South Australia is a state in the southern central part of Australia. It covers some of the most arid parts of the country. With a total land area of 983,482 square kilometres, it is the fourth-largest of Australia's states and territories by area, fifth largest by population, it has a total of 1.7 million people, its population is the second most centralised in Australia, after Western Australia, with more than 77 percent of South Australians living in the capital, Adelaide, or its environs. Other population centres in the state are small. South Australia shares borders with all of the other mainland states, with the Northern Territory; the state comprises less than 8 percent of the Australian population and ranks fifth in population among the six states and two territories. The majority of its people reside in greater Metropolitan Adelaide. Most of the remainder are settled in fertile areas along River Murray; the state's colonial origins are unique in Australia as a settled, planned British province, rather than as a convict settlement.
Colonial government commenced on 28 December 1836, when the members of the council were sworn in near the Old Gum Tree. As with the rest of the continent, the region had been long occupied by Aboriginal peoples, who were organised into numerous tribes and languages; the South Australian Company established a temporary settlement at Kingscote, Kangaroo Island, on 26 July 1836, five months before Adelaide was founded. The guiding principle behind settlement was that of systematic colonisation, a theory espoused by Edward Gibbon Wakefield, employed by the New Zealand Company; the goal was to establish the province as a centre of civilisation for free immigrants, promising civil liberties and religious tolerance. Although its history is marked by economic hardship, South Australia has remained politically innovative and culturally vibrant. Today, it is known for numerous cultural festivals; the state's economy is dominated by the agricultural and mining industries. Evidence of human activity in South Australia dates back as far as 20,000 years, with flint mining activity and rock art in the Koonalda Cave on the Nullarbor Plain.
In addition wooden spears and tools were made in an area now covered in peat bog in the South East. Kangaroo Island was inhabited; the first recorded European sighting of the South Australian coast was in 1627 when the Dutch ship the Gulden Zeepaert, captained by François Thijssen and mapped a section of the coastline as far east as the Nuyts Archipelago. Thijssen named the whole of the country eastward of the Leeuwin "Nuyts Land", after a distinguished passenger on board; the coastline of South Australia was first mapped by Matthew Flinders and Nicolas Baudin in 1802, excepting the inlet named the Port Adelaide River, first discovered in 1831 by Captain Collet Barker and accurately charted in 1836–37 by Colonel William Light, leader of the South Australian Colonization Commissioners"First Expedition' and first Surveyor-General of South Australia. The land which now forms the state of South Australia was claimed for Britain in 1788 as part of the colony of New South Wales. Although the new colony included two-thirds of the continent, early settlements were all on the eastern coast and only a few intrepid explorers ventured this far west.
It took more than forty years before any serious proposal to establish settlements in the south-western portion of New South Wales were put forward. On 15 August 1834, the British Parliament passed the South Australia Act 1834, which empowered His Majesty to erect and establish a province or provinces in southern Australia; the act stated that the land between 132° and 141° east longitude and from 26° south latitude to the southern ocean would be allotted to the colony, it would be convict-free. In contrast to the rest of Australia, terra nullius did not apply to the new province; the Letters Patent, which used the enabling provisions of the South Australia Act 1834 to fix the boundaries of the Province of South Australia, provided that "nothing in those our Letters Patent shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation and enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now occupied or enjoyed by such Natives."
Although the patent guaranteed land rights under force of law for the indigenous inhabitants it was ignored by the South Australian Company authorities and squatters. Survey was required before settlement of the province, the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia appointed William Light as the leader of its'First Expedition', tasked with examining 1500 miles of the South Australian coastline and selecting the best site for the capital, with planning and surveying the site of the city into one-acre Town Sections and its surrounds into 134-acre Country Sections. Eager to commence the establishment of their whale and seal fisheries, the South Australian Company sought, obtained, the Commissioners' permission to send Company ships to South Australia, in advance of the surveys and ahead of the Commissioners' colonists; the Company's settlement of seven vessels and 636 people was temporarily made at Kingscote on Kangaroo Island, until
Constitution of Australia
The Constitution of Australia is the supreme law under which the government of the Commonwealth of Australia operates, including its relationship to the States of Australia. It consists of several documents; the most important is the Constitution of the Commonwealth of Australia, referred to as the "Constitution" in the remainder of this article. The Constitution was approved in a series of referendums held over 1898–1900 by the people of the Australian colonies, the approved draft was enacted as a section of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900, an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom; the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 became law on 9 July 1900, entered into force on 1 January 1901. Though the Constitution was given legal force by an Act of the United Kingdom parliament, the Australia Act 1986 removed the power of the United Kingdom parliament to change the Constitution as in force in Australia, the Constitution can now only be changed in accordance with the prescribed referendum procedures in Section 128.
