Ontario is one of the 13 provinces and territories of Canada and is located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province accounting for 38.3 percent of the country's population, is the second-largest province in total area. Ontario is fourth-largest jurisdiction in total area when the territories of the Northwest Territories and Nunavut are included, it is home to the nation's capital city and the nation's most populous city, Ontario's provincial capital. Ontario is bordered by the province of Manitoba to the west, Hudson Bay and James Bay to the north, Quebec to the east and northeast, to the south by the U. S. states of Minnesota, Ohio and New York. All of Ontario's 2,700 km border with the United States follows inland waterways: from the west at Lake of the Woods, eastward along the major rivers and lakes of the Great Lakes/Saint Lawrence River drainage system; these are the Rainy River, the Pigeon River, Lake Superior, the St. Marys River, Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, the Detroit River, Lake Erie, the Niagara River, Lake Ontario and along the St. Lawrence River from Kingston, Ontario, to the Quebec boundary just east of Cornwall, Ontario.
There is only about 1 km of land border made up of portages including Height of Land Portage on the Minnesota border. Ontario is sometimes conceptually divided into Northern Ontario and Southern Ontario; the great majority of Ontario's population and arable land is in the south. In contrast, the larger, northern part of Ontario is sparsely populated with cold winters and heavy forestation; the province is named after Lake Ontario, a term thought to be derived from Ontarí:io, a Huron word meaning "great lake", or skanadario, which means "beautiful water" in the Iroquoian languages. Ontario has about 250,000 freshwater lakes; the province consists of three main geographical regions: The thinly populated Canadian Shield in the northwestern and central portions, which comprises over half the land area of Ontario. Although this area does not support agriculture, it is rich in minerals and in part covered by the Central and Midwestern Canadian Shield forests, studded with lakes and rivers. Northern Ontario is subdivided into two sub-regions: Northeastern Ontario.
The unpopulated Hudson Bay Lowlands in the extreme north and northeast swampy and sparsely forested. Southern Ontario, further sub-divided into four regions. Despite the absence of any mountainous terrain in the province, there are large areas of uplands within the Canadian Shield which traverses the province from northwest to southeast and above the Niagara Escarpment which crosses the south; the highest point is Ishpatina Ridge at 693 metres above sea level in Temagami, Northeastern Ontario. In the south, elevations of over 500 m are surpassed near Collingwood, above the Blue Mountains in the Dundalk Highlands and in hilltops near the Madawaska River in Renfrew County; the Carolinian forest zone covers most of the southwestern region of the province. The temperate and fertile Great Lakes-Saint Lawrence Valley in the south is part of the Eastern Great Lakes lowland forests ecoregion where the forest has now been replaced by agriculture and urban development. A well-known geographic feature is part of the Niagara Escarpment.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway allows navigation to and from the Atlantic Ocean as far inland as Thunder Bay in Northwestern Ontario. Northern Ontario occupies 87 percent of the surface area of the province. Point Pelee is a peninsula of Lake Erie in southwestern Ontario, the southernmost extent of Canada's mainland. Pelee Island and Middle Island in Lake Erie extend farther. All are south of 42°N – farther south than the northern border of California; the climate of Ontario varies by location. It is affected by three air sources: cold, arctic air from the north; the effects of these major air masses on temperature and precipitation depend on latitude, proximity to major bodies of water and to a small extent, terrain relief. In general, most of Ontario's climate is classified as humid continental. Ontario has three main climatic regions; the surrounding Great Lakes influence the climatic region of southern Ontario. During the fall and winter months, heat stored from the lakes is released, moderating the climate near the shores of the lakes.
This gives some parts of southern Ontario milder winters than mid-continental areas at lower latitudes. Parts of Southwestern Ontario have a moderate humid continental climate, similar to that of the inland Mid-Atlantic states and the Great Lakes portion of the Midwestern United States; the region has warm to cold winters. Annual precipitation is well distributed throughout the year. Most of this region lies in the lee of the Great Lakes. In December 2010, the snowbelt set a new record when it was h
Canadian National Exhibition
The Canadian National Exhibition known as The Exhibition or The Ex, is an annual event that takes place at Exhibition Place in Toronto, Canada, during the 18 days leading up to and including Canadian Labour Day, the first Monday in September. With 1.5 million visitors each year, the CNE is Canada's largest annual fair and the fifth largest in North America. The first Canadian National Exhibition took place in 1879 to promote agriculture and technology in Canada. Agriculturists and scientists exhibited their discoveries and inventions at the CNE to showcase the work and talent of the nation; as Canada has grown as a nation, the CNE has changed over time, reflecting the growth in diversity and innovation, though agriculture and technology remain a large part of the CNE today. To many people in the Greater Toronto Area and the surrounding communities, the CNE is an annual family tradition; the CNE is held at Exhibition Place, a 192 acres site located along Toronto's waterfront on the shores of Lake Ontario and just west of downtown Toronto.
