Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy and known as Felix Mendelssohn, was a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. Mendelssohn's compositions include symphonies, piano music and chamber music, his best-known works include his Overture and incidental music for A Midsummer Night's Dream, the Italian Symphony, the Scottish Symphony, the oratorio Elijah, the overture The Hebrides, his mature Violin Concerto, his String Octet. The melody for the Christmas carol "Hark! The Herald Angels Sing" is his. Mendelssohn's Songs Without Words are his most famous solo piano compositions. A grandson of the philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, Felix Mendelssohn was born into a prominent Jewish family, he was brought up without religion until the age of seven, when he was baptised as a Reformed Christian. Felix was recognised early as a musical prodigy, but his parents were cautious and did not seek to capitalise on his talent. Mendelssohn enjoyed early success in Germany, revived interest in the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, notably with his performance of the St Matthew Passion in 1829.
He became well received in his travels throughout Europe as a composer and soloist. His conservative musical tastes set him apart from more adventurous musical contemporaries such as Franz Liszt, Richard Wagner, Charles-Valentin Alkan and Hector Berlioz; the Leipzig Conservatory, which he founded, became a bastion of this anti-radical outlook. After a long period of relative denigration due to changing musical tastes and antisemitism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, his creative originality has been re-evaluated, he is now among the most popular composers of the Romantic era. Felix Mendelssohn was born on 3 February 1809, in Hamburg, at the time an independent city-state, in the same house where, a year the dedicatee and first performer of his Violin Concerto, Ferdinand David, would be born. Mendelssohn's father, the banker Abraham Mendelssohn, was the son of the German Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn, whose family was prominent in the German Jewish community; until his baptism at age seven, Mendelssohn was brought up without religion.
His mother, Lea Salomon, was a sister of Jakob Salomon Bartholdy. Mendelssohn was the second of four children; the family moved to Berlin in 1811, leaving Hamburg in disguise in fear of French reprisal for the Mendelssohn bank's role in breaking Napoleon's Continental System blockade. Abraham and Lea Mendelssohn sought to give their children – Fanny, Felix and Rebecka – the best education possible. Fanny became a pianist well known in Berlin musical circles as a composer, but it was not considered proper, by either Abraham or Felix, for a woman to pursue a career in music, so she remained an active but non-professional musician. Abraham was disinclined to allow Felix to follow a musical career until it became clear that he was dedicated. Mendelssohn grew up in an intellectual environment. Frequent visitors to the salon organised by his parents at their home in Berlin included artists and scientists, among them Wilhelm and Alexander von Humboldt, the mathematician Peter Gustav Lejeune Dirichlet.
The musician Sarah Rothenburg has written of the household that "Europe came to their living room". Abraham Mendelssohn renounced the Jewish religion prior to Felix's birth. Felix and his siblings were first brought up without religious education, were baptised by a Reformed Church minister in 1816, at which time Felix was given the additional names Jakob Ludwig. Abraham and his wife Lea were baptised in 1822, formally adopted the surname Mendelssohn Bartholdy for themselves and for their children; the name Bartholdy was added at the suggestion of Lea's brother, Jakob Salomon Bartholdy, who had inherited a property of this name in Luisenstadt and adopted it as his own surname. In an 1829 letter to Felix, Abraham explained that adopting the Bartholdy name was meant to demonstrate a decisive break with the traditions of his father Moses: "There can no more be a Christian Mendelssohn than there can be a Jewish Confucius".. On embarking on his musical career, Felix did not drop the name Mendelssohn as Abraham had requested, but in deference to his father signed his letters and had his visiting cards printed using the form'Mendelssohn Bartholdy'.
In 1829, his sister Fanny wrote to him of "Bartholdy this name that we all dislike". Mendelssohn began taking piano lessons from his mother when he was six, at seven was tutored by Marie Bigot in Paris. In Berlin, all four Mendelssohn children studied piano with Ludwig Berger, himself a former student of Muzio Clementi. From at least May 1819 Mendelssohn studied counterpoint and composition with Carl Friedrich Zelter in Berlin; this was an important influence on his future career. Zelter had certainly been recommended as a teacher by his aunt Sarah Levy, a pupil of W. F. Bach and a patron of C. P. E. Bach. Sarah Levy displayed some talent as a keyboard player, played with Zelter's orchestra at the Berliner Singakademie. Sarah had formed an important collection of
Kottbusser Tor (Berlin U-Bahn)
Kottbusser Tor is a Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U 1, U 3 and U 8. Many Berliners use the affectionate term Kotti, it is located in central Kreuzberg. The area has a bad reputation for the high drug-related crime rate, instances of which have become quite rare in most other parts of the district; the original Kottbusser Tor was a southern city gate of Berlin. The station on the first Berlin U-Bahn line from Potsdamer Platz to Stralauer Tor was opened on 18 February 1902 on a viaduct above Skalitzer Straße; when in 1926 the U8 was built, a new two-level station was constructed 100 metres westwards to allow both lines to meet in one location, the original station was demolished. It was directly hit on 26 February 1945
The Landwehr Canal, or Landwehrkanal in German, is a 10.7-kilometre long canal parallel to the Spree river in Berlin, built between 1845 and 1850 according to plans by Peter Joseph Lenné. It connects the upper part of the Spree at the Osthafen in Friedrichshain with its lower part in Charlottenburg, flowing through Kreuzberg and Tiergarten. Lenné designed a canal with sloped walls, an average width of 20 m at the surface and locks near both ends to control the water depth. In the course of two enlargements, it reached a breadth of 22 m and a depth of 2 m. Today the waterway is used by tourist boats and pleasure craft; the Landwehr Canal leaves the Spree River in the Osthafen in Friedrichshain, east of the city centre. It descends through the Schleusenufer and heads in a straight line south west to its junction with the Neukölln Ship Canal, which provides a connection to the Teltow Canal. Here the Landwehr Canal turns north west through Kreuzberg, along the Paul-Lincke-UferIn Kreuzberg the canal passes the entrance to the former Luisenstadt Canal that, between 1852 and 1926, provided a further connection to the Spree River.