Other pieces of legislation have constitutional significance for Australia. These are the Statute of Westminster, as adopted by the Commonwealth in the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act 1942, the Australia Act 1986, passed in equivalent forms by the United Kingdom Parliament and the Australian Federal Parliament; the Statute of Westminster Adoption Act is regarded as the point at which Australia became de jure an independent nation, while the Australia Act severed all remaining constitutional links between Australia and the United Kingdom. The remaining exception is that whoever is the monarch of the United Kingdom is the monarch of Australia, although today this person Queen Elizabeth II, acts in a distinct capacity as monarch of each. Authority to interpret the Constitution lies with federal courts: with the Federal Court of Australia and the High Court of Australia; the history of the Constitution of Australia began with moves towards federation in the 19th century, which culminated in the federation of the Australian colonies to form the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901.
However, the Constitution has continued to develop since with two laws having significant impact on the constitutional status of the nation. In the mid-19th century, a desire to facilitate co-operation on matters of mutual interest intercolonial tariffs, led to proposals to unite the separate British colonies in Australia under a single federation. However, impetus came from Britain and there was only lacklustre local support; the smaller colonies feared domination by the larger ones. These difficulties led to the failure of several attempts to bring about federation in the 1850s and 1860s. By the 1880s, fear of the growing presence of the Germans and the French in the Pacific, coupled with a growing Australian identity, created the opportunity for establishing the first inter-colonial body, the Federal Council of Australasia, established in 1889; the Federal Council could legislate on certain subjects, but did not have a permanent secretariat, an executive, or independent source of revenue.
The absence of New South Wales, the largest colony diminished its representative value. Henry Parkes, the Premier of New South Wales, was instrumental in pushing for a series of conferences in the 1890s to discuss federalism – one in Melbourne in 1890, another in Sydney in 1891, attended by colonial leaders. By the 1891 conference, significant momentum had been built for the federalist cause, discussion turned to the proper system of government for a federal state. Under the guidance of Sir Samuel Griffith, a draft constitution was drawn up. However, these meetings lacked popular support. Furthermore, the draft constitution sidestepped certain important issues, such as tariff policy; the draft of 1891 was submitted to colonial parliaments but lapsed in New South Wales, after which the other colonies were unwilling to proceed. In 1895, the six premiers of the Australian colonies agreed to establish a new Convention by popular vote; the Convention met over the course of a year from 1897 to 1898.
The meetings produced a new draft which contained the same principles of government as the 1891 draft, but with added provisions for responsible government. To ensure popular support, the draft was presented to the electors of each colony. After one failed attempt, an amended draft was submitted to the electors of each colony except Western Australia. After ratification by the five colonies, the Bill was presented to the British Imperial Parliament with an Address requesting Queen Victoria to enact the Bill. Before the Bill was passed, one final change was made by the imperial government, upon lobbying by the Chief Justices of the colonies, so that the right to appeal from the High Court to the Privy Council on constitutional matters concerning the limits of the powers of the Commonwealth or States could not be curtailed by parliament; the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1900. Western Australia agreed to join the Commonwealth in time for it to be an original member of the Commonwealth of Australia, established on 1 January 1901.
In 1988, the original copy of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act 1900 from the Public Record Office in London was lent to Australia for the purposes of the Australian Bicente
Frederick Michael Chaney, AO is a former Australian politician, deputy leader of the Liberal Party from 1989 to 1990 and served as a minister in the Fraser Government. He was a Senator for Western Australia from 1974 to 1990, served a single term in the House of Representatives from 1990 to 1993. Chaney was born in the son of Sir Frederick Chaney, he was a lawyer before entering politics. Chaney was elected to the Senate at the 1974 federal election, he held several portfolios in the Fraser Government, serving in the ministry from 1978 until the government's defeat at the 1983 election. From 1983 to 1990, Chaney served as Leader of the Opposition in the Senate, he was elected deputy leader of the Liberal Party in 1989, under Andrew Peacock, but served less than a year before being replaced by Peter Reith. Chaney transferred to the House of Representatives at the 1990 election, but served only a single term. After leaving politics he focused on indigenous policy matters, serving on the National Native Title Tribunal, as co-chair of Reconciliation Australia, as co-founder and Vice-President of The Graham Farmer Foundation.
