The ZX81 is a home computer, produced by Sinclair Research and manufactured in Dundee, Scotland by Timex Corporation. It was launched in the United Kingdom in March 1981 as the successor to Sinclair's ZX80 and was designed to be a low-cost introduction to home computing for the general public, it was hugely successful, more than 1.5 million units were sold before it was discontinued. The ZX81 found commercial success in many other countries, notably the United States where it was sold as the ZX-81. Timex manufactured and distributed it under licence and enjoyed a substantial but brief boom in sales. Timex produced its own versions of the ZX81 for the US market: the Timex Sinclair 1000 and Timex Sinclair 1500. Unauthorized clones of the ZX81 were produced in several countries; the ZX81 was designed to be small and above all inexpensive, using as few components as possible to keep the cost down. Video output was to a television set rather than a dedicated monitor. Programs and data were saved onto compact audio cassettes.
It had a mere 1 KB of memory. The machine had no power switch or any moving parts, with the exception of a VHF TV channel selector switch present on early "ZX81 USA" models and the Timex-Sinclair 1000, it used a pressure-sensitive membrane keyboard for manual input; the ZX81's limitations prompted the emergence of a flourishing market in third-party peripherals to improve its capabilities. Such limitations, achieved Sinclair's objective of keeping the cost as low as possible, its distinctive case and keyboard brought designer Rick Dickinson a Design Council award. The ZX81 could be bought by mail order in kit pre-assembled, it was the first inexpensive mass-market home computer that could be bought from high street stores, led by W. H. Smith and soon many other retailers; the ZX81 marked the point when computing in Britain became an activity for the general public rather than the preserve of businessmen and electronics hobbyists. It produced a huge community of enthusiasts, some of whom founded their own businesses producing software and hardware for the ZX81, many went on to play a major role in the British computer industry.
The ZX81's commercial success made Sinclair Research one of Britain's leading computer manufacturers and earned a fortune and an eventual knighthood for the company's founder Sir Clive Sinclair. The ZX81 has a base configuration of 1 KB of on-board memory that can be expanded externally to 16 KB, its single circuit board is housed inside a wedge-shaped plastic case measuring 167 millimetres deep by 40 millimetres high. The memory is provided by either two 2114 RAM chips. There are only three other onboard chips: a 3.5 MHz Z80A 8-bit microprocessor from NEC, an uncommitted logic array chip from Ferranti, an 8 KB ROM providing a simple BASIC interpreter. The entire machine weighs just 350 grams. Early versions of the external RAM cartridge contain 15 KB of memory using an assortment of memory chips, while versions contain 16 KB chips, but the lowest addressed kilobyte is disabled; the front part of the case is occupied by an integrated 40-key membrane keyboard displaying 20 graphic and 54 inverse video characters.
Each key has up to five functions, accessed via the FUNCTION keys or depending on context. For example, the P key combines the letter P, the " character, the BASIC commands PRINT and TAB; the ZX81 uses a standard QWERTY keyboard layout. The keyboard is mechanically simple, consisting of 40 pressure-pad switches and 8 diodes under a plastic overlay, connected in a matrix of 8 rows and 5 columns; the ZX81's primary input/output is delivered via four sockets on the left side of the case. The machine uses an ordinary UHF television set to deliver a monochrome picture via a built-in RF modulator, it can display 24 lines of 32 characters each, by using the selection of 2×2 block character graphics from the machine's character set offers an effective 64 × 44 pixel graphics mode directly addressable via BASIC using the PLOT and UNPLOT commands, leaving 2 lines free at the bottom. Two 3.5 mm jacks connect the ZX81 to the EAR and MIC sockets of an audio cassette recorder, enabling data to be saved or loaded.