The site features several buildings and structures, many of which have been named as significant under the Ontario Heritage Act. There are several outdoor live music venues on-site including the permanent CNE Bandshell. All of the roads are named after the Canadian territories; the site includes a football stadium, fountains, plazas, a rose garden and parking lots. The site was reserve lands for British and Canadian military and was the site of an 18th-century French fort; the area was cleared of forest in the early 19th century for use by the Toronto Garrison of Fort York. The Exhibition received permission to use part of the site in the 1870s and expanded to use the whole site by the 1920s. In the 1950s, the site was expanded south of Lake Shore Boulevard by landfill, reduced in size on its northern boundary by the construction of the Gardiner Expressway; the 18-day fair itself consists of a mix of shopping areas, live entertainment, agricultural displays, sports events, a large carnival midway with rides and food.
The Canadian International Air Show on Labour Day weekend has been a feature of the fair since 1949. Several buildings house exhibits and displays from vendors, government agencies and various industry associations; these include the International Pavilion of products from around the world, the Arts and Hobbies Building of crafts and unusual items. The Evercare Centre complex holds the international pavilion, a garden show, the SuperDogs performances and a sand-sculpting competition, it has exhibit space used for agricultural or industrial displays and a live stage. The Food Building houses a large number of vendors of food from many cultures, reflecting Toronto's multicultural population; the Better Living Centre building is used for a casino on one side, a farming display on the other. The CNE continues its tradition of agricultural produce competition and the winners are displayed in the Better Living Centre, along with a butter sculpting competition. Other exhibit areas are used differently in different years.
There are a large number of vendors outside along the streets of the fair offering discount and unusual products. Some exhibits are only held for a few days such as the cat show; the 1792 "Scadding Cabin" log cabin display dates back to the first year of the fair and is the only time the cabin is open for display. The carnival midway has a large children's area in the northwest corner of the park, with smaller rides suitable for children under 12; the main area is situated west of the EnerCare Centre and has several dozen rides, including thrill rides, roller coasters, swing rides and a log plume ride. Along several pathways of the midway area are games of "skill", games of chance and many carnival food vendors; the CNE operates a "sky ride", with chairs similar to ski-lift chairs, to carry riders from one end of the midway to the other. The Coliseum building is used for live shows; these have included high-wire acts, the RCMP Musical Ride in the past. Outdoors, the Bandshell is used for nightly headliners.
Additionally, areas are set up at various points around the fair for outdoor entertainment. These include such things as beer gardens, musical acts, acrobatic acts, parkour displays, circus acts, children's shows and educational displays. There are two major parades at the CNE, the Warrior's Day Parade of veterans and the Labour Day Parade of workers; every evening a "Mardi Gras" parade is held. The CNE is home to BMO Field, a large multi-purpose facility located in the centre of the fair grounds; the stadium is used by two professional sports teams based in Toronto, the Toronto Argonauts Canadian football team and the Toronto FC soccer team. In Coronation Park, located across Lake Shore Boulevard, opposite the Princes' Gates, the CNE holds a youth peewee baseball tournament and a women's fastball tournament; the 2013 and 2014 CNEs featured a zip line ride. Operated by Ziptrek Ecotours, the CNE zip line was the highest and longest temporary zip line in the world; the launch tower, positioned southeast of the Food Building, measured 180 ft high.
The landing tower, southwest of the Direct Energy Centre, was 60 ft. The zip line ride consisted of four lines, each measuring nearly 1,100 ft. Zip line riders travelled at 65 km/hour. Food is considered by many visitors to be a key part of the CNE experience. Many options are available across the 192-acre site during the 18 days of the fair. A major destination for CNE visitors, the Food Building offers a wide variety of food options ranging from classic fair favourites, such as Beaver Tail
Toronto Camera Club
The Toronto Camera Club is the oldest photography club in Canada, founded in 1888. It aims "to study and promote the art of photography in all its branches", it is situated in Toronto. Starting life as a specialized section of the Royal Canadian Institute, the Photographic Section became an independent organization in 1888. Named the Toronto Amateur Photographic Association, the organization changed its name to the Toronto Camera Club in 1891; that year the club began showing exhibits of members' work. The club held its first "Toronto International Salon of Photography" in August of 1908 with 99 prints exhibited. By 1929 the Salon recieived over 1,200 entries from 35 countries; that year 370 prints were selected for exhibition. In 1895 the club allowed women to join with limited privileges. In 1942 the TCC began accepting women for membership with full privileges. In 1952 the club elected Evelyn Andrus as its first woman president; the Toronto Camera Club is affiliated with the Canadian Association for Photographic Art, the Photographic Society of America, the Ontario Council of Camera Clubs.
