Système universitaire de documentation
The système universitaire de documentation or SUDOC is a system used by the libraries of French universities and higher education establishments to identify and manage the documents in their possession. The catalog, which contains more than 10 million references, allows students and researcher to search for bibliographical and location information in over 3,400 documentation centers, it is maintained by the Bibliographic Agency for Higher Education. Official website
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture; the library's main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař; the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers; as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague; the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years; the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new library building on Letna plain, between Hradčanská metro station and Sparta Prague's football ground, Letná stadium. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, with a projected completion date of 2011. In 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Plans for the building had still not been decided in February 2008, with the matter being referred to the Office for the Protection of Competition in order to determine if the tender had been won fairly. In 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, following a ruling from the European Commission that the tender process had not been carried out legally; the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water.
Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building. There was a fire at the library in December 2012. List of national and state libraries Official website
University of Miami
The University of Miami is a private, nonsectarian research university in Coral Gables, United States. As of 2018, the university enrolls 17,331 students in 12 separate colleges/schools, including the Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine in Miami's Health District, a law school on the main campus, the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science focused on the study of oceanography and atmospheric sciences on Virginia Key, with research facilities at the Richmond Facility in southern Miami-Dade County; the university offers 138 undergraduate, 144 master's, 68 doctoral degree programs, of which 64 are research/scholarship and four professional areas of study. Over the years, the university's students have represented all 50 states and close to 150 foreign countries. With more than 15,000 full and part-time faculty and staff, UM is a top 10 employer in Miami-Dade County. UM's main campus in Coral Gables has over 5.7 million square feet of buildings. Research is a component of each academic division, with UM attracting $345.8 million in sponsored research grants in FY 2018.
UM offers a large library system with over 3.9 million volumes and exceptional holdings in Cuban heritage and music. UM offers a wide range of student activities, including fraternities and sororities, a student newspaper and a radio station. UM's intercollegiate athletic teams, collectively known as the Miami Hurricanes, compete in Division I of the National Collegiate Athletic Association. UM's football team has won five national championships since 1983 and its baseball team has won four national championships since 1982. A group of citizens chartered the University of Miami in 1925 with the intent to offer "unique opportunities to develop inter-American studies, to further creative work in the arts and letters, to conduct teaching and research programs in tropical studies", they believed. They were overly optimistic about future financial support for UM because the South Florida land boom was at its peak. During the Jim Crow era, there were three large state-funded universities in Florida for white males, white females, black coeds.
The university began in earnest in 1925 when George E. Merrick, the founder of Coral Gables, gave 160 acres and nearly $5 million, to the effort; these contributions were land contracts and mortgages on real estate, sold in the city. The university was chartered on April 1925 by the Circuit Court for Dade County. By the fall of 1926, when the first class of 372 students enrolled at UM, the land boom had collapsed, hopes for a speedy recovery were dashed by a major hurricane. For the next 15 years the university remained solvent; the first building on campus, now known as the Merrick Building, was left half built for over two decades due to economic difficulties. In the meantime, classes were held at the nearby Anastasia Hotel, with partitions separating classrooms, giving the university the early nickname of "Cardboard College."In 1929, founding member William E. Walsh and other members of the Board of Regents resigned in the wake of the collapse of the Florida economy. UM's plight was so severe that students went door to door in Coral Gables collecting funds to keep it open.
A reconstituted ten-member Board was chaired by UM's first president Bowman Foster Ashe. The new board included Merrick, Theodore Dickinson, E. B. Douglas, David Fairchild, James H. Gilman, Richardson Saunders, Frank B. Shutts, Joseph H. Adams, J. C. Penney. In 1930, several faculty members and more than 60 students came to UM when the University of Havana closed due to political unrest. UM filed for bankruptcy in 1932. In July 1934, the University of Miami was reincorporated and a Board of Trustees replaced the Board of Regents. By 1940, community leaders were replacing administration as trustees; the university survived this early turmoil. During Ashe's presidency, the university added the School of Law, the Business School, the School of Education, the Graduate School, the Marine Laboratory, the School of Engineering, the School of Medicine. During World War II, UM was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program, which offered students a path to a Navy commission.