Chaney was born in the son of Sir Frederick Chaney. His six siblings include judge John Chaney. Chaney attended Aquinas College and went on to the University of Western Australia, he practised law and was admitted as a barrister and solicitor in Western Australia in 1963. He spent two years practising in the Territory of New Guinea. Chaney helped found the Aboriginal Legal Service of Western Australia in 1973, Chaney first attempted to enter politics at the 1971 Ascot by-election, running for the state Legislative Assembly, he was elected to federal parliament as a Senator for Western Australia for the Liberal Party at the 1974 election. He was Leader of the Opposition in the Senate from 1983 until 1990 when he became the first member for the Division of Pearce in the House of Representatives, a position he held until 1993. Although still a Senator at the time, Chaney was named deputy leader of the Liberal Party in May 1989, he retained this post two months after transferring to the lower house.
Chaney was Minister for Administrative Services from August to December 1978, Minister for Aboriginal Affairs from December 1978 until November 1980 and Minister for Social Security from November 1980 until the defeat of the Fraser Government at the 1983 election. He was Minister Assisting the Minister for Education from August 1978 to December 1979 and Minister Assisting the Minister for National Development and Energy from December 1979 to November 1980. Chaney was appointed to the National Native Title Tribunal in 1994 on a part-time basis, he became a full-time member in 1995 and deputy president in 2000, retiring in 2007. He was chancellor of Murdoch University from 1995 to 2002, co-chair of Reconciliation Australia from 2000 to 2005. Chaney left the Liberal Party in 1995, believing that his work "required engagements across party lines and without political involvement". Chaney was appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia in 1997 "for service to the Parliament of Australia and to the Aboriginal community through his contribution to the establishment of the Aboriginal Legal Service of Western Australia and mediating with the National Native Title Tribunal".
On 25 January 2014, Prime Minister Tony Abbott announced Chaney as the 2014 Senior Australian of the Year
A double dissolution is a procedure permitted under the Australian Constitution to resolve deadlocks in the bicameral Parliament of Australia between the House of Representatives and the Senate. A double dissolution is the only circumstance. Similar to the United States Congress, but unlike the British Parliament, Australia's two parliamentary houses have equal legislative power. Governments, which are formed in the House of Representatives, can be frustrated by a Senate determined to reject their legislation. If the conditions are satisfied, the Prime Minister can advise the Governor-General to dissolve both houses of Parliament and call a full election. If, after the election, the legislation that triggered the double dissolution is still not passed by the two houses a joint sitting of the two houses of parliament can be called to vote on the legislation. If the legislation is passed by the joint sitting the legislation is deemed to have passed both the House of Representatives and the Senate.
The 1974 joint sitting remains the only occurrence in federal Australian history. A double dissolution election has been called in lieu of an early election, with the formal trigger bill not playing a significant role during the subsequent election campaign. Part of section 57 of the Constitution provides: If the House of Representatives passes any proposed law, the Senate rejects or fails to pass it, or passes it with amendments to which the House of Representatives will not agree, if after an interval of three months the House of Representatives, in the same or the next session, again passes the proposed law with or without any amendments which have been made, suggested, or agreed to by the Senate, the Senate rejects or fails to pass it, or passes it with amendments to which the House of Representatives will not agree, the Governor-General may dissolve the Senate and the House of Representatives simultaneously, but such dissolution shall not take place within six months before the date of the expiry of the House of Representatives by effluxion of time.
Section 57 provides that, following the election, if the Senate a third time rejects the bill or bills that were the subject of the double dissolution, the Governor-General may convene a joint sitting of the two houses to consider the bill or bills, including any amendments which have been proposed in either house, or any new amendments. If a bill is passed by an absolute majority of the total membership of the joint sitting, it is treated as though it had been passed separately by both houses, is presented for royal assent; the only time this procedure was invoked was in the 1974 joint sitting. The double dissolution provision comes into play if the Senate and House twice fail to agree on a piece of legislation; when one or more such triggers exist, the Governor-General may dissolve both the House and Senate – pursuant to section 57 of the Constitution – and issue writs for an election in which every seat in the Parliament is contested. The conditions stipulated by section 57 of the Constitution are: The trigger bill originated in the House of Representatives.
