Secretary to the Government of India
Secretary to the Government of India abbreviated as secretary, GoI, or as secretary, is a post and a rank under the Central Staffing Scheme of the Government of India. The authority for the creation of this post rests with the Union Council of Ministers; the position holder is a career civil servant from the Indian Administrative Service, a government official of high seniority. The post of the secretary, however, is an ex-cadre post, anyone can occupy it, but the office-bearers are either from All India Services or Central Civil Services. All promotions and appointments to this rank and post are directly made by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet. In the structure of the Indian government, a secretary is the administrative head of a ministry or department, is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and Vice Chief of the Army Staff, officers of the rank of full four-star general and their equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces, are listed as such on the Indian order of precedence, ranking twenty-third.
In mid-1930s, the Central Secretariat contained only twenty-nine secretaries, who were all members of the Indian Civil Service. The salary for a member of this rank and post was fixed at Rs. 48,000 per annum in the 1930s. As per warrant or precedence of 1905, secretaries to the Government of India was listed together with joint secretaries to the Government of India and were ranked above the rank of chief secretaries of provincial governments. N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar had once suggested "A secretary should not be immersed in files and burdened with routine, it is essential that he should have time to grasp the overall picture, size up the problems facing the government in the field allotted to his charge, think and plan ahead. All these must be efficiently performed. Failure to make adequate provision in this respect cannot be compensated by a mere increase in the establishment under his control."The Administrative Reforms Commission visualised the role of secretary as one of "coordinator, policy guide and evaluator."
A secretary to the Government of India is the administrative head of a ministry or department and is the principal adviser to the minister-in charge on all matters of policy and administration within the ministry or department. The role of a secretary is as follows: To act as the administrative head of the ministry or department; the responsibility in this regard is undivided. To act as the chief adviser to the minister on all aspects of policy and administrative affairs. To represent the ministry or department before the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of India; the prime minister-led Appointments Committee of the Cabinet is the final authority on posting and transfer of officers of secretary level. Secretaries report to the prime minister. In the Indian government, secretaries head departments or ministries of the government and hold positions such as Finance Secretary, Defence Secretary, Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary, Defence Production Secretary, emissaries in the foreign missions/embassies, members of the Railway Board and members of the Telecom Commission.
According to the report of the Seventh Central Pay Commission of India, seventy-three out of ninety-one secretaries to the Government of India are from the Indian Administrative Service. All secretaries to the Government of India are eligible for a diplomatic passport. Secretaries are allotted either type-VII or type-VIII bungalows in areas like New Moti Bagh and Lutyens' across Delhi by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs' Directorate of Estates; the salary and emolument in this rank is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and to Vice Chief of the Army Staff and officers in the rank of full general, its equivalents, in the Indian Armed Forces. Out of the secretaries to the Government of India, most are IAS officers, twelve are either from scientific or from legal background, four are Indian Foreign Service officers, two are Indian Police Service officers and one officer belongs to the Indian Postal Service while two secretary-level positions are vacant. Additionally, the chairman of Railway Board is ex-officio Principal Secretary to the Government of India, while the members of the Railway Board are ex-officio secretaries to the Government of India.
In addition, the members of the Telecom Commission are ex-officio secretaries to the Government of India. Media articles and others have argued in favour of lateral entrants being recruited to this rank/post to infuse fresh energy and thinking into an insular and archaic bureaucracy. Non-IAS civil services have complained to the Government of India because of lack of empanelment in the rank/post of secretary on numerous occasions. Federal Secretary
Defence Secretary (India)
The Defence Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Defence. This post is held by a senior Indian Administrative Service of the rank of secretary to the Government of India; the current Defence Secretary is Sanjay Mitra. As a secretary to the Government of India, the Defence Secretary ranks 23rd on Indian order of precedence. Defence Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Defence, is the principal adviser to the Minister of Defence on all matters of policy and administration within the Ministry of Defence; the role of Defence Secretary is as follows: To act as the administrative head of the Department of Defence. The responsibility in this regard is undivided. To act as the chief adviser to the Defence Minister on all aspects of policy and administrative affairs. To represent the Ministry of Defence before the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of India; the Defence Secretary is responsible for coordinating the activities of the other departments in the Ministry of Defence.