This stores each data bit as a number of pulses, with each pulse being a 150 µs'high' a 150 µs'low', followed by an inter-bit silence of 1300 µs. A' 0' bit consists of a' 1' bit of nine pulses; the baud rate therefore varies between 400 bps for all' 0's and 250 bps for all'. A file with equal amounts of'0's and'1's would be stored at 307 bps; this provides a somewhat temperamental storage medium for the machine, which has no built-in storage capabilities. The ZX81 requires 420 mA of power at 7–11 V DC, delivered via a custom 9 V Sinclair DC power supply; the ULA chip, described by the ZX81 manual as the "dogsbody" of the system, has a number of key functions that competing computers share between multiple chips and integrated circuits. These comprise the following: Synchronising the screen display; the ZX81's built-in RF modulator can output a video picture to either a UHF 625-line colour or monochrome television. France required a modified version of the machine to match the positive video modulation of SECAM sets, while the US and Canada requir
Witney is a historic market town on the River Windrush, 12 miles west of Oxford in Oxfordshire, England. The place-name "Witney" is derived from the Old English for "Witta's island"; the earliest known record of it is as Wyttannige in a Saxon charter of AD 969. The Domesday Book of 1086 records it as Witenie; the Church of England parish church of St Mary the Virgin was Norman. The north porch and north aisle were added in this style late in the 12th century, survived a major rebuilding in about 1243. In this rebuilding the present chancel, transepts and spire were added and the nave was remodelled, all in the Early English style. In the 14th century a number of side chapels and some of the present windows were added in the Decorated style. In the 15th century the south transept was extended and the present west window of the nave were added in the Perpendicular style; the tower has a peal of eight bells. Holy Trinity parish church in Wood Green was built in 1849 in a Gothic Revival rendition of Early English Gothic.
St Mary the Virgin and Holy Trinity are now members of a single team parish. Witney Market began in the Middle Ages. Thursday is the traditional market day but there is a market on Saturday; the buttercross in the market square is so called because people from neighbouring towns would gather there to buy butter and eggs. It was built in about 1600 and its clock was added in 1683; the town hall was built in the 1770s. Witney has long been an important crossing over the River Windrush; the architect Thomas Wyatt rebuilt the bridge in Bridge Street in 1822. The Friends Meeting House in Wood Green was built in the 18th century. Since 1997 Quakers in Witney have met at the corn exchange; the Methodist church in High Street was built in 1850. It is now one of five Methodist chapels in Witney; the Roman Catholic parish of Our Lady and Saint Hugh was founded in 1913. It used a chapel in West End built in 1881 but now has its own modern building; the old chapel in West End is now Elim Christian Fellowship. West End, part of the road to Hailey, is one of Britain's best-preserved streets and inspired the song Just an Old Fashioned House in an Old Fashioned Street.
Although it is called West End, it is on the northern side of the town and gets its name from when it was not in Witney parish but at the west end of the adjacent Hailey parish. Witney Workhouse was on Razor Hill, it was designed by the architect George Wilkinson and built in 1835–36. It had four wings radiating from an octagonal central building, similar to Chipping Norton workhouse, built by Wilkinson, his younger brother William Wilkinson added a separate chapel to Witney Workhouse in 1860. In the First World War the workhouse held prisoners of war. In 1940 the workhouse was converted into Crawford Collets engineering factory under the direction of Leonard Frank Eve; the chapel was made the factory canteen. In 1979 Crawford Collets had the main buildings demolished and replaced with a modern factory, but preserved the entrance gate and former chapel. In 2004 the modern factory was demolished for redevelopment; the gate and chapel have again been preserved and the former chapel converted into offices.
Witney has been famous for its woollen blankets since the Middle Ages. The water for the production of these blankets is drawn from the River Windrush, believed to be the secret of Witney's high-quality blankets. Mops were traditionally made by the blanket manufacturers, at one time every ship in the Royal Navy had Witney mops aboard; the Blanket Hall in High Street was built in 1721 for measuring blankets. At one time there were five blanket factories in the town but with the closure of the largest blanket maker, in 2002, Early's, the town's blanket industry ceased production. Early's factory, once a vital and important part of the town's history, has now been demolished, is the site of several new housing estates. Witney United FC retains its nickname "The Blanketmen" from the town's traditional trade. One of the oldest mill sites in the town, New Mill, where there has been a mill since the Domesday Book, now houses the head office of Audley Travel; the tailor-made tours travel company moved to the site in 2006.