One of Ashe's longtime assistants, Jay F. W. Pearson, assumed the presidency in 1952. A charter faculty member and a marine biologist by trade, Pearson retained the position until 1962. During his presidency, UM awarded its first doctorate degrees and saw an increase in enrollment of more than 4,000; the social changes of the 1960s and 1970s were reflected at UM. In 1961, UM began to admit black students. African Americans were allowed full participation in student activities and sports teams. After President Stanford pressed for minority athletes, in December 1966, UM signed Ray Bellamy, an African American football player. With Bellamy, UM became the first major college in the Deep South with a Black football player on scholarship. UM established an Office of Minority Affairs to promote diversity in both undergraduate and professional school admissions. With the start of the 1968 football season, President Henry Stanford barred the playing of "Dixie" by the university's band. UM regulated female student conduct more than men's conduct with a staff under the Dean of Women watching over the women.
UM combined the separate Dean of Men and Dean of Women positions in 1971. In 19
University of Kentucky
The University of Kentucky is a public co-educational university in Lexington, Kentucky. Founded in 1865 by John Bryan Bowman as the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky, the university is one of the state's two land-grant universities, the largest college or university in the state, with 30,720 students as of Fall 2015, the highest ranked research university in the state according to U. S. News and World Report; the institution comprises 16 colleges, a graduate school, 93 undergraduate programs, 99 master programs, 66 doctoral programs, four professional programs. The University of Kentucky has fifteen libraries on campus; the largest is the William T. Young Library, a federal depository, hosting subjects related to social sciences and life sciences collections. In recent years, the university has focused expenditures on research, following a compact formed by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1997; the directive mandated that the university become a Top 20 public research institution, in terms of an overall ranking, to be determined by the university itself, by the year 2020.
In the early commonwealth of Kentucky, higher education was limited to a number of children from prominent families, disciplined apprentices, those young men seeking entry into clerical and medical professions. As the first university in the territory that would become Kentucky, Transylvania University was the primary center for education, became the father of what would become the University of Kentucky. John Bryan Bowman founded the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Kentucky, a publicly chartered department of Kentucky University, after receiving federal support through the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act in 1865. Courses were offered at The Henry Clay Estate. Three years James Kennedy Patterson became the first president of the land-grant university and the first degree was awarded. In 1876, the university began to offer master's degree programs. Two years A&M separated from Kentucky University, now Transylvania University. For the new school, Lexington donated a 52-acre park and fair ground, which became the core of UK's present campus.
A&M was a male-only institution, but began to admit women in 1880. In 1892, the official colors of the university, royal blue and white, were adopted. An earlier color set and light yellow, was adopted earlier at a Kentucky-Centre College football game on December 19, 1891; the particular hue of blue was determined from a necktie, used to demonstrate the color of royal blue. On February 15, 1882, Administration Building was the first building of three completed on the present campus. Three years the college formed the Agricultural Experiment Station, which researches issues relating to agribusiness, food processing, nutrition and soil resources and the environment; this was followed up by the creation of the university's Agricultural Extension Service in 1910, one of the first in the United States. The extension service became a model of the federally mandated programs that were required beginning in 1914. Patterson Hall, the school's first women's dormitory, was constructed in 1904. Residents had to cross a swampy depression, where the now demolished Student Center stood, to reach central campus.