To act as the first among equals among the secretaries in the Ministry of Defence. The Defence Secretary is eligible for a diplomatic passport; the official earmarked residence of the Defence Secretary is 9, New Moti Bagh, New Delhi, a Type-VIII bungalow. The salary and emolument in this rank is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and to Vice Chief of the Army Staff/commanders and officers in the rank of full general and its equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces. Cabinet Secretary of India Home Secretary Foreign Secretary Chief Secretary
Indian Revenue Service
The Indian Revenue Service abbreviated to I. R. S. or IRS, is the administrative revenue service of the Government of India. A Central Service, it functions under the Department of Revenue of the Ministry of Finance and is under the administrative direction of the Revenue Secretary and the ministerial command of the Minister of Finance; the IRS is responsible for collecting and administering direct and indirect taxes accruing to the Government of India. It is the largest civil service amongst the organised civil services in the Indian government and serves the nation through discharging sovereign functions of collection of revenue for development and governance; as with other countries that follow the Westminster system of government, the IRS is part of the permanent bureaucracy of the nation, is an inseparable part of the executive of the Government of India. As such, the bureaucracy remains politically neutral and guarantees administrative continuity to the ruling party; the IRS comprises two branches, IRS and IRS, controlled by two separate statutory bodies, the Central Board of Direct Taxes and the Central Board of indirect taxes and Customs.
The duties of the IRS include providing tax assistance to taxpayers and resolving instances of erroneous or fraudulent tax filings, formulating and enforcing policy concerning income tax in India. The duties of the IRS include formulation and enforcement of policy concerning the Goods and Services Tax, prevention of smuggling and administration of matters related to Customs and Narcotics. In the 2015 fiscal year, the IRS processed 3,91,28,247 returns and collected ₹6.95797 lakh crore in gross revenue, spending ₹6 for every ₹1,000 it collected. The relative contribution of direct tax to the overall tax collection of the Central Government has risen from about 36% to 56% over the period of 2000–01 to 2013–14; the contribution of direct tax-to-GDP has doubled during the same period. Direct taxes in the form an income tax were introduced by the British in India in 1860 to overcome the difficulties created by the Indian Rebellion of 1857; the organisational history of the Income-tax Department, starts in the year 1922, when the Income-tax Act, 1922 gave, for the first time, a specific nomenclature to various Income-tax authorities.
In 1924, the Central Board of Revenue Act constituted a Central Board of Revenue - the statutory body with functional responsibilities for the administration of the Income-Tax Act. Commissioners of income tax were appointed for each province and assistant commissioners and tax officers were placed under their control. Officers from the Imperial Civil Services manned top posts and the lower echelons were filled through promotions from the ranks; the Income Tax Service was established in 1944, subsequently re-constituted as the Indian Revenue Service in 1953. In 1963, given the complex roles and responsibilities of administering direct tax in India, the Central Board of Direct Taxes was constituted as a statutory body under the Central Board of Revenue Act, 1963. With the passing of the Government of India Act, 1919 the civil services—under the oversight of the Secretary of State for India—were split into two arms, the All India Services and the Central Services. Apart from the Central Secretariat, the more important of these latter were the Railway Services, the Indian Posts and Telegraph Service, the Imperial Customs Service.
After Independence, the Imperial Customs Service was reconstituted as the Indian Revenue Service in 1953. The nature of the service underwent a transformational change with the enactment of the One Hundred and First Amendment of the Constitution of India, which overhauled the administration of indirect taxation in India with the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax. With the subsumption of several indirect taxes and levies, including central excise duty and service tax, under the GST, the nomenclature was updated to reflect the changed structure of taxation from IRS to IRS. There are two streams of recruitment to the Indian Revenue Service. IRS officers may enter into the IRS by passing the Civil Services Examination; the CSE is a three-stage competitive selection process consisting of a preliminary examination, a main examination, an interview. It is administered by the Union Public Service Commission. IRS officers recruited in this way are called direct recruits; some IRS officers are recruited from Central Services.
