer from favism, a hemolytic response to the consumption of broad beans, a condition linked to G6PDD. Otherwise the beans, with the outer seed coat removed, can be cooked. In young plants, the outer seed coat can be eaten, in young plants, the seed pod can be eaten. Vicia faba is a stiffly erect plant 0.5 to 1.8 metres tall, with stems that are square in cross-section. The leaves are 10 to 25 centimetres long, pinnate with 2–7 leaflets, colored a distinct glaucous grey-green color. Unlike most other vetches, the leaves do not have tendrils for climbing over other vegetation.
The flowers are 1 to 2.5 centimetres long with five petals. Crimson-flowered broad beans exist, which were saved from extinction; the flowers have a strong sweet scent, attractive to bees and other pollinators. The fruit is a broad, leathery pod, green, but matures to a dark blackish-brown, with a densely downy surface; each bean pod contains 3–8 seeds that are round to oval and have a 5–10 mm diameter in the wild plant, but are flattened and up to 20–25 mm long, 15 mm broad and 5–10 mm thick in food cultivars. V. faba has a diploid chromosome number of 12. Five pairs are acrocentric chromosomes and one pair is metacentric. Broad beans have a long tradition of cultivation in Old World agriculture, being among the most ancient plants in cultivation and among the easiest to grow. Along with lentils and chickpeas, they are believed to have become part of the eastern Mediterranean diet around 6000 BCE or earlier, they are still grown as a cover crop to prevent erosion because they can overwinter and, as a legume, they fix nitrogen in the soil.
The broad bean has high plant hardiness. Unlike most legumes, the broad bean can be grown in soils with high salinity, as well as in clay soil. However, it prefers rich loams. In much of the English-speaking world, the name "broad bean" is used for the large-seeded cultivars grown for human food, while "horse bean" and "field bean" refer to cultivars with smaller, harder seeds that are more like the wild species and used for animal feed, though their stronger flavour is preferred in some human food recipes, such as falafel; the term "fava bean" is used in some English-speaking countries such as the US, but "broad bean" is the most common name in the UK and Australia and New Zealand. Raw mature fava beans are 11% water, 58% carbohydrates, 26% protein, 2% fat. A 100 gram reference amount supplies numerous essential nutrients in high content. Folate and dietary minerals, such as manganese, phosphorus and iron, have considerable content. B vitamins have moderate to rich content. Broad bean plants are susceptible to early summer infestations of the black bean aphid, which can cover large sections of growing plants with infestations starting at the tip of the plant.
Severe infestations can reduce yields, can cause discolouration of pods and reduction in their saleable values. Faba bean rust is a fungal pathogen affecting broad bean plants at maturity, causing small orange dots with yellow halos on the leaves, which may merge to form an orange lawn on both leaf surfaces. Beans are attacked by chocolate spot fungus, which can have a severe impact on yield. In mainland Europe and North Africa, the plant parasite Orobanche crenata can cause severe impacts on fields of broad beans, devastating their yields. Broad beans are eaten while still young and tender, enabling harvesting to begin as early as the middle of spring for plants started under glass or overwintered in a protected location, but the main crop sown in early spring will be ready from mid to late summer. Horse beans, left to mature are harvested in the late autumn, are eaten as a pulse; the immature pods are cooked and eaten, the young leaves of the plant can be eaten, either raw or cooked as a pot herb.
Broad beans were a major food of old Mediterranean civilizations for the Romans and Greeks. Preparing broad beans involves first removing the beans from their pods steaming or boiling the beans, either whole or after parboiling them to loosen their exterior coating, removed; the beans can be fried, causing the skin to split open, salted and/or spiced to produce a savory, crunchy snack. These are popular in China, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico and Thailand. In some Arab countries, the fava bean is used for a breakfast dish called ful
Orange juice is a liquid extract of the orange tree fruit, produced by squeezing oranges. It comes in several different varieties, including blood orange, navel oranges, valencia orange and tangerine; as well as variations in oranges used, some varieties include differing amounts of juice vesicles, known as "pulp" in American English, " bits" in British English. These vesicles contain the juice of the orange and can be left in or removed during the manufacturing process. How juicy these vesicles are depend upon many factors, such as species and season. In American English, the beverage name is abbreviated as "OJ". Commercial orange juice with a long shelf life is made by pasteurizing the juice and removing the oxygen from it; this removes much of the taste, necessitating the addition of a flavor pack made from orange products. Additionally, some juice is further processed by drying and rehydrating the juice, or by concentrating the juice and adding water to the concentrate; the health value of orange juice is debatable: it has a high concentration of vitamin C, but a high concentration of simple sugars, comparable to soft drinks.