Four years the school's name was changed to the "State University, Kentucky" upon reaching university status, to the "University of Kentucky" in 1916. The university led to the creation of the College of Home Economics in 1916, Mary E. Sweeney was promoted from chair of the Department of Home Economics to Dean of the College.. The College of Commerce was established in 1925, known today as the Gatton College of Business and Economics. In 1929, Memorial Hall was completed, dedicated to the 2,756 Kentuckians who died in World War I; this was followed up by the new King Library, which opened in 1931 and was named for a long-time library director, Margaret I. King; the university's graduate and professional programs became racially integrated in 1949 when Lyman T. Johnson, an African American, won a lawsuit to be admitted to the graduate program. African Americans would not be allowed to attend as undergraduates until 1954, following the US Supreme Court's Brown v. Board of Education decision. In 1939, Governor Happy Chandler appointed the first woman trustee on the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees, Georgia M. Blazer of Ashland.
She served from 1939 to 1960. In 1962, Blazer Hall was opened as the Georgia M Blazer Hall for Women in tribute to her twenty-one years of service as a University of Kentucky trustee. Ground was broken for the Albert B. Chandler Hospital in 1955, when Governor of Kentucky Happy Chandler recommended that the Kentucky General Assembly appropriate $5 million for the creation of the University of Kentucky College of Medicine and a medical center at the university; this was completed after a series of studies were conducted that highlighted the health needs of the citizens, as well as the need to train more physicians for the state. Five years the College of Medicine and College of Nursing opened, followed by the College of Dentistry in 1962. Nine years after the founding of The Northern Extension Center in Covington, representing the Ashland Independent School Board of Education, Ashland attorney Henderson Dysard and Ashland Oil & Refining Company founder and CEO Paul G. Blazer presented a proposal to President Dickey and the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees for the university to take over the day-to-day operations an
George A. Lundberg
George Andrew Lundberg was an American sociologist. Lundberg was born in North Dakota, his parents, Andrew J. Lundberg and Britta C. Erickson, were immigrants from Sweden. Lundberg received his bachelor's degree from the University of North Dakota in 1920, a master's degree from the University of Wisconsin in 1922, a doctorate in 1925 from the University of Minnesota, where he studied under Luther Lee Bernard and F. Stuart Chapin. Following his doctorate, he began a faculty position at the University of Washington, but left after a year for postdoctoral studies at Columbia University, took a position as an associate professor at the University of Pittsburgh. In 1930, he became director of the Bureau of Social Research at the Pittsburgh Federation of Social Agencies, but he soon left Pittsburgh for a faculty position at Columbia. In 1934 he worked with the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, soon thereafter moved to Bennington College in Vermont, where he was professor of sociology and statistics.
After holding additional faculty positions at the University of Minnesota, Brigham Young University, Stanford University, he joined the University of Washington in 1945 as professor and chair, remained there for the rest of his career. Lundberg served at the 33rd President of the American Sociological Society, he was president of the Pacific Sociological Association, the Eastern Sociological Society, the Sociological Research Association, was the editor of the journal Sociometry from 1941 to 1947. Lundberg died on April 14, 1966, "following surgical treatment for a condition not ordinarily considered dangerous". Lundberg was a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, was awarded the Distinguished Achievement Medal of the University of Minnesota and an honorary doctorate in 1958 from the University of North Dakota. After his death, a conference of the Pacific Sociological Association was held in his honor. Lundberg's most lasting impression was made in his work entitled, Can Science Save Us?.
However, Lundberg focused much of his research on the applications, delimits, operational definitions, linguistics. Lundberg's approach to sociology is categorized as neo-positivism. Lundberg was critical of the Chicago School of sociology, he felt. Trends in American sociology. Harper, 1929. Edited volume of a symposium of young sociologists. Social research: a study in methods of gathering data. Longmans, Green and Co. 1929. Reprinted 1942 and 1953. 2nd ed. Greenwood Press, 1968. Leisure: a suburban study. Columbia University Press, 1934. Agathon Press, 1969. Foundations of sociology; the Macmillan Company, 1939. Can science save us? Longmans, Green and Co. 1947. Sociology. Harper & Row, 1958. George A. Lundberg at Find a Grave
Biblioteca Nacional de España
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, one of the largest in the world. It is located on the Paseo de Recoletos; the library was founded by King Philip V in 1712 as the Palace Public Library. The Royal Letters Patent that he granted, the predecessor of the current legal deposit requirement, made it mandatory for printers to submit a copy of every book printed in Spain to the library. In 1836, the library's status as Crown property was revoked and ownership was transferred to the Ministry of Governance. At the same time, it was renamed the Biblioteca Nacional. During the 19th century, confiscations and donations enabled the Biblioteca Nacional to acquire the majority of the antique and valuable books that it holds. In 1892 the building was used to host the Historical American Exposition. On March 16, 1896, the Biblioteca Nacional opened to the public in the same building in which it is housed and included a vast Reading Room on the main floor designed to hold 320 readers.
