Paul Cézanne was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavor to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne's repetitive, exploratory brushstrokes are characteristic and recognizable, he used planes of small brushstrokes that build up to form complex fields. The paintings convey Cézanne's intense study of his subjects. Cézanne is said to have formed the bridge between late 19th-century Impressionism and the early 20th century's new line of artistic enquiry, Cubism. Both Matisse and Picasso are said to have remarked that Cézanne "is the father of us all." The Cézannes came from the commune of Saint-Sauveur. Paul Cézanne was born on 19 January 1839 in Aix-en-Provence. On 22 February, he was baptized in the Église de la Madeleine, with his grandmother and uncle Louis as godparents, became a devout Catholic in life, his father, Louis Auguste Cézanne, a native of Saint-Zacharie, was the co-founder of a banking firm that prospered throughout the artist's life, affording him financial security, unavailable to most of his contemporaries and resulting in a large inheritance.
His mother, Anne Elisabeth Honorine Aubert, was "vivacious and romantic, but quick to take offence". It was from her that Cézanne got his vision of life, he had two younger sisters and Rose, with whom he went to a primary school every day. At the age of ten Cézanne entered the Saint Joseph school in Aix. In 1852 Cézanne entered the Collège Bourbon in Aix, where he became friends with Émile Zola, in a less advanced class, as well as Baptistin Baille—three friends who came to be known as "les trois inséparables", he stayed there for six years. In 1857, he began attending the Free Municipal School of Drawing in Aix, where he studied drawing under Joseph Gibert, a Spanish monk. From 1858 to 1861, complying with his father's wishes, Cézanne attended the law school of the University of Aix, while receiving drawing lessons. Going against the objections of his banker father, he committed himself to pursuing his artistic development and left Aix for Paris in 1861, he was encouraged to make this decision by Zola, living in the capital at the time.
His father reconciled with Cézanne and supported his choice of career. Cézanne received an inheritance of 400,000 francs from his father, which rid him of all financial worries. In Paris, Cézanne met the Impressionist Camille Pissarro; the friendship formed in the mid-1860s between Pissarro and Cézanne was that of master and disciple, in which Pissarro exerted a formative influence on the younger artist. Over the course of the following decade their landscape painting excursions together, in Louveciennes and Pontoise, led to a collaborative working relationship between equals. Cézanne's early work is concerned with the figure in the landscape and includes many paintings of groups of large, heavy figures in the landscape, imaginatively painted. In his career, he became more interested in working from direct observation and developed a light, airy painting style. In Cézanne's mature work there is the development of a solidified architectural style of painting. Throughout his life he struggled to develop an authentic observation of the seen world by the most accurate method of representing it in paint that he could find.
To this end, he structurally ordered. His statement "I want to make of impressionism something solid and lasting like the art in the museums", his contention that he was recreating Poussin "after nature" underscored his desire to unite observation of nature with the permanence of classical composition. Cézanne was interested in the simplification of occurring forms to their geometric essentials: he wanted to "treat nature by the cylinder, the sphere, the cone". Additionally, Cézanne's desire to capture the truth of perception led him to explore binocular vision graphically, rendering different, yet simultaneous visual perceptions of the same phenomena to provide the viewer with an aesthetic experience of depth different from those of earlier ideals of perspective, in particular single-point perspective, his interest in new ways of modelling space and volume derived from the stereoscopy obsession of his era and from reading Hippolyte Taine’s Berkelean theory of spatial perception. Cézanne's innovations have prompted critics to suggest such varied explanations as sick retinas, pure vision, the influence of the steam railway.