These include Income Tax Service, Customs Appraisers Service, Customs Preventive Service, Central Excise Service. Group'B' officers are promoted over several years of service; the current ratio of two streams at the entry level is kept 1:1. All IRS officers, regardless of their mode of entry, are appointed by the President of India. Only about 250 candidates out of over 1 million applicants, who apply through the Civil Services Examination, are successful - a success rate of 0.025%. After selection, successful candidates undergo a 3-month Foundation Course at the Lal Bahadur Shastri National Academy of Administration in Mussoorie, Thereafter, IRS Officer Trainees undergo a 16-month specialised training at the National Academy of Direct Taxes, in Nagpur, while IRS OTs undergo specialised training at National Academy of Customs Indirect Taxes and Narcotics, in Faridabad, Haryan
Law enforcement in India
Law enforcement in India is performed by numerous law enforcement agencies. Like many federal nations, the nature of the Constitution of India mandates law and order as a subject of the state; therefore the bulk of the policing lies with the respective territories of India. At the federal level, the many agencies are part of the Ministry of Home Affairs, support the states in their duties. Larger cities operate police commissionerates, under respective state police. All senior police officers in the state police forces, as well as those in the federal agencies, are members of the Indian Police Service; the central agencies are controlled by the central Government of India. The majority of federal law enforcement agencies are controlled by the Ministry of Home Affairs; the head of each of the federal law enforcement agencies is always an Indian Police Service officer. The constitution assigns responsibility for maintaining law and order to the states and territories, all routine policing—including apprehension of criminals—is carried out by state-level police forces.
The constitution permits the central government to participate in police operations and organisation by authorising the creation of Indian Police Service. Central police forces can assist the state's police force, but only if so requested by the state governments. In practice, the central government has observed these limits. During the Emergency of 1975-77, the constitution was amended to permit the central government to dispatch and deploy its Central Armed Police forces without regard to the wishes of the states; this action proved unpopular, the use of the Central Police Forces was controversial. After the Emergency was lifted, the constitution was amended in December 1978 to make deployment of central Police forces once again dependent on the consent of the state government; the principal national-level organisation concerned with law enforcement is the Ministry of Home Affairs, which supervises a large number of government functions and agencies operated and administered by the central government.
The ministry is concerned with all matters pertaining to the maintenance of public peace and order, the staffing and administration of the public services, the delineation of internal boundaries, the administration of union territories. In addition of being the cadre controlling authority of the IPS, the Ministry of Home Affairs maintains several agencies and organisations dealing with police and security. Police in the union territories comes directly under MHA; the Minister of Home Affairs is the cabinet minister responsible for Ministry of Home Affairs, whereas the Home Secretary, an Indian Administrative Service officer, acts as the administrative head of Ministry of Home Affairs. The Indian Border Security Force is responsible for policing India's land borders during peacetime and preventing trans-border crimes, it is a central police force operating under the MHA. It performs a variety of duties ranging from VIP security to election duties, from guarding of vital installations to counter-naxal operations.
The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 demonstrated the inadequacies of the existing border management system and led to the formation of the Border Security Force as a unified central armed police force with the specific mandate of guarding India's international boundary with Pakistan. The BSF's policing capabilities were used in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 against the Pakistani Armed Forces in areas which were least threatened. During wartime or upon orders from the central government BSF operates under the command of the Indian Army. BSF troops took part in the Battle of Longewala in 1971 in this capacity. After the 1971 war which led to the creation of Bangladesh, the responsibility for policing the border with Bangladesh was assigned to Border Security Force. Although charged with guarding India's external boundaries, the BSF has more been given the task of counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operations; when the insurgency in Jammu and Kashmir broke out in 1989, the Jammu and Kashmir state police and the thinly-deployed Central Reserve Police Force needed extra force to cope with the spiralling violence, the Indian government deployed the BSF to Jammu and Kashmir to combat Kashmiri militants.
BSF operates a Tear-Smoke Unit situated at BSF Academy at Takenpur, Gwalior in Madhya Pradesh which supplies tear gas and smoke shells for riot prevention to all of the state police forces. BSF runs the National Dog Training and Research Centre. BSF is one of several Indian police forces which has its own Water wings, it provides helicopter and other support services to the state police. The primary task of CISF is providing industrial security; the Central Industrial Security Force is used to guard industrial installations around the country owned by the Central government as well as securing seaports and airports. CISF provides security to certain NGOs, they provide security for atomic power plants, space installations, oil fields and refineries, major ports, heavy engineering plants, steel plants, fertilizer units, hydroelectric/thermal power plants and other installations or wholly run by the government. The Central Reserve Police Force is one of the largest Central Police organisations in the world.