In 1931 the Reading Room was reorganised, providing it with a major collection of reference works, the General Reading Room was created to cater for students and general readers. During the Spanish Civil War close to 500,000 volumes were collected by the Confiscation Committee and stored in the Biblioteca Nacional to safeguard works of art and books held until in religious establishments and private houses. During the 20th century numerous modifications were made to the building to adapt its rooms and repositories to its expanding collections, to the growing volume of material received following the modification to the Legal Deposit requirement in 1958, to the numerous works purchased by the library. Among this building work, some of the most noteworthy changes were the alterations made in 1955 to triple the capacity of the library's repositories, those started in 1986 and completed in 2000, which led to the creation of the new building in Alcalá de Henares and complete remodelling of the building on Paseo de Recoletos, Madrid.
In 1986, when Spain's main bibliographic institutions - the National Newspaper Library, the Spanish Bibliographic Institute and the Centre for Documentary and Bibliographic Treasures - were incorporated into the Biblioteca Nacional, the library was established as the State Repository of Spain's Cultural Memory, making all of Spain's bibliographic output on any media available to the Spanish Library System and national and international researchers and cultural and educational institutions. In 1990 it was made an Autonomous Entity attached to the Ministry of Culture; the Madrid premises are shared with the National Archaeological Museum. The Biblioteca Nacional is Spain's highest library institution and is head of the Spanish Library System; as the country's national library, it is the centre responsible for identifying, preserving and disseminating information about Spain's documentary heritage, it aspires to be an essential point of reference for research into Spanish culture. In accordance with its Articles of Association, passed by Royal Decree 1581/1991 of October 31, 1991, its principal functions are to: Compile and conserve bibliographic archives produced in any language of the Spanish state, or any other language, for the purposes of research and information.
Promote research through the study and reproduction of its bibliographic archive. Disseminate information on Spain's bibliographic output based on the entries received through the legal deposit requirement; the library's collection consists of more than 26,000,000 items, including 15,000,000 books and other printed materials, 4,500,000 graphic materials, 600,000 sound recordings, 510,000 music scores, more than 500,000 microforms, 500,000 maps, 143,000 newspapers and serials, 90,000 audiovisuals, 90,000 electronic documents, 30,000 manuscripts. The current director of the Biblioteca Nacional is Ana Santos Aramburo, appointed in 2013. Former directors include her predecessors Glòria Pérez-Salmerón and Milagros del Corral as well as historian Juan Pablo Fusi and author Rosa Regàs. Given its role as the legal deposit for the whole of Spain, since 1991 it has kept most of the overflowing collection at a secondary site in Alcalá de Henares, near Madrid; the Biblioteca Nacional provides access to its collections through the following library services: Guidance and general information on the institution and other libraries.
Bibliographic information about its collection and those held by other libraries or library systems. Access to its automated catalogue, which contains close to 3,000,000 bibliographic records encompassing all of its collections. Archive consultation in the library's reading rooms. Interlibrary loans. Archive reproduction. Biblioteca Digital Hispánica, digital library launched in 2008 by the Biblioteca Nacional de España List of libraries in Spain Media related to Biblioteca Nacional de España at Wikimedia Commons Official site Official web catalog