Three months elapsed between the two rejections of the bill by the Senate. The second rejection occurred in the same session as the first, or the subsequent session, but no later. There is no similar provision for resolving deadlocks with respect to bills that have originated in the Senate and are blocked in the House of Representatives. Though the Constitution refers to possible actions by the Governor-General, it had long been presumed that convention required the Governor-General to act only on the advice of the Prime Minister and the Cabinet. However, as the 1975 constitutional crisis demonstrated, the Governor-General is not compelled to follow the Prime Minister's advice. In these cases, he or she must be satisfied that the conditions specified in the Constitution apply, is entitled to seek additional information or advice before coming to a decision; as a High Court Chief Justice Barwick observed in a unanimous decision in Cormack v Cope: There have been 7 double dissolutions: in 1914, 1951, 1974, 1975, 1983, 1987 and 2016.
However, a joint sitting following a double dissolution pursuant to section 57 has only taken place once, in 1974. In 1914, the Joseph Cook Commonwealth Liberal Party sought to abolish preferential employment for trade union members in the public service, resulting in a double dissolution on 30 July 1914. In the election on 5 September 1914 the government was defeated by the opposition, Andrew Fisher's Australian Labor Party, the bill was not pursued. In 1951, the Robert Menzies Liberal–Country Party coalition government sought to reverse the proposed nationalisation of the banks put in place by the Australian Labor Party government led by Ben Chifley; the repeal was opposed by the Labor Party in the Senate. Parliament was dissolved on 19 March 1951. In the election on 28 April 1951, the government was returned with a reduced majority in the lower house, but now with a majority in the Senate; the Commonwealth Bank Bill was passed both houses. In 1974, the Gough Whitlam Labor government was unable to pass a large number of bills through a hostile Senate.
The government had announced a half-Se
The Northern Territory is an Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, Queensland to the east. To the north, the territory looks out to the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria, including Western New Guinea and other Indonesian islands; the NT covers 1,349,129 square kilometres, making it the third-largest Australian federal division, the 11th-largest country subdivision in the world. It is sparsely populated, with a population of only 246,700, making it the least-populous of Australia's eight states and major territories, with fewer than half as many people as Tasmania; the archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region. Makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards; the coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century.
The British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin. Today the economy is based on tourism Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluṟu-Kata Tjuṯa National Park in central Australia, mining; the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is concentrated along the Stuart Highway; the other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Katherine and Tennant Creek. Residents of the Northern Territory are known as "Territorians" and as "Northern Territorians", or more informally as "Top Enders" and "Centralians". Indigenous Australians have lived in the present area of the Northern Territory for an estimated 40,000 years, extensive seasonal trade links existed between them and the peoples of what is now Indonesia for at least five centuries. With the coming of the British, there were four early attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast, of which three failed in starvation and despair.
The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a brief time from February to December 1846, when it was part of the short-lived colony of North Australia. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911. Under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. From its establishment in 1869 the Port of Darwin was the major Territory supply for many decades. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889; the economic pattern of cattle raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle. Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world. Gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia and transferred to federal control. Alfred Deakin opined at this time "To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last.
Either we must accomplish the peopling of the northern territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation." In late 1912 there was growing sentiment. The names "Kingsland", "Centralia" and "Territoria" were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913. However, the name change never went ahead. For a brief time between 1927 and 1931 the Northern Territory was divided into North Australia and Central Australia at the 20th parallel of South latitude. Soon after this time, parts of the Northern Territory were considered in the Kimberley Plan as a possible site for the establishment of a Jewish Homeland, understandably considered the "Unpromised Land". During World War II, most of the Top End was placed under military government; this is the only time since Federation that part of an Australian state or territory has been under military control. After the war, control for the entire area was handed back to the Commonwealth; the Bombing of Darwin occurred on 19 February 1942. It was the largest single attack mounted by a foreign power on Australia.
Evidence of Darwin's World War II history is found at a variety of preserved sites in and around the city, including ammunition bunkers, oil tunnels and museums. The port was damaged in the 1942 Japanese air raids, it was subsequently restored. In the late 1960s improved roads in adjoining States linking with the territory, port delays and rapid economic development led to uncertainty in port and regional infrastructure development; as a result of the Commission of Enquiry established by the Administrator, port working arrangements were changed, berth investment deferred and a port masterplan prepared. Extension of rail transport was not considered because of low freight volumes. Indigenous Australians had struggled for rights to fair wages and land. An important event in this struggle was the strike and walk off by the Gurindji people at Wave Hill Cattle Station in 1966; the federal government of Gough Whitlam set up the Woodward Royal Commission in February 1973, which set to enquire into how land rights might be achieved in the Northern Territory.