Its main objective is to assist and help states and union territories' law enforcement agencies in maintaining law and order and to contain insurgency. It is deployed as anti-terrorist unit in various regions, it is operating abroad as part of United Nations peacekeeping missions. It performs a variety of duties ranging from VIP security to election duties, from guarding of vital
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Membership of Rajya Sabha is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of 250 members and current laws have provision for 245 members. Most of the members of the House are indirectly elected by the members of States and union territories of India state and territorial legislatures using single transferable votes through Open Ballot, while the President can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature and social services. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with a third of the members up for election every two years; the Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, unlike the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, is not subject to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha can be prorogued by the President; the Rajya Sabha has equal footing in all areas of legislation with the Lok Sabha, except in the area of supply, where the Lok Sabha has overriding powers. In the case of conflicting legislation, a joint sitting of the two houses can be held.
However, since the Lok Sabha has twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha, the former would hold the greater power. Joint sittings of the Houses of Parliament of India are rare, in the history of the Republic, only three such joint-sessions have been held; the Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, who presides over its sessions. The Deputy Chairman, elected from amongst the house's members, takes care of the day-to-day matters of the house in the absence of the Chairman; the Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13 May 1952. The salary and other benefits for a member of Rajya Sabha are same as for a member of Lok Sabha. Rajya Sabha members are elected by state legislatures rather than directly through the electorate by single transferable vote method. From 18 July 2018, Rajya Sabha MPs can speak in 22 Indian languages in House as the Upper House has facility for simultaneous interpretation in all the 22 official languages of India. Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament.
A member of the Rajya Sabha must: Be a citizen of India. Make and subscribe before some person authorized in that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule to the Constitution. Be at least 30 years old. Be elected by the Legislative Assembly of States and Union territories by means of Single transferable vote through Proportional representation. Not be a proclaimed criminal. Not be a subject of insolvent, i.e. he/she should not be in debt that he/she is not capable of repaying in a current manner and should have the ability to meet his/her financial expenses. Not hold any other office of profit under the Government of India. Not be of unsound mind. Possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament. In addition, twelve members are nominated by the President of India having special knowledge in various areas like arts and science. However, they are not entitled to vote in Presidential elections as per Article 55 of the Constitution.
The Constitution of India places some restrictions on the Rajya Sabha which makes the Lok Sabha more powerful in certain areas. The definition of a money bill is given in article 110 of constitution of India. A money bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha by a minister and only on recommendation of President of India; when the Lok Sabha passes a money bill the Lok Sabha sends money bill to the Rajya Sabha for 14 days during which it can make recommendations. If Rajya Sabha fails to return the money bill in 14 days to the Lok Sabha, that bill is deemed to have passed by both the Houses. If the Lok Sabha rejects any of the amendments proposed by the Rajya Sabha, the bill is deemed to have been passed by both Houses of Parliament of India in the form the Lok Sabha passes it; this is because the Lok Sabha has largest number of representatives of peoples of India and so the Lok Sabha, the lower house is more powerful in comparison with Rajya Sabha, the upper house. Hence, Rajya Sabha can only give recommendations for a money bill but Rajya Sabha cannot amend a money bill this is to ensure that Rajya Sabha must not add any non money matters in money bill.
Lok Sabha can reject all the recommendations of Rajya Sabha or can accept some or all of the recommendations. Decisions of the speaker of the Lok Sabha are final. There is no joint sitting of both the houses with respect to money bills, because all final decisions are taken by the Lok Sabha. Article 108 provides for a joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament in certain cases. A joint sitting can be convened by the President of India when one house has either rejected a bill passed by the other house, has not taken any action on a bill transmitted to it by the other house for six months, or has disagreed to the amendments proposed by the Lok Sabha on a bill passed by it. Considering that the numerical strength of Lok Sabha is more than twice that of Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha tends to have a greater influence in a joint sitting of Parliament. A joint session is chaired by the Speaker of Lok Sabha; because the joint session is convened by the President on advice of the government, which has a majority in Lok Sabha, the joint session is convened to get bills passed through a Rajya Sabha in which the government has a minority.