The first hundred years: An historical portrait of the Toronto Camera Club by Andrew Oliver ISBN 0969284411
Centennial of the City of Toronto
The Centennial of the City of Toronto was celebrated in 1934, commemorating the incorporation of York into the City of Toronto. The celebrations included numerous events and commemorations. Of the most modern relevance is the "Toronto's Hundred Years" Publication Committee, which published Toronto's 100 Years, from which much historical perspective may be found. Along with a General Centennial Committee, Toronto had at least sixteen Special Committees, they were the Music and Pageantry, Permanent Memorial, The "Toronto's Hundred Years" Publication, Travel Promotion, Veteran Reunion, Religious Services, Stamp Exhibition, Street Decorations, Flower Show, Song Judging, Public Address, National Groups, the Drills Corps Display Committee. It is possible more Committees existed, as it was published "It is regretted that the names of the members of other committees which are being formed are not available for this edition." While events occurred throughout the year, many were scheduled to happen in one of three three-day periods.
The first began on Victoria Day, the second after Dominion Day, the third at the end of summer, but before the Canadian National Exhibition's annual opening. Of note, Toronto first proclaimed Victoria Day in 1848. Soon recognised by the federal government, Canada became the first country to declare it a national holiday. By the time of Toronto's centennial, the movement had spread to the entire British Empire. Victoria Day was dedicated to the re-opening of Fort York erected in the "virgin woods hereabouts in 1793". "At the touch of a Royal hand", the fort's gates were to be opened, The guide to the centennial entices American readers by highlighting General Zebulon Pike, encouraging them to "stand just as reverently here while the guide points out the exact spot on the battlements of Toronto's ancient citadel were Pike met death in his hour of victory." Running all three nights of the period was an "inspiring historic" Empire Pageant. Held a night, the outdoor performances looked at the history of the city from the establishments of Natives and M. de la Galissoniere, to present day educational and social developments.
It was noted in promotional materials that: The show included an Exhibition Chorus of 2,000 "trained voices" conducted by Dr. H. A. Fricker. Fricker was at that point leading the Toronto Mendelssohn Choir. Promotional materials billed Toronto as the "Choral Capital of America." Performing was the Toronto Symphony Orchestra, under Dr. Ernest MacMillan. Both organizations still operate; the first reunion of the Canadian Corps was held in Toronto, over a three-day period. While there was mischief reported, for the most part the soldier's celebration went off smoothly. While original plans called for German and Austrian veterans to be included in the parade, but they were scratched at the day of. Corps reunion officials said, "They will not parade with the corps. Beyond that we do not wish to comment." After two days of hospitalisation in Neudeck, East Prussia, President Paul Von Hindenburg of Germany died of uremia poisoning on 2 August 1934. Shortly after news of the 86-year-old's passing made Berlin, Chancellor Adolf Hitler was named President by Constitutional amendment.
By the start of Toronto event for Great War veterans, German Minister of Propaganda Joseph Goebbels was reported to be working on a "high-pressure drive to bring Germans in mass to the polls Aug. 19 to vote Adolf Hitler into office as... "Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor"."The host city itself was busy dealing with the Ontario Hunger Marchers. Marchers were holding meeting in Toronto parks without permits. While the hunger marchers had walked the highways down to the event, they were sent home via capacity-loaded trucks, as ordered by Premier Mitchell Hepburn, to remove them from the city; these Marchers were so prominent. Some residents complained that "our largest hotels lack decorations of any description, this week," when the veterans were in town. Part of the promotions included a pamphlet "Toronto Centennial 1834 1934: Within a night's ride for fifty million people of the U. S. and Canada". While including the locations of Sault Ste Marie, Niagara Falls and Quebec, the map focuses on American cities.
This focus on the United States in highlighted in the second page text "To the Question---"WHERE WILL WE GO THIS YEAR?"/All America in 1934 can cheerfully answer/"TORONTO"". At the time, fifty million people were "ithin an overnight trip" from the city; the pamphlet was with a full-colour cover. At the time, the City's marketing slogan was "The Citizens are the City". Archival papers are held at the University of Toronto Archives and Record Management Services
Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa