Oak is used in winemaking to vary the color, tannin profile and texture of wine. It can be introduced in the form of a barrel during the fermentation or aging periods, or as free-floating chips or staves added to wine fermented in a vessel like stainless steel. Oak barrels can impart other qualities to wine through evaporation and low level exposure to oxygen. In early wine history, the amphora was the vessel of choice for the storage and transportation of wine. Due to the perishable nature of wood material it is difficult to trace the usage of barrels in history; the Greek historian Herodotus noted that ancient Mesopotamians used barrels made of palm wood to transport wine along the Euphrates. Palm is a difficult material to bend and fashion into barrels and wine merchants in different regions experimented with different wood styles to find a better wood source; the use of oak has been prevalent in winemaking for at least two millennia, first coming into widespread use during the time of the Roman Empire.
In time, winemakers discovered that beyond just storage convenience, wine kept in oak barrels took on properties that improved it by making it softer and, in some cases, better-tasting. The porous nature of an oak barrel allows evaporation and oxygenation to occur in wine but not at levels that would cause oxidation or spoilage; the typical 59-gallon barrel can lose anywhere from 51⁄2 to 61⁄2 gallons in a year through evaporation. This allows the wine to concentrate its aroma compounds. Small amounts of oxygen are allowed to pass through the barrel and act as a softening agent upon the wine's tannins; the chemical properties of oak can have a profound effect on wine. Phenols within the wood interact to produce vanilla type flavors and can give the impression of tea notes or sweetness; the degree of "toast" on the barrel can impart different properties affecting the tannin levels as well as the aggressive wood flavors. The hydrolyzable tannins present in wood, known as ellagitannins, are derived from lignin structures in the wood.
They help protect the wine from reduction. Wines can be barrel fermented in oak or placed in oak after fermentation for a period of aging or maturation. Wine matured in oak receives more oak flavors and properties than wine fermented in oak because yeast cells present in fermentation interact with and "latch on" to oak components; when dead yeast cells are removed as lees some oak properties go with them. Characteristics of white wines fermented in oak include extra silky texture. White wines fermented in steel and matured in oak will have a darker coloring due to heavy phenolic compounds still present. Flavor notes used to describe wines exposed to oak include caramel, smoke and vanilla. Chardonnay is a varietal with distinct flavor profiles when fermented in oak, which include coconut and cloves notes; the "toastiness" of the barrel can bring out varying degrees of toffee notes in red wine. The length of time a wine spends in the barrel is dependent on the varietal and finished style the winemaker desires.
The majority of oak flavoring is imparted in the first few months the wine is in contact with oak, while longer term exposure adds light barrel aeration, which helps precipitate phenolic compounds and quickens the aging process. New World Pinot noir may spend less than a year in oak. Premium Cabernet Sauvignon may spend two years; the tannic Nebbiolo grape may spend four or more years in oak. High end Rioja producers will sometimes age their wines up to ten years in American oak to get a desired earthy cedar and herbal character; the species of oak used for American oak production is the Quercus alba, a white oak species, characterized by its fast growth, wider grains and lower wood tannins. It is found in most of the Eastern United States as well as Missouri and Wisconsin where many wine barrels are from. In Oregon the Quercus garryana white oak has started to gain usage due to its closer similarities to European oak. In France, both the Quercus robur and Quercus petraea are considered apt for wine making, the latter is considered far superior for its finer grain and richer contribution of aromatic components like vanillin and its derivates, methyl-octalactone and tannins, as well as phenols and volatile aldehydes.
French oak comes from one or more primary forests: Allier, Nevers, Tronçais and Vosges. The wood from each of these forests has different characteristics. Many winemakers utilize barrels made from different cooperages and degrees of toasting in blending their wines to enhance the complexity of the resulting wine. Italian winemakers have had a long history of using Slavonian oak from the Quercus robur, known for its tight grain, low aromatics and medium level tannins. Slavonian oak tends to be used in larger barrel sizes with the same barrels reused for many more years before replacement. Prior to the Russian Revolution, Quercus petraea oak from the Baltic/European states from Hungary was the most sought after wood for French winemaking; the trees in the Hungarian Zemplén Mountains grow slower in the volcanic soil and smaller, creating fine tight grain which sequentially lends itself to a delicate extraction. The hemicellulose in the Hungarian oak breaks down more and conveys an exceptional selection of toasted, sugary, woody and caramel-like flavors – imparting these aromas with less intensity, slower than American or French oak.
Many winemakers favor the softer, creamier texture that Hungarian oak offers their wines. French winema
Aging of wine
The aging of wine is able to improve the quality of wine. This distinguishes wine from most other consumable goods. While wine is perishable and capable of deteriorating, complex chemical reactions involving a wine's sugars and phenolic compounds can alter the aroma, color and taste of the wine in a way that may be more pleasing to the taster; the ability of a wine to age is influenced by many factors including grape variety, viticultural practices, wine region and winemaking style. The condition that the wine is kept in after bottling can influence how well a wine ages and may require significant time and financial investment; the quality of an aged wine varies bottle-by-bottle, depending on the conditions under which it was stored, the condition of the bottle and cork, thus it is said that rather than good old vintages, there are good old bottles. There is a significant mystique around the aging of wine, as its chemistry was not understood for a long time, old wines are sold for extraordinary prices.
However, the vast majority of wine is not aged, wine, aged is aged for long. The Ancient Greeks and Romans were aware of the potential of aged wines. In Greece, early examples of dried "straw wines" were noted for their ability to age due to their high sugar contents; these wines were kept for many years. In Rome, the most sought after wines—Falernian and Surrentine—were prized for their ability to age for decades. In the Book of Luke, it is noted that "old wine" was valued over "new wine"; the Greek physician Galen wrote that the "taste" of aged wine was desirable and that this could be accomplished by heating or smoking the wine, though, in Galen's opinion, these artificially aged wines were not as healthy to consume as aged wines. Following the Fall of the Roman Empire, appreciation for aged wine was non-existent. Most of the wines produced in northern Europe were pale in color and with low alcohol; these wines did not have much aging potential and lasted a few months before they deteriorated into vinegar.
The older a wine got the cheaper its price became as merchants eagerly sought to rid themselves of aging wine. By the 16th century and more alcoholic wines were being made in the Mediterranean and gaining attention for their aging ability. Riesling from Germany with its combination of acidity and sugar were demonstrating their ability to age. In the 17th century, two innovations occurred that radically changed the wine industry's view on aging. One was the development of the cork and bottle which again allowed producers to package and store wine in a air-tight environment; the second was the growing popularity of fortified wines such as Port and Sherries. The added alcohol was found to act as a preservative, allowing wines to survive long sea voyages to England, The Americas and the East Indies; the English, in particular, were growing in their appreciation of aged wines like Port and Claret from Bordeaux. Demand for matured wines had a pronounced effect on the wine trade. For producers, the cost and space of storing barrels or bottles of wine was prohibitive so a merchant class evolved with warehouses and the finances to facilitate aging wines for a longer period of time.
In regions like Bordeaux and Burgundy, this situation increased the balance of power towards the merchant classes. There is a widespread misconception that wine always improves with age, or that wine improves with extended aging, or that aging potential is an indicator of good wine; some authorities state. Aging changes does not categorically improve it or worsen it. Fruitness deteriorates decreasing markedly after only 6 months in the bottle. Due to the cost of storage, it is not economical to age cheap wines, but many varieties of wine do not benefit from aging, regardless of the quality. Experts vary on precise numbers, but state that only 5–10% of wine improves after 1 year, only 1% improves after 5–10 years. In general, wines with a low pH have a greater capability of aging. With red wines, a high level of flavor compounds, such as phenolics, will increase the likelihood that a wine will be able to age. Wines with high levels of phenols include Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah; the white wines with the longest aging potential tend to be those with a high amount of extract and acidity.