Although this has since been filled and converted to a public garden, its route can still be traced by the parallel flanking streets with their distinctive damm suffixes. Further west in Kreuzberg, the canal is paralleled for about 1 kilometre by the U1 line of the Berlin U-Bahn, which runs here as an elevated railway. After passing the elevated Möckernbrücke and Hallesches Tor stations, the U1 crosses the canal on a high level bridge that spans the railway bridge that once gave access to the, now demolished, Anhalter Bahnhof. Shortly after that, the elevated U2 line crosses the canal. After entering Tiergarten, the canal flows between the Großer Tiergarten Park and the Berlin Zoological Garden. Here the canal is bridged by the Berlin Stadtbahn; this historic elevated railway carries S-Bahn, InterCity trains. The Landwehr Canal rejoins the Spree River in Charlottenburg opposite the entrance to the Charlottenburg Canal at a waterways crossroad known as Spreekreuz. After Rosa Luxemburg was murdered on January 15, 1919, her body was dumped into the Landwehr Canal, where it was not found until June 1.
A memorial marks the site. In 1920, Anna "Anastasia" Anderson attempted suicide by jumping into the water. In 1932, initial construction of the Shell-Haus overlooking the canal was completed. On 27 April 1945, the Russian Army was closing in on the German Army's final defensive stronghold in the Tiergarten district of Berlin; as some Russian troops were using the U-bahn tunnels for their advance, German military engineers acting on Hitler's direct orders, blew up retaining walls by a railway tunnel adjoining the canal, drowning many civilians and evacuated army casualties who were given refuge in the tunnels. On 8 June 1962, a party of fourteen East German refugees commandeered the river steamer Friedrich Wolff, erected steel plates around the wheelhouse and sailed from the Spree into the Landwehr Canal. An East German patrol boat intercepted them and opened fire, but West German police returned fire and all landed safely on the canal bank, in the West
The Berlin U-Bahn is a rapid transit railway in Berlin, the capital city of Germany, a major part of the city's public transport system. Together with the S-Bahn, a network of suburban train lines, a tram network that operates in the eastern parts of the city, it serves as the main means of transport in the capital. Opened in 1902, the U-Bahn serves 173 stations spread across ten lines, with a total track length of 151.7 kilometres, about 80% of, underground. Trains run every two to five minutes during peak hours, every five minutes for the rest of the day and every ten minutes in the evening. Over the course of a year, U-Bahn trains travel 132 million km, carry over 400 million passengers. In 2017, 553.1 million passengers rode the U-Bahn. The entire system is maintained and operated by the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe known as the BVG. Designed to alleviate traffic flowing into and out of central Berlin, the U-Bahn was expanded until the city was divided into East and West Berlin at the end of World War II.
Although the system remained open to residents of both sides at first, the construction of the Berlin Wall and the subsequent restrictions imposed by the Government of East Germany limited travel across the border. The East Berlin U-Bahn lines from West Berlin were severed, except for two West Berlin lines that ran through East Berlin; these were allowed to pass through East Berlin without stopping at any of the stations, which were closed. Friedrichstraße was the exception because it was used as a transfer point between U6 and the West Berlin S-Bahn system, a border crossing into East Berlin; the system was reopened following the fall of the Berlin Wall, German reunification. The Berlin U-Bahn is the most extensive underground network in Germany. In 2006, travel on the U-Bahn was equivalent to 122.2 million km of car journeys. The Berlin U-Bahn was built in three major phases: Up to 1913: the construction of the Kleinprofil network in Berlin, Schöneberg, Wilmersdorf. At the end of the 19th century, city planners in Berlin were looking for solutions to the increasing traffic problems facing the city.
