LAC+USC Medical Center
Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center known as County/USC, or by the abbreviation LAC+USC, is a 600-bed public teaching hospital located at 2051 Marengo Street in the Boyle Heights neighborhood of Los Angeles, California. LAC+USC Medical Center is operated by the County of Los Angeles; the LAC+USC doctors are faculty of the Keck School of Medicine of USC. Los Angeles County+USC Medical Center is one of the largest public hospitals and medical training centers in the United States, the largest single provider of healthcare in Los Angeles County, it provides healthcare services for the region's medically underserved, is a Level I trauma center and treats over 28 percent of the region's trauma victims. It provides care for half of all sickle-cell anemia patients and those people living with AIDS in Southern California; the LAC+USC Medical Center provides a full spectrum of emergency and outpatient services to only Medi-Cal recipients. These include medical, emergency/trauma, obstetrical and pediatric services as well as psychiatric services for adults and children.
LAC+USC is one of the busiest public hospitals in the Western United States, with nearly 39,000 inpatients discharged, one million ambulatory care patient visits each year. The Emergency Department is one of the world's busiest, with more than 150,000 visits per year. LAC+USC operates one of only three burn centers in Los Angeles County and one of the few Level III Neonatal Intensive Care Units in Southern California. LAC+USC is the home of the Los Angeles County College of Nursing and Allied Health, which has prepared registered nurses for professional practice since its founding in 1895. LAC+USC serves as the host facility for the U. S. Navy's Trauma Training Center, allowing uniformed medical professionals valuable exposure to trauma cases that prepare them to treat battlefield injury on the front lines with the United States Marine Corps, at sea with the Navy, or ashore at Fleet Hospitals and Shock Trauma Platoons. In 2013, American Cancer Society awarded LAC+USC with the Harold P. Freeman Award in recognition of the hospital's achievements to reduce cancer disparities among medically underserved populations.
The original hospital, located at 1200 State Street, opened in 1923. Its art-deco construction had 800 patient beds; the 1994 Northridge earthquake on January 17, 1994 renewed concerns about building safety codes, those for hospitals. The California Hospital Seismic Safety Law was signed into law on September 21, 1994; the new law took the 1200 State Street building out of compliance of earthquake and fire safety codes. To address the problem, a new modern facility was proposed and constructed nearby, at 2051 Marengo Street. Designed by a joint venture of HOK and LBL Associated Architects, the new $1 billion hospital consists of three linked buildings: a clinic tower, a diagnostic and treatment tower, an inpatient tower, in total supporting 600 patient beds; the new facility has a larger number of intensive care beds to handle patients in the aftermath of disasters. The new facility was ready by 2008, on November 8 of that year, the new hospital was opened. Transfer of all inpatients from Women's and Children's Hospital and the 1200 State Street building made the retirement of the original hospital complex official.
The old building at 1200 State Street still stands. The Wellness Center, on the first floor of the old building, was opened in 2014, it is open to the public and includes offices for nonprofit organizations, community outreach and classes for wellness activities, a dance studio, a small YMCA on State Street, extensive new landscaping. While this building no longer meets the California Hospital Seismic Safety Law, it does meet current seismic standards for non-hospital use; as of 2008, the original pediatrics & obstetrics ward is abandoned, sits covered in graffiti, visible from US-101. The Los Angeles County Hospital and the University of Southern California Medical School were first affiliated in 1885, five years after USC was founded, it was established as a 100-bed hospital with 47 patients. The present-day LAC+USC complex is adjacent to the University of Southern California Health Sciences Campus, which includes the USC Keck School of Medicine, USC School of Pharmacy, Keck Hospital of USC, the USC Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center and Hospital.