The acidity in white wines, acting as a preservative, has a role similar to that of tannins in red wines. The process of making white wines, which includes little to no skin contact, means that white wines have a lower amount of phenolic compounds, though barrel fermentation and oak aging can impart some phenols; the minimal skin contact with rosé wine limits their aging potential. After aging at the winery most wood-aged ports, vins doux naturels, vins de liqueur, basic level ice wines, sparkling wines are bottled when the producer feels that they are ready to be consumed; these wines will not benefit much from aging. Vintage ports and other bottled-aged ports and sherries will benefit from some additional aging. Champagne and other sparkling wines are infrequently aged, have no vintage year, but vintage champagne may be aged. Aged champagne has traditionally been a peculiarly British affectation, thus has been referred to as le goût anglais "the English taste
Cayetana or Cayetana blanca is a white Spanish wine grape. It is grown in the south of Spain in the Denominación de Origen of Montilla-Moriles and in the region of Extremadura and in the Jerez region where it is distilled for use in brandy production. Cayetana is known under the synonyms Amor blanco, Avesso du Minho, Baladi-Verdejo, Blanca Cayetana, Blanco Jaen, Calagrano, Calagrano blanc, Cayetana blanca, Charello, Chaselo, Cirial, Dedo, Djiniani, Farta Gosos, Garillo, Garrido, Garrilla, Hoja Vuelta, Jaén blanco, Jaén Doradillo, Jaén Empinadillo, Jaén Prieto blanco, Jaina, Jean de Castilla, Jean de Letur, Jean de Letur de Maratella, Jean Doradillo, Jean Dore, Jean Prieto, Maizancho, Mourisco Arsello, Mourisco Portalegre, Naves Cazagal, Padero, Pardilla, Pirulet, Plateado, Tierra de Barros, Verdeja and Xarello. With its synonym Jaén it is not to be confused with a Spanish red grape variety called Jaen, a synonym of Mencía, or the Portuguese red grape variety Jaen du Dão
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, raisins and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit occurring in clusters; the cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine; the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East, thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, history attests to the ancient Greeks and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production.
The growing of grapes would spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent, were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labrusca vines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. "White" grapes are green in color, are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.
Grapes are an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid. Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines, sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis mustangensis, found in Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam, it is native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec. Vitis rotundifolia used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".
The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics, it is believed that the most planted variety is Sultana known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Grenache, Tempranillo and Chardonnay. Commercially cultivated grapes can be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw or used to make wine. While all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller seeded, have thick skins. Wine grapes tend to be sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is around 15% sugar by weight.
Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction, it is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes and Venus, have been cultivated for hardiness and quality in the cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario. An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical conten
Wine and food matching
Wine and food matching is the process of pairing food dishes with wine to enhance the dining experience. In many cultures, wine has had a long history of being a staple at the dinner table and in some ways both the winemaking and culinary traditions of a region will have evolved together over the years. Rather than following a set of rules, local cuisines were paired with local wines; the modern "art" of food pairings is a recent phenomenon, fostering an industry of books and media with guidelines for pairings of particular foods and wine. In the restaurant industry, sommeliers are present to make food pairing recommendations for the guest; the main concept behind pairings is that certain elements in both food and wine interact with each other, thus finding the right combination of these elements will make the entire dining experience more enjoyable. However and enjoyment are subjective and what may be a "textbook perfect" pairing for one taster could be less enjoyable to another. While there are many books and websites with detailed guidelines on how to pair food and wine, most food and wine experts believe that the most basic element of food and wine pairing is understanding the balance between the "weight" of the food and the weight of the wine.
Heavy, robust wines like Cabernet Sauvignon can overwhelm a light, delicate dish like a quiche, while light-bodied wines like Pinot Grigio would be overwhelmed by a hearty stew. Beyond weight and textures can either be contrasted or complemented. From there a food and wine pairing can take into consideration the sugar, acid and tannins of the wine and how they can be accentuated or minimized when paired with certain types of food. Wine has had a long history of being served as an accompaniment to food; the early history of wine has it origins as another dietary staple and a beverage, more sanitary than the local water supply. There is little evidence that much serious thought was given to pairing particular dishes to particular wines with most whatever wine was available being used. However, as culinary traditions in a region developed, so too did local winemaking tradition. Many pairings that are considered "classics" today emerged from the centuries-old relationship between a region's cuisine and their wines.
In Europe, lamb was a staple meat of the diet for many areas. The red wines of regions such as Bordeaux, Rioja, Ribera del Duero and Provence are considered classic pairings with the lamb dishes found in the local cuisines of those regions. In Italy, the intimate connection between food and wine is embedded in the culture and is exemplified by the country's wine. Italians dined without wine and a region's wine was crafted to be "food friendly" with bright acidity. While some Italian wines may seem tannic, lean or tart by themselves they will show a different profile when paired with boldly flavored Italian foods. There have been some historical anecdotes that have related to food and wine pairing before modern times. One anecdote attributed to British wine merchants is "Buy on an apple and sell on cheese" meaning that if a wine tastes good when paired with a raw, uncooked apple it must be good and pairing any wine with cheese will make it more palatable to the average consumer and easier to sell.