Cézanne's paintings were shown in the first exhibition of the Salon des Refusés in 1863, which displayed works not accepted by the jury of the official Paris Salon. The Salon rejected Cézanne's submissions every year from 1864 to 1869, he continued to submit works to the Salon until 1882. In that year, through the intervention of fellow artist Antoine Guillemet, he exhibited Portrait de M. L. A. Portrait of Louis-Auguste Cézanne, The Artist's Father, Reading "L'Événement", 1866, his first and last successful submission to the Salon. Before 1895 Cézanne exhibited twice with the Impressionists. In years a few individual paintings were shown at various venues, unti
New Zealand Portrait Gallery
The New Zealand Portrait Gallery is an art gallery located in Wellington, New Zealand, in the historic Waterfront Shed 11. The Gallery was registered as a charitable trust in 1990; the New Zealand Portrait Gallery's permanent home and exhibition space is in Shed 11, a heritage listed building located on Wellington's Queens Wharf. Shed 11 was built in 1904-5 and designed by William Ferguson, chief engineer of the Wellington Harbour Board. In 1985, Shed 11 was transformed into a gallery space and in 2010 the New Zealand Portrait Gallery secured a long term lease on the building; the New Zealand Portrait Gallery holds a collection of portraits featuring works by, of, New Zealanders. In the collection are portraits of many influential and well-known identities including Sir Edmund Hillary, Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, Sir Peter Blake, Janet Frame. In 2014, a portrait of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II was commissioned for the gallery, was painted by New Zealand artist Nick Cuthell in a live sitting; the portrait was unveiled by His Royal Highness Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, in a ceremony at Government House, was subsequently hung at the gallery's home in Shed 11.
The New Zealand Portrait Gallery hosts the biennial Adam Portraiture Award competition, New Zealand's premier portrait prize. The first competition was held in 2000 as the National Portrait Competition, since 2002 has been funded by the Adam Foundation. Since 2006, the winning entry has become part of the Gallery's permanent collection
Wellington is the capital city and second most populous urban area of New Zealand, with 418,500 residents. It is located at the south-western tip of the North Island, between Cook Strait and the Remutaka Range. Wellington is the major population centre of the southern North Island, is the administrative centre of the Wellington Region, which includes the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, its latitude is 41°17′S, making it the world's southernmost capital of a sovereign state. Wellington features a temperate maritime climate, is the world's windiest city by average wind speed; the Wellington urban area comprises four local authorities: Wellington City, on the peninsula between Cook Strait and Wellington Harbour, contains the central business district and about half the population. As the nation's capital since 1865, the New Zealand Government and Parliament, Supreme Court and most of the public service are based in the city. Architectural sights include the Government Building—one of the largest wooden buildings in the world—as well as the iconic Beehive.
Wellington is home to several of the largest and oldest cultural institutions in the nation such the National Archives, the National Library, the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, numerous theatres. It plays host to many artistic and cultural organisations, including the New Zealand Symphony Orchestra and Royal New Zealand Ballet. One of the world's most liveable cities, the 2016 Mercer Quality of Living Survey ranked Wellington 12th in the world. Wellington's economy is service-based, with an emphasis on finance, business services, government, it is the centre of New Zealand's film and special effects industries, a hub for information technology and innovation, with two public research universities. Wellington is one of New Zealand's chief seaports and serves both domestic and international shipping; the city is served by the third busiest airport in the country. Wellington's transport network includes train and bus lines which reach as far as the Kapiti Coast and Wairarapa, ferries connect the city to the South Island.
Wellington takes its name from Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo: his title comes from the town of Wellington in the English county of Somerset. It was named in November 1840 by the original settlers of the New Zealand Company on the suggestion of the directors of the same, in recognition of the Duke's strong support for the company's principles of colonisation and his "strenuous and successful defence against its enemies of the measure for colonising South Australia". One of the founders of the settlement, Edward Jerningham Wakefield, reported that the settlers "took up the views of the directors with great cordiality and the new name was at once adopted". In the Māori language, Wellington has three names. Te Whanga-nui-a-Tara refers to Wellington Harbour and means "the great harbour of Tara". In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by raising the index and ring fingers of one hand, palm forward, to form a "W", shaking it from side to side twice.
The city's location close to the mouth of the narrow Cook Strait leads to its vulnerability to strong gales, leading to the city's nickname of "Windy Wellington". Legends recount that Kupe explored the district in about the 10th century; the earliest date with hard evidence for Maori living in New Zealand is about 1280. Situated near the geographic centre of the country, Wellington was well placed for trade. In 1839 it was chosen as the first major planned settlement for British immigrants coming to New Zealand; the settlement was named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, the first Duke of Wellington and victor of the Battle of Waterloo. European settlement began with the arrival of an advance party of the New Zealand Company on the ship Tory on 20 September 1839, followed by 150 settlers on the Aurora on 22 January 1840. Food processing plants, engineering industries, vehicle assembly and oil refineries were located in the NE which caused the main industrial growth in Hutt valley; the settlers constructed their first homes at Petone on the flat area at the mouth of the Hutt River.