Joint sessions of Parliament are a rarity, have been convened three times in last 71 years, for the purpose of passage of a specific legislative act, the latest time being in 2002: 1961: Dowry Prohibition Act, 1958 1978: Banking Services Commissio
Indian Civil Accounts Service
The Indian Civil Accounts Service is one of the Civil Services of India. ICAS functions under the Department of Expenditure in the Union Ministry of Finance; the service was created consequent to the Departmentalisation in 1976 with the purpose of separating Auditing and Accounting functions of the Union Government. The initial intake into the ICAS was by deputing and transferring the personnel from Indian Audit and Accounts Department. Since 1977, direct recruits to ICAS are selected from the Civil Services Examination conducted by Union Public Service Commission, through which recruitment to all other Central Civil Services is made. Indian Civil Accounts Organisation performs a key role in delivery of financial management services for the Government of India; the organisation provides payment services, supports the tax collection system, performs government wide accounting, financial reporting functions, preparation of budget estimates and carries out Internal Audit in civil ministries of the Union Government.
Controller General of Accounts in Ministry of Finance heads the organisation and is responsible for administering this system. The vast expertise available with the ICAS is utilised by the government at various levels of decision making as well as by International Monetary Fund in a number of countries for advising on financial management and accounting functions; this service has sanctioned cadre strength of 226 officers who are supported by around 9000 employees professionally qualified in government accounting system. Officers of ICAS are trained in three stages. For the first 6 months, they are trained at National Institute of Financial Management, Faridabad along with officers of Indian Defence Accounts Services, Indian Postal-Telecom Accounts and Finance Services. During NIFM training, they are taken abroad for a foreign country exposure. In 2011, it was Manchester and in 2012, Malaysia and Singapore and in 2013 & 2014, University of California,Riverside, USA. From 2015 batch onwards, the officer trainees are going for foreign attachment with Seneca college, Canada.
After NIFM, training office of CGA attaches ICAS officers to the Institute of Government Accounts and Finance. In their third stage of training, ICAS officers are sent for On-The-Job-Training from INGAF. Founded in 1992, INGAF is defined by its excellence in the field of public policy, finance and management, its programs attract professionals from not only the Central Government, but the state governments and union territories, public sector undertakings and autonomous bodies and banks. Its main campus is located in the heart of the national capital - Delhi, adjacent to the premier Jawaharlal Nehru University. INGAF has four regional training centres at Mumbai, Kolkata and Aizawl, equipped with multi-media lecture theatres and computing and information technology services, its faculty is drawn from a committed team of experienced professionals, blending leading edge practices with rigorous academic analysis. It has fostered partnerships with institutes of eminence for joint initiatives at curriculum development, academic research and training.
Professional Programs INGAF conducts more than 300 intensive professional programs every year aimed at senior and middle level of management in the Civil Accounts organization and other interested central organizations, autonomous bodies, banking institutions, state governments and union territories. It conducts training at the induction and entry level, together with professional skill up-gradation at the middle and senior management levels covering about 5000 participants every year. International Programs INGAF conducts regular customized programs on different aspects of Information Technology, Internal Audit, Public Financial Management for countries in the SAARC region, it has been proactive in addressing the training needs of the member countries of the Association of Government Accounts Organisations of Asia through exchange of ideas, conducting of study programs blending best practices with a strategic understanding of the issues involved in managing change. INGAF conducts programs for member-countries of the Indian Technical & Economic Cooperation and Special Commonwealth Assistance for Africa consortium.
Its current global footprint extends to well over a 100 countries in the East European, Middle Eastern, Latin American, Asian regions. Indian Civil Accounts Organisation is headed by Controller General of Accounts in the Department of Expenditure, Ministry of Finance. CGA as the central accounting and reporting agency for Government of India and is assisted by officers of Indian Civil Accounts Service; as per the Departmentalised accounting arrangements in government, operational responsibility for accounting and internal audit function in civil ministries is with the ICAS officers. These units are headed by the Principal Chief Controller of Accounts, Chief Controller of Accounts or a Controller of Accounts in the respective ministries. Under the overall supervision of CGA, they assist the Secretary of the Ministry, the chief accounting authority in the ministry; the Pr. CCAs / CCAs / CAs discharge their duties and responsibilities through the Principal Accounts Office at Ministry's headquarters and Pay and Accounts Offices at the field formation level.