The principles behind this anecdote lies in the food pairing properties of cheeses. Fruits that are high in sugar and acidity can make wines taste thin bodied. In contrast, hard cheeses such as cheddar can soften the tannins in wines and make them taste fuller and fruitier. Another historical anecdote, still repeated today, is "White wine with fish; the root of this adage rests on the principle of matching the body of the wine with the weight of the food. Meat was heavier and "red" in color so it was assumed that a red wine paired better. Fish was light and "white" in color so it was paired with white wine; this adage has become outdated somewhat due to the variety of wine styles prevalent in modern winemaking where there are now many "heavy" white wines such as "New World" oaky Chardonnay that can have more body than lighter reds such as Pinot noir or Italian Merlots. Another older idea was "to pair strong cheeses with strong wines," for example, asiago, a flavored cheese, with zinfandel, a dark red wine with fruit tones.
In recent years, the popularity and interest in food and wine pairings have increased and taken on new connotations. Industries have sprung up with print publications and media dedicated to expounding on the principles and ideals of pairing the perfect wine with the perfect dish. In the restaurant industry, there is a dedicated individual or staff of sommeliers who are trained to recommend wine pairings with the restaurant's fare; the origins of this recent phenomenon can be traced to the United States in the 1980s when the wine industry began to advertise wine-drinking as a component of dining rather than as just an alcoholic beverage meant for consumption and intoxication. Winemakers started to emphasize the kind of food dishes that their wines would go well with, some printing pairing suggestions on back wine labels. Food magazines began to suggest particular wines with recipes and restaurants would offer multi-course dinners matched with a specific wine for each course. Today there are multiple sources for detailed tips on food and wine pairing.
But many wine drinkers select wine pairings based on instinct, the mood of the meal or a desire to drink a particular w
Old vine, a common description on wine labels, indicates that a wine is the product of grape vines that are notably old. There is a general belief. There is no legal or agreed definition for old. Grape vines can grow for over 120 years. After about 20 years vines start to produce smaller crops, average yields decrease, leading to more concentrated, intense wines. Diseases such as "dead arm" can afflict old vines, in some cases further concentrating the juice. "Old vines" might apply to an entire estate, or it might mean only a certain parcel planted before others. In the U. S. the most common use is on Zinfandel, because in California vineyards up to 125 years old are still bearing small amounts of prized Zinfandel fruit. In a place where wine production is longstanding, it means a wine whose vines are thirty to forty years old; some wine makers insist. In newly established wine regions, twenty years might be old; the definition is further complicated by the fact that certain varieties do not have economically viable yields when they get ancient.
The oldest known grape-producing vine is a Žametovka vine growing in Maribor in Slovenia, known to have been alive in the 17th century. In the South Tyrol wine region of northeast Italy, a more-than 350-year-old vine of Versoaln planted at Castel Katzenzungen is being used to produce wine with the fruit of the old vine blended with the fruit of younger plantings to produce 500 bottles a year; the oldest vine with a authenticated minimum age, thought to be the largest in the world, is known as the Great Vine at Hampton Court Palace in England. It was transplanted under the direction of Lancelot Capability Brown to its current site in 1769; the variety is ‘Shiva Grossa’. Contrary to the normal expectation for old vines, it produced its largest crop in autumn of 2001, of 383 kilograms. In the Barossa Valley, the world's oldest continually producing commercial vineyard, authenticated is believed to be the Shiraz vines at Turkey Flat in Tanunda that were planted in 1847. Block 42 at the Penfolds Kalimna Vineyard in the Barossa Valley contains Cabernet Sauvignon vines planted in 1888, believed to be the oldest Cabernet vineyard still producing wine.
The Barossa Old Vine Charter was established to protect the older vines in the region and prevent them from being removed from the ground. Because there is no objective definition, an "old vines" wine might or might not show any specific characteristics related to vine age; the more reputable the producer, the more it is to have veracity. If a producer sells a "regular" and "old vines" bottling, it is more to represent a perceptible difference in character, if not in quality. In these ways, "old vines" is similar to "reserve," a term that varies in its significance and in many countries and regions has no legal definition
Aroma of wine
The aromas of wine are more diverse than its flavors. The human tongue is limited to the primary tastes perceived by taste receptors on the tongue-sourness, saltiness and savoriness; the wide array of fruit, leathery, herbal and woodsy flavor present in wine are derived from aroma notes sensed by the olfactory bulb. In wine tasting, wine is sometimes smelled before being drunk in order to identify some components of the wine that may be present. Different terms are used to describe; the most basic term is aroma which refers to a "pleasant" smell as opposed to odor which refers to an unpleasant smell or possible wine fault. The term aroma may be further distinguished from bouquet which refers to the smells that arise from the chemical reactions of fermentation and aging of the wine. In professional wine tasting, there is a distinction made between "aromas" and a wine's "bouquet" while in casual wine tasting these two terms are used interchangeably. An aroma refers to the smells unique to the grape variety and are most demonstrated in a varietal wine—such as lychees with Gewürztraminer or black currant with Cabernet Sauvignon.