As a result, some government nutritional advice has been adjusted to encourage substitution of orange juice with raw fruit, digested more and limit daily consumption. During World War II, American soldiers rejected vitamin C-packed lemon crystals because of their unappetizing taste, thus the government searched for a food that would fulfill the nutritional needs of the soldiers, have a desirable taste, prevent diseases such as scurvy in a transportable vitamin C product. The federal government, the Florida department of Citrus, along with a group of scientists desired to develop a superior product to canned orange juice and developed frozen concentrated orange juice. Frozen concentrated orange juice was developed three years after the war had ended. By 1949, orange juice processing plants in Florida were producing over 10 million gallons of concentrated orange juice. Consumers were captivated with the idea of concentrated canned orange juice as it was affordable, convenient, a vitamin-C packed product.
The preparation was simple, thaw the juice, add water, stir. However, by the 1980s, food scientists developed a more fresh-tasting juice known as reconstituted ready to serve juice. In the 1990s, "not from concentrate" orange juice was developed and gave consumers an new perspective of orange juice transforming the product from can to freshness in a carton. Orange juice is a common breakfast beverage in the United States. Due to the importance of oranges to the economy of Florida, "the juice obtained from mature oranges of the species Citrus sinensis and hybrids thereof" was adopted as the official beverage of Florida in 1967. A cup serving of raw, fresh orange juice, amounting to 248 grams or 8 ounces, has 124 mg of vitamin C, it has 20.8 g of sugars, 112 Calories and 26 grams of carbohydrates. It supplies potassium and folate. Citrus juices contain flavonoids. Orange juice is a source of the antioxidant hesperidin; because of its citric acid content, orange juice is acidic, with a typical pH of around 3.5.
Commercial squeezed orange juice is pasteurized and filtered before being evaporated under vacuum and heat. After removal of most of the water, this concentrate, about 65% sugar by weight, is stored at about 10 °F. Essences, Vitamin C, oils extracted during the vacuum concentration process may be added back to restore flavor and nutrition; when water is added to freshly thawed concentrated orange juice, it is said to be reconstituted. The product was developed in 1948 at the University of Florida's Citrus Research and Education Center. Since, it has emerged as a soft commodity, futures contracts have traded in New York since 1966. Options on FCOJ were introduced in 1985. From the late 1950s to the mid-1980s, the product had the greatest orange juice market share, but not-from-concentrate juices surpassed FCOJ in the 1980s. Orange juice, pasteurized and sold to consumers without having been concentrated is labeled as "not from concentrate". Just as "from concentrate" processing, most "not from concentrate" processing reduces the natural flavor from the juice.
The largest producers of "not from concentrate" use a production process where the juice is placed in aseptic storage, with the oxygen stripped from it, for up to a year. Removing the oxygen strips out flavor-providing compounds, so manufacturers add a flavor pack in the final step, which Cooks Illustrated magazine describes as containing "highly engineered additives." Flavor pack formulas vary by region, because consumers in different parts of the world have different preferences related to sweetness and acidity. According to the citrus industry, the Food and Drug Administration does not require the contents of flavor packs to be detailed on a product's packaging. One common component of flavor packs is ethyl butyrate, a natural aroma that people associate with freshness, and, removed from juice during pasteurization and storage. Cooks Illustrated sent juice samples to independent laboratories, found that while fresh-squeezed juice contained about 1.19 milligrams of ethyl butyrate per liter, juice, commercially processed had levels as high as 8.53 milligrams per liter.