In 2004, the hospital appointed its first female Chief of Staff, Cynthia Stotts, D. O. in the 158-year history of the hospital. She was the first osteopathic physician to serve in that position; the station of the same name on the El Monte Busway for the Metro Silver Line and Foothill Transit Silver Streak is located within walking distance from the hospital. Additionally, Metro lines 70, 71, 106, 251, 751, 605 serve the hospital. Marilyn Monroe was born in the charity ward on June 1, 1926; the hospital has a jail ward. In 1954, Stan Getz was processed in the jail ward as his wife gave birth to their third child one floor below, he had been arrested for attempting to rob a pharmacy to get a morphine fix. The 1962 film The Interns starring Cliff Robertson was filmed around the hospital; the hospital was featured in the 1953 version of The War Of The Worlds directed by Byron Haskins in scenes depicting the evacuation of Los Angeles from the oncoming Martians. The distinct Art Deco-style main building served as the exterior of the hospital in the 1998 movie City of Angels.
In Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles, the episode entitled "The Good Wound", exterior shots of the older LAC+US
Harbor–UCLA Medical Center
Harbor–UCLA Medical Center is a 570-bed public teaching hospital located at 1000 West Carson Street in Torrance, California within Los Angeles County, United States. Harbor–UCLA Medical Center is funded by the County of Los Angeles, serves as the Level I Trauma Center for the South Bay area. A medical facility was opened on the site in 1943 as the U. S. Army's Port of Embarkation Hospital, a receiving point for the wounded returned from the Pacific theater during World War II. Situated on a tract of 80 acres, it had an administration building and a large number of barracks wards arranged under the cottage system. In February 1946, the county purchased the facility from the Federal Government in order to decentralize the activities of the Los Angeles County General Hospital, one of the largest institutions of its kind in the world, founded a branch hospital to serve the Harbor and Long Beach; the Los Angeles County Harbor General Hospital began its affiliation with UCLA School of Medicine in 1951.
Construction of the present eight-story hospital building was completed in 1962 on the easterly portion of the grounds, at Carson Street and Vermont Avenue, replacing a number of the wooden barracks and cottages comprising Harbor General. Affiliation with the UCLA School of Dentistry was established in 1972. In 1978, the name of the hospital was changed to Los Angeles County Harbor–UCLA Medical Center in order to draw attention to its working relationship with the UCLA School of Medicine; the main building was portrayed as Rampart General Hospital in the popular TV series Emergency!. Harbor–UCLA Medical Center is home of the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, one of the largest independent, not-for-profit biomedical research institutes in the United States. Known as Harbor-UCLA Research and Education Institute, the LA BioMed has been conducting biomedical research, training young scientists and providing community services, including childhood immunization, nutrition assistance and anti-gang violence programs over the past 50 years.
Pioneering research in many fields such as reproductive endocrinology, infectious diseases and respiratory medicine has brought worldwide attention to the Harbor-UCLA campus. Among the major milestones are: In 1984, Harbor-UCLA was the first institution in the world to achieve successful pregnancies using the technique of ovum transfer; the research team was directed by Dr. John Buster that performed history's first embryo transfer from one woman to another resulting in a live birth and led to the announcement on February 3, 1984. In the procedure, an embryo, just beginning to develop was transferred from one woman in whom it had been conceived by artificial insemination to another woman who gave birth to the infant 38 weeks later; the sperm used in the artificial insemination came from the husband of the woman. This scientific breakthrough established standards and became an agent of change for women suffering from the afflictions of infertility and for women who did not want to pass on genetic disorders to their children.
Donor embryo transfer has given women a mechanism to become pregnant and give birth to a child that will contain their husband's genetic makeup. Although donor embryo transfer as practiced today has evolved from the original non-surgical method, it now accounts for 5% of in vitro fertilization recorded births; this work established the technical foundation and legal-ethical framework surrounding the clinical use of human oocyte and embryo donation, a mainstream clinical practice, which has evolved over the past 25 years. Building upon Dr. Buster's groundbreaking research and since the initial birth announcement in 1984, well over 47,000 live births resulting from donor embryo transfer have been and continue to be recorded by the Centers for Disease Control in the United States to infertile women, who otherwise would not have had children by any other existing method; the discovery by A. F. Parlow, PhD of the molecular structure of the human follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone.