These are smells that are associated with a young wine. As a wine ages, chemical reactions among acids, sugars and phenolic compounds create new smells that are known as a wine's bouquet; these can include honey in truffles in a Pinot noir. The term bouquet can be expanded to include the smells derived from fermentation and exposure to oak. In Burgundy, the aromas of wines are sub-divided into three categories-primary and tertiary aromas. Primary aromas are those specific to the grape variety itself. Secondary aromas are those derived from fermentation. Tertiary aromas are those that develop through either oak aging; the technique of microoxygenation affects the aromatic bouquet. Within wine there are volatile and non-volatile compounds that contribute to the make up of a wine's aroma. During the fermentation and for the first few months of a wine's existence, chemical reactions among these compounds occur and a wine's aroma will change more during this period than at any other point; as a wine ages and matures and developments in aroma will continue to take place but at a slower and more gradual pace.
Volatile aroma compounds are present in the skin and juice of a grape berry and will vary in composition according to the individual grape variety. It is theorized that the Vitis vine developed these compounds as an evolutionary tool to aid in procreation by attracting insects to assist with pollination and birds and other animals to eat the berries and disperse the seeds; the diverse spectrum of aromas associated with individual grape varieties is a reflection of the vine's adaptation to ecological conditions and competition among other plants. The majority of volatile compounds responsible for aroma combine with sugars in the wine to form odorless glycosides. Through the process of hydrolysis, caused by enzymes or acids in the wine, they revert into an aromatic form; the act of tasting wine is the act of smelling these vaporized aroma compounds. Olfactory receptors cells, each sensitive to a different aroma, pick up these compounds and transfer the information to the brain by way of the olfactory bulb.
In the 1980s there was renewed focus in studying the correlation between aroma/flavor compounds in grapes and the resulting quality of wine. Scientists were able to use chromatograph-mass spectrometers to identify volatile aroma compounds in various grape varieties. Study of the compounds responsible for aroma and flavor, as well as their correlation with a wine's quality, is ongoing; as understanding of these compounds grows, there is concern that wines in the future could be "manipulated" through the use of chemical additives to add complexity and additional aromas to wine. In 2004, a winery in South Africa was found to have added illegal flavoring to their Sauvignon blanc to enhance the aroma. Viticultural studies have focused on how aroma compounds develop in the grapes during the annual growth cycle of the vine and how viticultural techniques such as canopy management may contribute to developing desirable aromatics in the wine; some of the identified aroma compounds include the following: Methoxypyrazine-grassy, herbaceous aroma compound associated with Cabernet Sauvignon and Sauvignon blanc.
Monoterpenes-responsible for the floral aromatics of varieties like Gewürztraminer and Riesling. Includes geraniol and nerol. Norisoprenoids-Carotenoid derived aromatic compounds that includes megastigmatrienone which produces some of the spice notes associated with Chardonnay and zingerone responsible for the different spice notes associated with Syrah. Other norisoprenoids include raspberry ketone which produces some of the raspberry aromas associated with red wine, damascenone which produces some of the rose oil aromas associated with Pinot noir and vanillin. Thiols/Mercaptans-sulfur contain compounds that can produce an aroma of garlic and onion, considered a wine fault, they have been found to contribute to some of the varietal aromas associated with Cabernet Sauvignon, Gewürztraminer, Muscat, Petit Manseng, Pinot blanc, Pinot gris, Scheurebe and Sylvaner. Some of the aromas perceived in wine are from esters created by the reaction of acids and alcohol in the wine. Esters can develop during fermentation, with the influence of yeast, or during aging by chemical reactions.
The precise yeast strain used during fermentation and temperature are two of the strongest indicators of what kind of esters will develop and helps explain why Chardonnay grown i