For many years Witney had its own brewery and maltings: J. W. Clinch and Co, which founded the Eagle Maltings in 1841. Courage took over Clinch's and closed it down, but since 1983 Refresh UK's Wychwood Brewery has brewed real ales in the Eagle Maltings. In 2002 Refresh UK contracted to produce ales for W. H. Brakspear, who had sold their former brewery in Henley-upon-Thames for redevelopment. Refresh UK brews ale for the Prince of Wales' Duchy Originals company; the Witney Railway opened Witney's first station in 1861, linking the town to Yarnton where the line joined the Oxford and Wolverhampton Railway. In 1873 the East Gloucestershire Railway opened from a new station, linking Witney with Lechlade and Fairford; the Great Western Railway operated services on both lines and took them over. In 1962 British Railways closed the EGR and withdrew passenger services from the Witney Railway. In 1970 British Railways closed the Witney Railway and it was dismantled. In February 2015 Witney Oxford Transport proposed the reopening of the railway, with a station at Witney, as an alternative to improvements to the A40 road proposed by Oxfordshire County Council.
WOT and West Oxfordshire Green Party cite chronic traffic congestion on roads linking Witney with Oxford as a reason to reopen the railway. Witney has four museums. Cogges Manor Farm Museum, in the 13th-century manor house and farm of Cogges, represents farming and countryside history. Witney and District Museum has many artefacts and documents representing the history of
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
The Memotech MTX500, MTX512 and RS128 were a series of Zilog Z80A processor-based home computers released by Memotech in 1983 and 1984. They were not compatible; the MTX500 had 32 KB of RAM, the MTX512 had 64KB, the RS128 had 128KB. Although the Z80A could only address a maximum of 64KB at a time, the MTX and RS128's extra memory, up to a maximum of 768KB, was accessible through the technique of page switching. All models had 24KB of ROM accessible in the first 16KB of address space; the extra 8KB of ROM was available through page switching. The ROM could be switched out allowing the full 16-bit address space to be used for RAM; the computers featured an all-aluminium case and full-size keyboard with real keys. In addition to the standard BASIC language interpreter, it included some other software: A built-in assembler A built-in disassembler/debugger called Panel A forerunner of HyperCard called Noddy More sprites than comparable equipment of the era Support for rudimentary windowing in BASICThe computers featured support for plug-in ROM cartridges.
The most popular of these was the ISO Pascal language from HiSoft, much faster than interpreted BASIC. A considerable addition to any Memotech system was the hugely expensive FDX system which added 5.25" floppy disk drives, Winchester hard disks and CP/M 2.2 operating system. A Memotech-badged CGA monitor was made available around the time of the FDX launch. Memotech had an 8-bit Dual in-line package DIL socket for I/O controls; the Norwegian company Norbit Elektronikk Norge A/S run by Anne Selene Fiko developed a complete Input/Output control system, with 4× 16-bit I/O ports, 8-bit Analog-to-digital converter and 8-bit Digital-to-analog converter, all with sensor systems for robotics and controls. The control system was designed for the same aluminium casing as the main MTX512 unit. At that time Memotech were working on a huge project to deliver Memotech MTX512 together with the FDX and the control unit from Norbit Elektronikk to 64,000 schools in the USSR; the USSR was at that time under embargo by the United States so companies were not allowed to deliver the new IBM Personal Computers with MS-DOS, but CP/M computers were not included in the Soviet embargo blockage.
Memotech went into receivership in 1985. A contributing factor, beyond the poor commercial success of the MTX, was the substantial investment Memotech made in preparing the MTX for the Soviet deal; this required a red brushed aluminium case instead of black, Russian BASIC, a Russian keyboard and Russian documentation. Memotech worked with Oxford University on the internationalisation. Memotech did not receive funding they expected from the British government for this project; the Soviet government was evaluating computer systems from other manufacturers. Memotech required cash payments prior to supplying 64,000 computers; the Soviets decided against this cash deal and instead agreed to acquire MSX computers from Yamaha with payment in steel and oil. About 64,000 MSX computers had been supplied to other educational institutions. Since Memotech lost the deal to the Soviet Union, they had invested all their money, borrowed money from the banks, plus got about £1m funding from the UK government, Memotech went bankrupt.