The Parlow Pituitary Hormone and Antisera Laboratory produces purified pituitary components which are used in research and therapy around the world. One of the hormones produced, human growth hormone, is used to prevent severe growth retardation in thousands of children around the world. Dr. Delbert Fisher was the first to comprehensively characterize the ontogenesis of fetal thyroid development, he went on to conceptualize and develop a simple effective newborn screening test for congenital hypothyroidism, including developing the micro assay methods that made it possible to screen on a national scale. Internationally renowned genetics research to help treat and prevent short stature, led by Dr. David Rimoin, he was responsible for early work on disorders of growth hormone metabolism, for expanding the knowledge of dwarfism and developing the $2.2 million Skeletal Dysplasia Center at Harbor-UCLA. Dr. J. Michael Criley's cardiac research into improved cardiac resuscitation techniques and better training of emergency paramedics, leading to the country's first hospital-based paramedic training program.
A major discovery in defining the basic biochemical defect in a skin disease, known as x-linked ichthyosis. Dr. Larry Shapiro's discovery that this was a hereditary disease was a significant breakthrough and led to improved treatment strategies. Dr. Michael Kaback's advances in developing and improving screening for Tay–Sachs disease, an inherited, fatal disorder. Harbor-UCLA has become the headquarters for the California and international screening programs for the disease. Definitive studies of lung surfactant have resulted in saving the lives of thousands of premature
Scripps Mercy Hospital
Scripps Mercy Hospital is a private Catholic hospital located in San Diego, California. Founded in 1890, it is the oldest hospital in San Diego County and has campuses in Chula Vista and Hillcrest; the hospital employs 1,300 physicians. The Hillcrest campus is home to one of only two regional Level I Trauma Centers and receives more than 2,100 trauma patients each year. In 1890, the Sisters of Mercy opened a five-bed dispensary called St. Joseph's in Downtown San Diego, with the permission of Bishop Francisco Mora y Borrell; the dispensary was replaced by a three-story hospital in Hillcrest called St. Joseph's Sanitarium in 1891, renamed to St. Joseph's Hospital in 1904, it remained the sole hospital for San Diego, until County Hospital was built at the top of Sixth Street, above Mission Valley, in 1903. In 1921, as St. Joseph's Sanitarium, the hospital became the first hospital accredited by the American College of Surgeons, west of the Mississippi River; the current hospital building in Hillcrest, was built in 1925 and named Mercy Hospital.
A second hospital, Bay General Hospital, was established in Chula Vista. In 1986, Bay General joined the Scripps Health system, as did Mercy Hospital in 1995. Prior to its being under Scripps Health, it was part of Catholic Health Care West. After it joining Scripps Health, it remains a Catholic hospital. In 2004, the two hospitals were combined at the Hillcrest campus; as as 2015, Nuns of Sisters of Mercy continue to work at the hospital, but fulfilling more spiritual needs rather than direct care. Catholic Church and health care
Loma Linda University Medical Center
Loma Linda University Medical Center is the teaching hospital for Loma Linda University, which includes schools of allied health professions, behavioral health, medicine, pharmacy, public health, religion on the university campus in Loma Linda, United States. The medical center serves as a level I trauma center for San Bernardino County and the rest of the Inland Empire; the hospital has two helipads for use by other helicopter medical transport. The main tower of the center is 11 stories high, it is one of the tallest buildings in the Inland Empire. Because of its height and white coloration, it is possible to view the main hospital building from various locations around the San Bernardino valley and mountains; the hospital is undergoing a seismic upgrade project. Loma Linda University Medical Center made international news on October 26, 1984, when Dr. Leonard L Bailey transplanted a baboon heart into Baby Fae, an infant born with a severe heart defect known as hypoplastic left heart syndrome.
Baby Fae died a few weeks later. LLUMC is home to the Venom E. R. which specializes in snake bites. In 2014, LLUMC was ranked the 14th best hospital in California by the U. S. News & World Report. Loma Linda University Medical Center is the teaching hospital for Loma Linda University, which includes schools of medicine, pharmacy, allied health, public health, behavioral health. Loma Linda University Children’s Hospital is the sole children’s hospital for 1.3 million of California’s youth. With over 275 beds just for children, the American Board of Surgeons has designated the Children’s Hospital as a Level 1 Trauma Center, providing the highest level of trauma care within the Inland Empire four-county area; each year, more than 15,000 children stay at the hospital and over 130,000 children visit the hospital for ambulatory care. The only medical facility in the Inland Empire specializing in the care of children, Children’s Hospital transports over 1,100 critically ill or injured children each year from surrounding hospitals.