When that proved swampy and flood-prone they transplanted the plans, drawn without regard for the hilly terrain. In 1865, Wellington became the capital city in place of Auckland, which William Hobson had made the capital in 1841; the New Zealand Parliament had first met in Wellington on 7 July 1862, on a temporary basis. There had been some concerns that the more populous South Island would choose to form a separate colony in the British Empire. Several Commissioners invited from Australia, chosen for their neutral status, declared that Wellington was a suitable location because of
Hone Papita Raukura "Ralph" Hotere was a New Zealand artist of Māori descent. He was born in Mitimiti, Northland and is regarded as one of New Zealand's most important artists. In 1994 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Otago and in 2003 received an Icon Award from the Arts Foundation of New Zealand. In the 2012 New Year Honours, Hotere was appointed to the Order of New Zealand for services to New Zealand. Hotere was born in Mitimiti, close to the Hokianga Harbour in the Northland Region, one of 15 children, he received his secondary education at Hato Petera College, where he studied from 1946 to 1949. After early art training at the Auckland Teachers' Training College under the tutelage of J. D. Charlton Edgar, he moved to Dunedin in 1952, where he studied at Dunedin School of Art, part of King Edward Technical College. During the 1950s, he worked as a schools art advisor for the Education Department in the Bay of Islands. In 1961 Hotere gained a New Zealand Art Societies Fellowship and travelled to England where he studied at the Central School of Art and Design in London.
During 1962–1964 he studied in France and travelled around Europe, during which time he witnessed the development of the Pop Art and Op Art movements. His travels took him, to the war cemetery in Italy where his brother was buried; this event, the politics of Europe during the 1960s, had a profound effect on Hotere’s work, notably in the Sangro and Polaris series of paintings. Hotere returned to New Zealand and exhibited in Dunedin in 1965, returned to the city in 1969 when he became the University of Otago's Frances Hodgkins Fellow. At about that time he began to introduce literary elements to his work, he worked with poets such as Hone Tuwhare and Bill Manhire to produce several strong paintings, produced other works for the New Zealand literary journal Landfall. Hotere worked in collaboration with other prominent artists, notably Bill Culbert. From the 1970s onward, Hotere was noted for his use of unusual tools and materials in creating his work, notably the use of power tools on corrugated iron and steel within the context of two-dimensional art.
From 1968, Hotere began the series of works with which he is best known, the Black Paintings. In these works, black is used exclusively. In some works, strips of colour are placed against stark black backgrounds in a style reminiscent of Barnett Newman. In other black paintings, stark simple crosses appear in the gloom, black on black. Though minimalist, the works, as with those of most good abstractionists, have a redolent poetry of their own; the simple markings speak of transcendence, of religion, or peace. The themes of the black paintings extended to works, notably the colossal Black Phoenix, constructed out of the burnt remains of a fishing boat; this major installation incorporates the prow of the boat flanked by burnt planks of wood. Other planks form a pathway leading the prow; each plank has had a strip laid bare to reveal the natural wood underneath beneath. Several of the boards are inscribed with a traditional Maori proverb, Ka hinga atu he tete-kura haramai he tete-kura. A slight change has been made in the wording of the proverb, replacing haramai to ara mai indicating the cleared pathway of bare wood in front of the boat's burnt prow.
The work measures 5m by 13m by 5.5m. Politics were entwined in the subject matter of Hotere's art from an early stage. Alongside the Black Paintings series, which continued until not long before his death. Hotere's political works continued; when Aramoana, a wetland near his Port Chalmers home, was proposed as the site for an aluminium smelter, Hotere was vocal in his opposition, produced the Aramoana series of paintings. He produced series protesting against a controversial rugby tour by New Zealand of apartheid-era South Africa in 1981, the sinking of the Greenpeace flagship Rainbow Warrior in 1985. More his reactions to Middle-East politics resulted in works such as Jerusalem and This might be a double cross jack. Hotere's work was slowed by a stroke in 2001, but he continued to create and exhibit until his death in February 2013. A documentary film of the artist's life and work, was released by Paradise Films in 2001, in association with Creative New Zealand and the New Zealand Film Commission.