A small fraction of fresh orange juice is canned. Canned orange juice retains vitamin C much better than bottled juice; the canned product loses flavor, when stored at room temperature for more than 12 weeks. In the early years
Dessert is a course that concludes an evening meal. The course consists of sweet foods, such as confections dishes or fruit, a beverage such as dessert wine or liqueur, however in the United States it may include coffee, nuts, or other savory items regarded as a separate course elsewhere. In some parts of the world, such as much of central and western Africa, most parts of China, there is no tradition of a dessert course to conclude a meal; the term dessert can apply to many confections, such as biscuits, cookies, gelatins, ice creams, pies and sweet soups, tarts. Fruit is commonly found in dessert courses because of its occurring sweetness; some cultures sweeten foods that are more savory to create desserts. The word "dessert" originated from the French word desservir, meaning "to clear the table." Its first known use was in 1600, in a health education manual entitled Naturall and artificial Directions for Health, written by William Vaughan. In his A History of Dessert, Michael Krondl explains it refers to the fact dessert was served after the table had been cleared of other dishes.
The term dates from the 14th century but attained its current meaning around the beginning of the 20th century when "service à la française" was replaced with "service à la russe"" The word "dessert" is most used for this course in Australia, Ireland, New Zealand, the United States, while "pudding", "sweet", or more colloquially, "afters" are used in the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth countries, including Hong Kong and India. Sweets were fed to the gods in ancient Mesopotamia and ancient India and other ancient civilizations. Dried fruit and honey were the first sweeteners used in most of the world, but the spread of sugarcane around the world was essential to the development of dessert. Sugarcane was grown and refined in India before 500 BC and was crystallized, making it easy to transport, by 500 AD. Sugar and sugarcane were traded, making sugar available to Macedonia by 300 BC and China by 600 AD. In the Indian subcontinent, the Middle East, China, sugar has been a staple of cooking and desserts for over a thousand years.
Sugarcane and sugar were little known and rare in Europe until the twelfth century or when the Crusades and colonization spread its use. Herodotus mentions that, as opposed to the Greeks, the main Persian meal was simple, but they would eat many desserts afterwards. Europeans began to manufacture sugar in the Middle Ages, more sweet desserts became available. Sugar was so expensive only the wealthy could indulge on special occasions; the first apple pie recipe was published in 1381. The earliest documentation of the term cupcake was in "Seventy-five Receipts for Pastry and Sweetmeats" in 1828 in Eliza Leslie's Receipts cookbook; the Industrial Revolution in Europe and America caused desserts to be mass-produced, preserved and packaged. Frozen foods, including desserts, became popular starting in the 1920s when freezing emerged; these processed foods became a large part of diets in many industrialized nations. Many countries have foods distinctive to their nations or region. Sweet desserts contain cane sugar, palm sugar, honey or some types of syrup such as molasses, maple syrup, treacle, or corn syrup.
Other common ingredients in Western-style desserts are flour or other starches, Cooking fats such as butter or lard, eggs, acidic ingredients such as lemon juice, spices and other flavoring agents such as chocolate, peanut butter and nuts. The proportions of these ingredients, along with the preparation methods, play a major part in the consistency and flavor of the end product. Sugars contribute tenderness to baked goods. Flour or starch components gives the dessert structure. Fats can enable the development of flaky layers in pastries and pie crusts; the dairy products in baked goods keep the desserts moist. Many desserts contain eggs, in order to form custard or to aid in the rising and thickening of a cake-like substance. Egg yolks contribute to the richness of desserts. Egg whites can provide structure. Further innovation in the healthy eating movement has led to more information being available about vegan and gluten-free substitutes for the standard ingredients, as well as replacements for refined sugar.
Desserts can contain many extracts to add a variety of flavors. Salt and acids are added to desserts to create a contrast in flavors; some desserts are coffee-flavored, for coffee biscuits. Alcohol can be used as an ingredient, to make alcoholic desserts. Dessert consist of variations of flavors and appearances. Desserts can be defined as a sweeter course that concludes a meal; this definition includes a range of courses ranging from fruits or dried nuts to multi-ingredient cakes and pies. Many cultures have different variations of dessert. In modern times the variations of desserts have been passed down or come from geographical regions; this is one cause for the variation of desserts. These are some major categories. Biscuits, (from the Old French word bescuit meaning twice-baked in Latin known as "cookies" in North America, are flattish bite-sized or larger short pastries intended to be eaten out of the hand. Biscuits can have a texture, crispy, chewy, or soft. Examples include layered bars, crispy