Some of the Memotech inventions still lived on, as several employees took some of Memotech's new video editing systems for televisions back to the USA, where they are believed to have ended up at Silicon Graphics. As a result of Memotech's bankruptcy, the UK government stopped funding to all computer manufacturers in the UK at that time, including Sinclair and Apricot. Control systems from Norbit Elektronikk are still sold under the brand name of MISOLIMA; the MTX512 made a minor cinematic appearance in the film Weird Science as the computer the two lead male characters use to hack into the Pentagon mainframe. MTX fan page MTX information and reviews - some text in German, content in English MTX family at old-computers.com Review of MTX512 from Creative Computing Andys Memotech Emulator Memotech MTX 512 - The Russian Schools Bid
Random-access memory is a form of computer data storage that stores data and machine code being used. A random-access memory device allows data items to be read or written in the same amount of time irrespective of the physical location of data inside the memory. In contrast, with other direct-access data storage media such as hard disks, CD-RWs, DVD-RWs and the older magnetic tapes and drum memory, the time required to read and write data items varies depending on their physical locations on the recording medium, due to mechanical limitations such as media rotation speeds and arm movement. RAM contains multiplexing and demultiplexing circuitry, to connect the data lines to the addressed storage for reading or writing the entry. More than one bit of storage is accessed by the same address, RAM devices have multiple data lines and are said to be "8-bit" or "16-bit", etc. devices. In today's technology, random-access memory takes the form of integrated circuits. RAM is associated with volatile types of memory, where stored information is lost if power is removed, although non-volatile RAM has been developed.
Other types of non-volatile memories exist that allow random access for read operations, but either do not allow write operations or have other kinds of limitations on them. These include most types of ROM and a type of flash memory called NOR-Flash. Integrated-circuit RAM chips came into the market in the early 1970s, with the first commercially available DRAM chip, the Intel 1103, introduced in October 1970. Early computers used relays, mechanical counters or delay lines for main memory functions. Ultrasonic delay lines could only reproduce data in the order. Drum memory could be expanded at low cost but efficient retrieval of memory items required knowledge of the physical layout of the drum to optimize speed. Latches built out of vacuum tube triodes, out of discrete transistors, were used for smaller and faster memories such as registers; such registers were large and too costly to use for large amounts of data. The first practical form of random-access memory was the Williams tube starting in 1947.
It stored data. Since the electron beam of the CRT could read and write the spots on the tube in any order, memory was random access; the capacity of the Williams tube was a few hundred to around a thousand bits, but it was much smaller and more power-efficient than using individual vacuum tube latches. Developed at the University of Manchester in England, the Williams tube provided the medium on which the first electronically stored program was implemented in the Manchester Baby computer, which first ran a program on 21 June 1948. In fact, rather than the Williams tube memory being designed for the Baby, the Baby was a testbed to demonstrate the reliability of the memory. Magnetic-core memory was developed up until the mid-1970s, it became a widespread form of random-access memory. By changing the sense of each ring's magnetization, data could be stored with one bit stored per ring. Since every ring had a combination of address wires to select and read or write it, access to any memory location in any sequence was possible.
Magnetic core memory was the standard form of memory system until displaced by solid-state memory in integrated circuits, starting in the early 1970s. Dynamic random-access memory allowed replacement of a 4 or 6-transistor latch circuit by a single transistor for each memory bit increasing memory density at the cost of volatility. Data was stored in the tiny capacitance of each transistor, had to be periodically refreshed every few milliseconds before the charge could leak away; the Toshiba Toscal BC-1411 electronic calculator, introduced in 1965, used a form of DRAM built from discrete components. DRAM was developed by Robert H. Dennard in 1968. Prior to the development of integrated read-only memory circuits, permanent random-access memory was constructed using diode matrices driven by address decoders, or specially wound core rope memory planes; the two used forms of modern RAM are static RAM and dynamic RAM. In SRAM, a bit of data is stored using the state of a six transistor memory cell.
This form of RAM is more expensive to produce, but is faster and requires less dynamic power than DRAM. In modern computers, SRAM is used as cache memory for the CPU. DRAM stores a bit of data using a transistor and capacitor pair, which together comprise a DRAM cell; the capacitor holds a high or low charge, the transistor acts as a switch that lets the control circuitry on the chip read the capacitor's state of charge or change it. As this form of memory is less expensive to produce than static RAM, it is the predominant form of computer memory used in modern computers. Both static and dynamic RAM are considered volatile, as their state is lost or reset when power is removed from the system. By contrast, read-only memory stores data by permanently enabling or disabling selected transistors, such that the memory cannot be altered. Writeable variants of ROM share properties of both ROM and RAM, enabling data to persist without power and to be updated without requiring special equipment; these persistent forms of semiconductor ROM include USB flash drives, memory cards for cameras and portable devices, solid-state drives.