The James M. Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda University Medical Center offers proton therapy treatments for prostate, lung and other types of cancers; this center is the nation's first hospital-based proton treatment center. Since its opening in 1990 over 14,500 patients have been treated. Through a multidisciplinary approach, teams of experts including radiation oncologists, nurses and staff treat patients with care to ensure they experience fewer side effects and better outcomes with the power and precision of proton therapy. Using high-energy protons for medical treatment was first proposed in 1946. Protons were first used to treat patients with certain cancers less than 10 years later. Research and laboratory applications increased in the next three decades, it was not until the opening of the James M. Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda University Medical Center in 1990, that the full benefits of proton treatment could be offered to patients with a wide variety of cancers.
The synchrotron was invented in the 1950s to produce higher-energy particles for studying subnuclear matter. Much of that work was done at the U. S. Department of Energy's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Fermilab physicists and engineers built the proton accelerator that exists at Loma Linda University Medical Center today. LLUMC's accelerator is the world's smallest variable-energy proton synchrotron, it is designed to deliver a beam of energy sufficient to reach the deepest tumors in patients. In May 2008, it was announced that LLUMC had been in talks since December and had finalized a buyout of the 28-bed California Heart and Surgical Center located two miles east of the main campus on the border of Loma Linda and Redlands, California; this was a marked departure of their previous position of opposition to the facility when it was first proposed in 2005. The Heart and Surgical Center would have been a for-profit facility while the Loma Linda is a non-profit facility and it was feared by area hospitals, including Loma Linda, that the Heart and Surgical Center would take all the paying patients.
However, Loma Linda finalized the construction and furnishing of the center and in January 2009, they received state approval to open and begin operations as Loma Linda University Heart & Surgical Hospital. The daVinci Robot, operated at the Medical Center to perform minimally invasive robotic surgeries was moved to the Surgical Hospital; the hospital is now known as Loma Linda University Surgical Hospital, when heart operations were moved to the main medical center. In 2004, Loma Linda University Behavioral Medicine Center paid 2.2 million dollars to settle a federal lawsuit that the organization had over-billed federal health insurance programs. The lawsuit alleged that its billing service had prepared two different cost reports, one for internal use and an inflated one to bill Medicare. In 2005, a group of 20 physician corporations paid US$2.2 million to settle a federal lawsuit over fraudulent Medicare billings reviewed under the Physicians at Teaching Hospitals initiative. The lawsuit alleged that the hospital had been billing Medicare for procedures done by residents and interns as if they had been done by the attending physicians.
The main hospital building is undergoing a seismic upgrade project. It is being headed by Turner Construction Company of New York, NY; the project includes reinforcing the main building to bring it up to Californi
A health system sometimes referred to as health care system or as healthcare system, is the organization of people and resources that deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations. There is a wide variety of health systems around the world, with as many histories and organizational structures as there are nations. Implicitly, nations must design and develop health systems in accordance with their needs and resources, although common elements in all health systems are primary healthcare and public health measures. In some countries, health system planning is distributed among market participants. In others, there is a concerted effort among governments, trade unions, religious organizations, or other co-ordinated bodies to deliver planned health care services targeted to the populations they serve. However, health care planning has been described as evolutionary rather than revolutionary; the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system, is promoting a goal of universal health care: to ensure that all people obtain the health services they need without suffering financial hardship when paying for them.