There are 358 PAOs located at 87 stations across the country. The cadre management of Group'A' officers of the Indian Civil Accounts Service vests with the Controller General of Accounts, it covers the entire gamut of personnel management of ICAS officers including their recruitment, promotions, both within the countr
President of India
The President of India is the ceremonial head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces. The president is indirectly elected by an electoral college comprising the Parliament of India and the legislative assemblies of each of India's states and territories, who themselves are all directly elected. Although the Article 53 of the Constitution of India states that the president can exercise his powers directly or by subordinate authority, with few exceptions, all of the executive powers vested in the president are, in practice, exercised by the prime minister with the help of the Council of Ministers; the president is bound by the constitution to act on the advice of the prime minister and cabinet as long as the advice is not violating the constitution. India achieved independence from the British on 15 August 1947 as a dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations with George VI as king, represented in the country by a governor-general. Still, following this, the Constituent Assembly of India, under the leadership of B.
R. Ambedkar, undertook the process of drafting a new constitution for the country; the Constitution of India was enacted on 26 November 1949 and came into force on 26 January 1950, making India a republic. The offices of monarch and governor-general were replaced by the new office of President of India, with Rajendra Prasad as its first incumbent; the Indian constitution accords with the president, the responsibility and authority to defend and protect the Constitution of India and its rule of law. Invariably, any action taken by the executive or legislature entities of the constitution shall become law only after the President's assent; the president shall not accept any actions of the executive or legislature which are unconstitutional. The president is the foremost, most empowered and prompt defender of the constitution, who has pre-emptive power for ensuring constitutionality in the actions of the executive or legislature; the role of the judiciary in upholding the Constitution of India is the second line of defence in nullifying any unconstitutional actions of the executive and legislative entities of the Indian Union.
Under the draft constitution the President occupies the same position as the King under the English Constitution. He is the head of the state but not of the Executive, he does not rule the Nation. He is the symbol of the Nation, his place in the administration is that of a ceremonial device on a seal by which the nation's decisions are made known. The primary duty of the president is to preserve and defend the constitution and the law of India as made part of his oath; the president is the common head of all independent constitutional entities. All his actions and supervisory powers over the executive and legislative entities of India shall be used in accordance to uphold the constitution. There is no bar on the actions of the president to contest in the court of law. Legislative power is constitutionally vested by the Parliament of India of which the president is the head, to facilitate the lawmaking process per the constitution; the president prorogues them. He can dissolve the Lok Sabha; the president inaugurates parliament by addressing it after the general elections and at the beginning of the first session every year per Article 87.
The Presidential address on these occasions is meant to outline the new policies of the government. All bills passed by the parliament can become laws only after receiving the assent of the president per Article 111. After a bill is presented to him, the president shall declare either that he assents to the Bill, or that he withholds his assent from it; as a third option, he can return a bill to parliament, if it is not a money bill, for reconsideration. President may be of the view that a particular bill passed under the legislative powers of parliament is violating the constitution, he can send back the bill with his recommendation to pass the bill under the constituent powers of parliament following the Article 368 procedure. When, after reconsideration, the bill is passed accordingly and presented to the president, with or without amendments, the president cannot withhold his assent from it; the president can withhold his assent to a bill when it is presented to him thereby exercising a pocket veto on the advice of prime minister or council of ministers per Article 74 if it is inconsistent to the constitution.
Article 143 gave power to the president to consult the supreme court about the constitutional validity of an issue. The president shall assent to constitutional amendment bills without power to withhold the bills per Article 368; when either of the two Houses of the Parliament of India is not in session, if the government feels the need for an immediate procedure, the president can promulgate ordinances which have the same force and effect as an act passed by parliament under its legislative powers. These are in the nature of interim or temporary legislation and their continuance is subject to parliamentary approval. Ordinances remain valid for no more than six weeks from the date the parliament is convened unless approved by it earlier. Under Article 123, the president as the upholder of the constitution shall be satisfied that immediate action is mandatory as advised by the union cabinet and he is confident that the government commands majority support in the parliament needed for the passing of the ordin