ECC memory includes special circuitry to detect and/or correct random faults (mem
Oxfordshire is a county in South East England. The ceremonial county borders Warwickshire to the north-west, Northamptonshire to the north-east, Buckinghamshire to the east, Berkshire to the south, Wiltshire to the south-west and Gloucestershire to the west; the county has major education and tourist industries and is noted for the concentration of performance motorsport companies and facilities. Oxford University Press is the largest firm among a concentration of publishing firms; as well as the city of Oxford, other centres of population are Banbury, Bicester and Chipping Norton to the north of Oxford. The areas south of the Thames, the Vale of White Horse and parts of South Oxfordshire, are in the historic county of Berkshire, as is the highest point, the 261 metres White Horse Hill. Oxfordshire's county flower is the snake's-head fritillary. Oxfordshire was recorded as a county in the early years of the 10th century and lies between the River Thames to the south, the Cotswolds to the west, the Chilterns to the east and the Midlands to the north, with spurs running south to Henley-on-Thames and north to Banbury.
Although it had some significance as an area of valuable agricultural land in the centre of the country, it was ignored by the Romans, did not grow in importance until the formation of a settlement at Oxford in the 8th century. Alfred the Great was born across the Thames in Vale of White Horse; the University of Oxford was founded in 1096, though its collegiate structure did not develop until on. The university in the county town of Oxford grew in importance during the Middle Ages and early modern period; the area was part of the Cotswolds wool trade from the 13th century, generating much wealth in the western portions of the county in the Oxfordshire Cotswolds. Morris Motors was founded in Oxford in 1912, bringing heavy industry to an otherwise agricultural county; the importance of agriculture as an employer has declined in the 20th century though. Nonetheless, Oxfordshire remains a agricultural county by land use, with a lower population than neighbouring Berkshire and Buckinghamshire, which are both smaller.
Throughout most of its history the county was divided into fourteen hundreds, namely Bampton, Binfield, Bullingdon, Dorchester, Langtree, Pyrton, Ploughley and Wootton. The Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, the main army unit in the area, was based at Cowley Barracks on Bullingdon Green, Cowley; the Vale of White Horse district and parts of the South Oxfordshire administrative district south of the River Thames were part of Berkshire, but in 1974 Abingdon, Faringdon and Wantage were added to the administrative county of Oxfordshire under the Local Government Act 1972. Conversely, the Caversham area of Reading, now administratively in Berkshire, was part of Oxfordshire as was the parish of Stokenchurch, now administratively in Buckinghamshire. Oxfordshire includes parts of three Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty. In the north-west lie the Cotswolds, to the south and south-east are the open chalk hills of the North Wessex Downs and wooded hills of the Chilterns; the north of the county contains the ironstone of the Cherwell uplands.
Long-distance walks within the county include the Ridgeway National Trail, Macmillan Way, Oxfordshire Way and the D’Arcy Dalton Way. Northernmost point: 52°10′6.58″N 1°19′54.92″W, near Claydon Hay Farm, Claydon Southernmost point: 51°27′34.74″N 0°56′48.3″W, near Thames and Kennet Marina, Playhatch Westernmost point: 51°46′59.73″N 1°43′9.68″W, near Downs Farm, Westwell Easternmost point: 51°30′14.22″N 0°52′13.99″W, River Thames, near Lower Shiplake The central part of Oxfordshire contains the River Thames with its flat floodplains. The Thames Path National Trail parallels the river as it crosses Oxfordshire, continuing towards London. There are many smaller rivers that feed into the Thames such as the Thame, Windrush and Cherwell; some of these rivers have trails running along their valleys. The Oxford Canal follows the Cherwell from Banbury to Kidlington. Oxfordshire contains a green belt area that envelops the city of Oxford, extends for some miles to afford a protection to surrounding towns and villages from inappropriate development and urban growth.
Its border in the east extends to the Buckinghamshire county boundary, while part of its southern border is shared with the North Wessex Downs AONB. It was first drawn up in the 1950s, all the county's districts contain some portion of the belt; this is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Oxfordshire at current basic prices published by the Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British pounds sterling. The Oxfordshire County Council, since 2013 under no overall control, is responsible for the most strategic local government functions, including schools, county roads, social services; the county is divided into five local government districts: Oxford, Vale of White Horse, West Oxfordshire and South Oxfordshire, which deal with such matters as town and country planning, waste collection, housing. In the 2016 European Union referendum, Oxfordshire was the only English cou