Written and directed by Merata Mita, the documentary made its overseas debut at the 2002 Sundance Film Festival. Hotere was married three times, with two of his wives being artists, his second wife was artist and poet Cilla McQueen, whom he married in 1973, with whom he moved to Careys Bay near Port Chalmers in 1974. The two separated amicably during the 1990s. Hotere married Mary McFarlane, another notable artist, in February 2002. Hotere died on 24 February 2013, aged 81 and was survived by his daughter Andrea, three mokopuna and his third wife Mary, he was buried at Mitimiti. Hotere's former studio was on land at the tip of Observation Point, the large bluff overlooking the Port Chalmers container terminal; when the port's facilities were expanded, part of the bluff was removed, including the area of Hotere's studio. Part of the bluff close to the removed portion is now an award-winning sculpture garden, the Hotere Garden Oputae, organised in 2005 by Hotere and featuring works by both him and by other noted New Zealand modern sculptors.
Works at the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa Auckland Art Gallery Toi o Tāmaki: Works
Colin John McCahon was a prominent New Zealand artist whose work over forty-five years consisted of various styles including landscape, figuration and the overlay of painted text. Along with Toss Woollaston and Rita Angus, McCahon is credited with introducing modernism to New Zealand in the mid twentieth century, he is regarded as New Zealand's most important modern artist in his landscape work. McCahon was born in Timaru on 1 August 1919 the second of three children of Ethel Beatrice Ferrier and her husband John Kernohan McCahon, he spent most of his childhood in Dunedin. He showed an early interest in art, influenced by regular visits to exhibitions and the work of his maternal grandfather, the photographer and painter William Ferrier, which hung in the family home, he attended the Maori Hill Primary School and Otago Boys' High School which he called: "the most unforgettable horror of my youth". At the age of 14, convinced he wanted to be an artist, McCahon took Russell Clark’s Saturday morning art classes to learn the fundamental skills of painting.
Visits to an exhibition by Toss Woollaston, whose landscapes, "clean, bright with New Zealand light, full of air" inspired him to become a painter. McCahon attended the Dunedin School of Art from 1937 to 1939, where his teacher Robert Nettleton Field proved to be an inspirational influence. After leaving Otago, McCahon attended King Edward Technical College Art School as a part-time student, he first exhibited his work at the Otago Art Society in 1939. His painting Harbour Cone from Peggy’s Hill was considered too abstract and was excluded from the Otago Art Society's exhibition, despite a rule entitling each member to submit one work; the society’s conventions of good taste were challenged by McCahon’s modernist style which reduced the volcanic cones of the Otago Peninsula to a topographic series of bare monochromatic forms. The protests of other young artists, who withdrew their works in sympathy, forced the society to relent and display the work. McCahon supported himself in the late-thirties with a stint of working in a touring variety show, stage scenery painting, fruit picking.
Some of these jobs were undertaken during his voluntary service for the state during World War II. At the beginning of World War II, McCahon worked in prescribed industries in support of the war effort. McCahon had tried to enlist for military service after deciding that the defeat of Fascism was a global necessity - from his pacifist standpoint, he was rejected from active service due to an enlarged heart. In September 1940 and November 1943 he was guest exhibitor with The Group show in Christchurch, he became a member of The Group in 1947 and contributed work until its demise in 1977. During 1944 McCahon collaborated with his wife producing watercolours collectively called Pictures for Children. In 1940 he had a small exhibit in Wellington and produced his first commissioned work, Otago Peninsula. Leaving his family at home, he traveled around the South Island for seasonal work which subsequently led to his artwork reflecting the places he traveled to the Nelson region. McCahon’s first mature works, religious paintings and symbolic landscapes such as The Angel of the Annunciation, Takaka: Night and Day, The Promised Land were produced in the years after the war.
During this time, a notable portrait of McCahon was painted by Doris Lusk. McCahon married fellow artist Anne Hamblett in 1942 at Dunedin; as a wedding present, McCahon and Hamblett received a book by C. A. Cotton, The Geomorphology of New Zealand; this book would prove to have an influence on his art. As McCahon relied on seasonal work his wife returned to live with her parents. Over the next five years, their time together was intermittent; the couple had four children - two daughters and two sons: William, Catherine and Matthew. McCahon began the first of his early religious painting I Paul to you at Ngatimote in 1946 in Nelson; these works depicted events from Christ’s life in a New Zealand setting. McCahon was never a member of a church but acknowledged that religious questions were central to his work. In the 1940s words began to appear in his work resulting in public criticism. McCahon felt the directness of words could help, provide a ‘way in’ to his images, a long tradition within painted images in religious art.
In 1947 he worked in 1948 worked as a gardener in Christchurch. His friend R. N. O’Reilly organised an exhibit at the Wellington Public Library February 1947 at the Lower Hutt Municipal Public Library. In September 1947 McCahon showed a different selection at the Dunedin Public Library. By 1948, McCahon and Hamblett had relocated to Christchurch. McCahon met the poet John Caselberg in Christchurch in October 1948. McCahon collaborated with Caselberg on various works that fused images; the support of the poet and editor Charles Brasch enabled McCahon to visit Melbourne from July to August 1951 to study paintings in the National Gallery of Victoria. In August 1949, Helen Hitchings’s gallery mounted a joint exhibition of works by McCahon and Woollaston in Wellington. In May 1953, McCahon moved his family to Titirangi, where they bought a house; as a result of his exposure to the area, McCahon painted many landscapes featuring beaches, the sea, the sky, land and kauri trees. He started working at the Auckland City Art Gallery first as a cleaner as a custodian of the paintings, in April 1956, as the Deputy Director.
McCahon assisted in the professionalisation of the gallery and
City Gallery Wellington
The City Gallery Wellington is an art gallery in Wellington, New Zealand. The gallery was first opened in 1980 in a different building. Located in Civic Square, the Gallery is recognised as pivotal to Wellington’s positioning and growth as New Zealand’s arts capital. City Gallery Wellington plays a unique role in the New Zealand's cultural landscape; the gallery does not have a collection. City Gallery Wellington re-opened in September 2009 after a year's closure for renovations. Three new gallery spaces were added, including one devoted to the exhibition of Maori and Pacific art, plus a new auditorium; the additions were designed by Wellington architect Stuart Gardyne of Architecture+. The Gallery reopened with the exhibition Yayoi Kusama: Mirrored Years which achieved record attendance. Significant group exhibitions have included Parihaka: The Art of Passive Resistance, The Exhibition of the Century: Modern Masters from the Stedelijk Museum, Techno Maori―Maori Art in the Digital Age, the Prospect:New Art New Zealand triennial series.
An integral part of the programme are artists' projects where a new body of work is profiled, including Michael Harrison, Gavin Hipkins, Saskia Leek, Peter Madden, Séraphine Pick, Yuk King Tan. The Michael Hirschfeld Gallery shows work by Wellington-based artists and architects; the Gallery regularly publishes catalogues to accompany its exhibition programme and runs an ambitious public programme of events and conversations. The education programmes focus on delivery to primary and secondary schools in the Wellington region and nationally. City Gallery Wellington is managed by the Wellington Museums Trust with major funding from the Wellington City Council; the façade of the building features ‘Fault’, an artwork by Bill Culbert and Ralph Hotere, launched in 1994. In the fifteen years since the 1993 opening at its current location, the City Gallery has hosted monographic exhibitions of major international artists such as Tracey Emin, Keith Haring, Rosalie Gasgoine, Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera, Robert Mapplethorpe, Tracey Moffatt, Sidney Nolan, Patricia Piccinini, Pierre et Gilles, Bridget Riley, Sam Taylor Wood, Salla Tykkä, Stanley Spencer, Wim Wenders plus New Zealand's own Laurence Aberhart, Rita Angus, Shane Cotton, Tony Fomison, Bill Hammond, Ralph Hotere, Ronnie van Hout, Melvin Day and Boyd Webb.