Justice Woodward's first report in July 1973 recommended that a Central Land Council and a Northern Land Council be established to present to him the views of
Ronald Leslie Doyle Boswell is a former Australian politician. He represented the Nationals in the Australian Senate for Queensland from 1983 to 2014 and led the party in the Senate from 1990 to 2007, he became Father of the Senate in 2008. Boswell was born in Perth, Western Australia and was educated at St Joseph's College, Gregory Terrace, Queensland, he was the leader of the National Party in the Senate from 10 April 1990 to 3 December 2007 and held many positions in the Coalition shadow ministry including Shadow Minister for Regional Development and External Territories, Shadow Minister for Northern Australia and External Territories and Shadow Minister for Consumer Affairs. Boswell was appointed Parliamentary Secretary to the Minister for Transport and Regional Services in July 1999 but left the position in October 2003. After he was succeeded as leader of the Nationals in the Senate by Nigel Scullion following the 2007 election, Boswell became Scullion's deputy, he was succeeded in that position by Fiona Nash in 2008.
In 2011, Boswell was a critic of the former Australian Government's carbon emissions trading scheme. He called for the scheme to be abandoned. On 17 September 2012, during a Senate debate on a proposed marriage inequality bill, Boswell spoke out against same sex marriage in Australia stating: "Two mothers or two fathers can’t raise a child properly. Who takes the boy to football? Who tells him what's right from wrong? What does he do? Go along with mum, or two mums? How does he go camping or fishing? It won’t work, it’s defying nature!" At the same time he remained an outspoken opponent of fringe conservative movements such as the Australian League of Rights and One Nation. Boswell announced on 21 September 2012 that he did not intend to seek re-election in 2013 and would retire when his Senate term expired in 2014. Official website
Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Southern Ocean to the south, the Northern Territory to the north-east, South Australia to the south-east. Western Australia is Australia's largest state, with a total land area of 2,529,875 square kilometres, the second-largest country subdivision in the world, surpassed only by Russia's Sakha Republic; the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants – around 11 percent of the national total – of whom the vast majority live in the south-west corner, 79 per cent of the population living in the Perth area, leaving the remainder of the state sparsely populated. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, who visited the Western Australian coast in 1616; the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government.
He established a convict-supported military garrison at King George III Sound, at present-day Albany, on 21 January 1827 formally took possession of the western third of the continent for the British Crown. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, Perth. York was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831. Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890 and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today, its economy relies on mining, agriculture and tourism; the state produces 46 per cent of Australia's exports. Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. Western Australia is bounded to the east by longitude 129°E, the meridian 129 degrees east of Greenwich, which defines the border with South Australia and the Northern Territory, bounded by the Indian Ocean to the west and north.
The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean. The total length of the state's eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km including 7,892 km of island coastline; the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. The bulk of Western Australia consists of the old Yilgarn craton and Pilbara craton which merged with the Deccan Plateau of India and the Karoo and Zimbabwe cratons of Southern Africa, in the Archean Eon to form Ur, one of the oldest supercontinents on Earth. In May 2017, evidence of the earliest known life on land may have been found in 3.48-billion-year-old geyserite and other related mineral deposits uncovered in the Pilbara craton. Because the only mountain-building since has been of the Stirling Range with the rifting from Antarctica, the land is eroded and ancient, with no part of the state above 1,245 metres AHD. Most of the state is a low plateau with an average elevation of about 400 metres low relief, no surface runoff.
This descends sharply to the coastal plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile and laterised. Soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, copper and sometimes potassium and calcium; the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of fertilizers. These have resulted in damage to bacterial populations; the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native fauna; as a result, the South West region of the state has a higher concentration of rare, threatened or endangered flora and fauna than many areas of Australia, making it one of the world's biodiversity "hot spots".
Large areas of the state's wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate, it was heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, with a higher proportion of endemic species than most other equivalent regions. Thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world. Average annual rainfall varies from 300 millimetres at the edge of the Wheatbelt region to 1,400 millimetres in the wettest areas near Northcliffe, but from November to March, evaporation exceeds rainfall, it is very dry. Plants are adapted to this as well as the extreme poverty of all soils; the central two-thirds of the state is sparsely inhabited. The only significant economic activity is mining. Annual rainfall averages less than 300 millimetres, most of which occurs in sporadic torrential falls related to cyclone events in summer.
An exception to this is