According to WHO, healthcare systems' goals are good health for the citizens, responsiveness to the expectations of the population, fair means of funding operations. Progress towards them depends on how systems carry out four vital functions: provision of health care services, resource generation and stewardship. Other dimensions for the evaluation of health systems include quality, efficiency and equity, they have been described in the United States as "the five C's": Cost, Consistency and Chronic Illness. Continuity of health care is a major goal. Health system has been defined with a reductionist perspective, for example reducing it to healthcare system. In many publications, for example, both expressions are used interchangeably; some authors have developed arguments to expand the concept of health systems, indicating additional dimensions that should be considered: Health systems should not be expressed in terms of their components only, but of their interrelationships. The World Health Organization defines health systems as follows: A health system consists of all organizations and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health.
This includes efforts to influence determinants of health as well as more direct health-improving activities. A health system is therefore more than the pyramid of publicly owned facilities that deliver personal health services, it includes, for example, a mother caring for a sick child at home. It includes inter-sectoral action by health staff, for example, encouraging the ministry of education to promote female education, a well known determinant of better health. Healthcare providers are individuals providing healthcare services. Individuals including health professionals and allied health professions can be self-employed or working as an employee in a hospital, clinic, or other health care institution, whether government operated, private for-profit, or private not-for-profit, they may work outside of direct patient care such as in a government health department or other agency, medical laboratory, or health training institution. Examples of health workers are doctors, midwives, paramedics, medical laboratory technologists, psychologists, chiropractors, community health workers, traditional medicine practitioners, others.
There are five primary methods of funding health systems: general taxation to the state, county or municipality national health insurance voluntary or private health insurance out-of-pocket payments donations to charitiesMost countries' systems feature a mix of all five models. One study based on data from the OECD concluded that all types of health care finance "are compatible with" an efficient health system; the study found no relationship between financing and cost control. The term health insurance is used to describe a form of insurance that pays for medical expenses, it is sometimes used more broadly to include insurance covering disability or long-term nursing or custodial care needs. It may be provided from private insurance companies, it may be purchased by individual consumers. In each case premiums or taxes protect the insured from unexpected health care expenses. By estimating the overall cost of health care expenses, a routine finance structure can be developed, ensuring that money is available to pay for the health care benefits specified in the insurance agreement.
The benefit is administered by a government agency, a non-profit health fund or a
San Francisco General Hospital
Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital and Trauma Center is a public hospital in San Francisco, California under the purview of the city's Department of Public Health. It serves as the only Level I Trauma Center for the 1.5 million residents of San Francisco and northern San Mateo County. It is the largest acute rehabilitation hospital for psychiatric patients in the City. Additionally, it is the only acute hospital in San Francisco that provides 24-hour psychiatric emergency services. In addition to the 3,500 San Francisco municipal employees, the University of California, San Francisco provides 1,500 employees, the SFGH serves as one of the teaching hospitals for the UCSF School of Medicine; the hospital its Ward 86, was instrumental in treating and identifying early cases of AIDS. A new San Francisco General Hospital acute care building was completed in 2016 for a total approximate cost of $1.02 billion. A $75 million donation by Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and his wife Priscilla Chan covered 7% of the overall cost.
In recognition, the hospital was renamed after the couple. The hospital is a safety net hospital additionally serving poor, elderly people, uninsured working families, immigrants. About 80 percent of its patient population either receives publicly funded health insurance or is uninsured. SFGH cares for the homeless, who make up about 8 percent of its patients. SFGH is rare in that its emergency rooms does not have agreements in place with private health care insurance providers, which means that many patients insured with private insurance can end up with sizable bills which their insurance will not cover. A Vox analysis of health care billing practices characterized SFGH's billing practices as "aggressive" and "surprising". 1850: San Francisco Granted a city Charter and creates a Board of Health. 1857: City and County opens its first permanent hospital in the former North Beach schoolhouse at Stockton and Francisco streets. 1864: “In the fall of 1864, Hugh Toland opened his new medical school, which in 1872 would become part of the University of California.