In 1993 the Gallery moved to its present location on the north-eastern side of Civic Square, into the old Wellington Public Library building, after the latter was refurbished. Built in 1940 in an Art Deco style, the gallery's current building housed the Wellington Public Library - replacing the original red brick City Library building of 1893. In 1991 the Library moved into a new building next door. Wellington's Old Buildings, David Kernohoran, Victoria University Press 1994, ISBN 0-86473-267-8, page 184 City Gallery Wellington Wellington Museums Trust
University of Auckland
The University of Auckland is the largest university in New Zealand, located in the country's largest city, Auckland. It is the highest-ranked university in the country, being ranked 85th worldwide in the 2018/19 QS World University Rankings. Established in 1883 as a constituent college of the University of New Zealand, the university is made up of eight faculties, it has more than 40,000 students, more than 30,000 "equivalent full-time" students. The University of Auckland began as a constituent college of the University of New Zealand, founded on 23 May 1883 as Auckland University College. Stewardship of the University during its establishment period was the responsibility of John Chapman Andrew. Housed in a disused courthouse and jail, it started out with 95 students and 4 teaching staff: Frederick Douglas Brown, professor of chemistry. By 1901, student numbers had risen to 156. From 1905 onwards, an increasing number of students enrolled in commerce studies; the University conducted little research until the 1930s, when there was a spike in interest in academic research during the Depression.
At this point, the college's executive council issued several resolutions in favour of academic freedom after the controversial dismissal of John Beaglehole, which helped encourage the college's growth. In 1934, four new professors joined the college: Arthur Sewell, H. G. Forder, C. G. Cooper and James Rutherford; the combination of new talent, academic freedom saw Auckland University College flourish through to the 1950s. In 1950, the Elam School of Fine Arts was brought into the University of Auckland. Archie Fisher, appointed principal of the Elam School of Fine Arts was instrumental in having it brought in the University of Auckland; the University of New Zealand was dissolved in 1961 and the University of Auckland was empowered by the University of Auckland Act 1961. In 1966, lecturers Keith Sinclair and Bob Chapman established The University of Auckland Art Collection, beginning with the purchase of several paintings and drawings by Colin McCahon; the Collection is now managed by the Centre based at the Gus Fisher Gallery.
The Stage A of the Science building was opened by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother on 3 May. In 1975-81 Marie Clay and Patricia Bergquist, the first two female professors, were appointed. Queen Elizabeth II opened the new School of Medicine Building at Grafton on 24 March 1970; the Queen opened the Liggins Institute in 2002. The North Shore Campus, established in 2001, was located in the suburb of Takapuna, it offered the Bachelor of Information Management degree. At the end of 2006, the campus was closed, the degree relocated to the City campus. On 1 September 2004, the Auckland College of Education merged with the University's School of Education to form the Faculty of Education and Social Work; the faculty is based at the Epsom Campus of the former college, with an additional campus in Whangarei. Professor Stuart McCutcheon became Vice-Chancellor on 1 January 2005, he was the Vice-Chancellor of Victoria University of Wellington. He succeeded Dr John Hood, appointed Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford.
The University opened a new business school building in 2007, following the completion of the Information Commons. It has gained international accreditations for all its programmes and now completes the "Triple Crown". In May 2013 the University purchased a site for new 5.2-hectare campus on a former Lion Breweries site adjacent to the major business area in Newmarket. It will provide the University with a site for expansion over the next 50 years, with Engineering occupying the first of the new faculties in 2015. In April 2016, Vice-Chancellor Stuart McCutcheon announced that University of Auckland would be selling off its Epsom and Tamaki campuses in order to consolidate education and services at the City and Newmarket campuses; the Epsom Campus is the site of the University of Auckland's education faculty while the Tamaki campus hosts elements of the medical and science faculties as well as the School of Population Health. In mid–June 2018, McCutcheon announced that the University would be closing down and merging its specialist fine arts and music and dance libraries into the City Campus' General Library.
In addition, the University would cut 100 support jobs. The Vice-Chancellor claimed that these cutbacks would save between NZ$3 million and $4 million dollars a year; this announcement triggered criticism and several protests from students. Students objected to the closure of the Elam Fine Arts Library on the grounds that it would make it harder to access study materials; some dissenters circulated a petition protesting the Vice-Chancellor's restructuring policies. Protests were held in April and June 2018. Unlike other New Zealand universities such as the University of Otago and Victoria University of Wellington, the University of Auckland has not yet divested from fossil fuels. In April 2017, more than 100 students from the Auckland University Medical Students Association marched demanding the removal of coal, o