The Medical School building was located on Stockton Street near Chestnut adjacent to the City and County Hospital... In 1865, Toland was granted permission to use the hospital for clinical instruction.” 1872: “On August 28, 1872, the New City-County Hospital on Potrero Street was opened... it was described as a two-story, wooden frame building with a brick foundation...” 1873: Agreement allows City and County Hospital to serve as UC and Stanford medical schools’ clinical facility. 1906: “The Earthquake and Great Fire devastate the City in April 18, 1906... the Hospital with its wood frame structure anchored on the firm rock of Potrero Hill survived more or less intact, with minimal injury to inmates or staff.” 1907: Long needed children's ward and contagious pavilion open. 1908: Second plague epidemic strikes. 1915: New San Francisco General Hospital, red brick, Italian Renaissance style complex, dedicated during the City's celebration of the completion of the Panama Canal. 1924: Psychiatric ward opens to treat acutely ill patients and reduce state hospital admissions.
1959: “In May 1959 in the first contract with the University of California was signed and amounted to 1% of the total hospital budget or $154,000... the value of teaching programs to a public hospital was emphasized by the university in their negotiations with the city...” 1963: “...a modern medical library funded by UC was opened on Ward 31. It was named the Briggs-Barnett library after two former chiefs of medicine on the UC and Stanford service.” 1965: “The pressing need for more psychiatric beds, the general overcrowding, the problems of maintenance and staffing all combined to emphasize the inadequacy of the 50-year-old hospital... a $33.7 million bond issue... passed overwhelmingly with the highest support of any bond since the earthquake of 1906.” 1971: Groundbreaking for the new hospital. The original brick main building was replaced with a concrete one with construction started in 1971. 1972: Trauma Center opens at Mission Emergency, with a grant from NIH. 1973: Outpatient department, Stroke Research Center and respiratory ICUs, Family Practice residency starts.
1976: New SFGH Medical Center opens after three years of planning by community advisory boards. 1979: Specially equipped Burn Unit, San Francisco's second, becomes part of the Trauma Center. 1980: Ernest Gallo Clinic and Research Center established to study basic neuroscience and the effects of alcohol on the brain. 1983: UCSF clinicians and researchers develop the country's first outpatient AIDS clinic and inpatient ward at SFGH and mount an enormous multidisciplinary effort to fight off the disease. 1991: Trauma Center designated the only Level I Trauma Center in San Francisco providing around the clock medical and psychiatric emergency services. 1993 SFGH continues to be recognized as the premier hospital for AIDS care in the United States. The Gladsto
Long Beach Memorial Medical Center
Long Beach Memorial Medical Center is a hospital in Long Beach, California. It is the flagship hospital of the MemorialCare Health System, it was established as Seaside Hospital in 1907. Incorporated as Seaside Memorial Hospital on June 23, 1937. In 1960, it moved to its present location; the hospital is accredited by the Joint Commission. Long Beach Memorial is one of only 3 hospitals in California with a 320 Slice CT Scanner and preventative technology and programs such as the Electromagnetic Navigation Bronchoscope and the Division of Interventional Neuroradiology. "Centers of Excellence" include the MemorialCare Heart and Vascular Institute, the MemorialCare Todd Cancer Institute, the MemorialCare Rehabilitation Institute, the MemorialCare Orthopedic Institute, the MemorialCare Neuroscience Institute, MemorialCare Joint Replacement Center, Stroke Program and the Emergency Department and Trauma Center. Miller Children's Hospital is located on the campus of Long Beach Memorial Medical Center.
Long Beach Memorial was first established as Seaside Hospital in 1907 incorporated as Seaside Memorial Hospital on June 23, 1937. In 1960, it moved to its present location. In April 2012, Susan Melvin, D. O. clinical professor at UCI-School of Medicine and Western University of Health Sciences, assumed the position of Chief Medical Officer. The hospital first received Magnet designation by the American Nurses Credentialing Center in 2013 and again in 2018. In the 2017 report card from the Leapfrog Group, an employer-backed nonprofit group focused on health care quality, Long Beach Memorial received a B. In the 2017 U. S. News & World Report nation's best hospital rankings, Long Beach Memorial is ranked 7th in Los Angeles County. Registered Nurses of LBMMC have been represented by the California Nurses Association since 2001, a labor union and professional nurses association. Long Beach Memorial Medical Center official site This hospital in the CA Healthcare Atlas A project by OSHPD http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/lanow/2009/04/2-dead-in-long-beach-hospital-shooting.html