As potential solutions and inventor Ernst Werner von Siemens suggested the construction of elevated railways, while AEG proposed an underground system. Berlin city administrators feared that an underground would damage the sewers, favouring an elevated railway following the path of the former city walls. Years of negotiations followed until, on 10 September 1896, work began on a elevated railway to run between Stralauer Tor and Zoologischer Garten, with a short spur to Potsdamer Platz. Known as the "Stammstrecke", the route was inaugurated on 15 February 1902, was popular. Before the year ended, the railway had been extended: by 17 August, east to Warschauer Brücke. In a bid to secure its own improvement, Schöneberg wanted a connection to Berlin; the elevated railway company did not believe such a line would be profitable, so the city built the first locally financed underground in Germany. It was opened on 1 December 1910. Just a few months earlier, work began on a fourth line to link Wilmersdorf in the south-west to the growing Berlin U-Bahn.
The early network ran east to west, connecting the richer areas in and around Berlin, as these routes had been deemed the most profitable. In order to open up the network to more of the workers of Berlin, the city wanted north-south lines to be established. In 1920, the surrounding areas were annexed to form Groß-Berlin, removing the need for many negotiations, giving the city much greater bargaining power over the private Hochbahngesellschaft; the city mandated that new lines would use wider carriages—running on the same, standard-gauge track—to provide greater passenger capacity. Construction of the Nord-Süd-Bahn connecting Wedding in the north to Tempelhof and Neukölln in the south had started in December 1912, but halted for the First World War. Work resumed in 1919, although the money shortage caused by hyperinflation slowed progress considerably. On 30 January 1923, the first section opened between Hallesches Tor and Stettiner Bahnhof, with a continuation to Seestraße following two months later.
Underfunded, the new line had to use trains from the old Kleinprofil network. The line branched at Belle-Alliance-Straße, now. In 1912, plans were approved for AEG to build its own north-south underground line, named the GN-Bahn after its termini and Neukölln, via Alexanderplatz. Financial difficulties stopped the construction in 1919; the first section opened on 17 July 1927 between Boddinstraße and Schönleinstraße, with the intermediate Hermannplatz becoming the first
U2 (Berlin U-Bahn)
U2 is a line of the Berlin U-Bahn. The U2 line starts at Pankow S-Bahn station, runs through the eastern city centre to Potsdamer Platz, the western city centre and to the Ruhleben terminal station; the U2 has a length of 20.7 kilometers. Together with the U1, U3, U4 lines, it was part of the early Berlin metro network built before 1914; the route between Potsdamer Platz and Zoologischer Garten was the western section of the Stammstrecke, Berlin's first metro inaugurated in 1902. The line starts in what was West Berlin at Ruhleben and runs on a causeway between Rominter Allee and the railway line to Spandau. On the bend approaching Olympischen Straße, the line descends into tunnel to run beneath that road. Subsequently, the U2 pivots towards the national highway to Theodor-Heuss-Platz, where it runs in a curve to Kaiserdamm. Under Kaiserdamm, which becomes Bismarckstraße at Sophie Charlotte-Platz, the tunnel leads straight to Ernst-Reuter-Platz. Here again, it swings to the southeast, following the course of Hardenberger Straße towards Zoologischer Garten station.
In the tunnel, it passes the foundations of the Kaiser Wilhelm Memorial Church in a tight arc follows Tauentzienstraße where the track emerges via a ramp to the elevated railway section after Wittenbergplatz - east of the intersection Kleist-Courbierestraße. The elevated railway reaches its full height at Nollendorfplatz station where all four lines of the small-profile network meet. In the underground part of the station, there are four more lines; the U2 continues above ground to the east of the Bülowstraße. After that U2 makes a curves over a long viaduct on the southernmost point of the route, passes through Gleisdreieck station and runs straight across the Landwehrkanal and returns into tunnel between Mendelssohn Bartholdy-Park and Potsdamer Platz stations. While the railway company intended it to continue along Leipziger Straße, this route was not built and it continues instead along Mohrenstraße, Markgrafenstraße and Niederwallstraße to the River Spree in Berlin Mitte. After passing the Märkisches Museum station, it goes under the River Spree in a tunnel, runs through Klosterstraße to Alexanderplatz station.
After leaving Alexanderplatz, the track turns under Rosa-Luxemburg-Straße and through the station of the same name. The line runs north underneath Schönhauser Allee and through Senefelderplatz station. Before reaching Eberswalder Straße station, the line emerges from tunnel and on to an elevated viaduct through to the Schönhauser Allee station, an S-Bahn interchange. From there the line runs beyond the former city limits and the elevated railway descends again into a tunnel to Vinetastraße and before reaching the terminus at Pankow. Since the introduction of the schematic line network plans at the Berlin subway, at least parts of today's line U2 always had the color red; when letters were introduced as a line name after the First World War, the small profile network received the letters "A" and "B". The inner city route, more important than the older route through Kreuzberg, became Line A, as did the two western branches to Charlottenburg and Dahlem; the routes from Kurfürstendamm and Schöneberg through Kreuzberg to the Warsaw Bridge were given the letter "B" and the color code green.
To distinguish the branches in the western part of the route, the letters were supplemented by Roman numbers, the Charlottenburg route was thus the line AI. From 1966, the designation of the lines operated by the Berlin public transport companies in West Berlin was converted to Arabic numbers; each line should be operated independently and without branching. The line 1 drove now from Ruhleben through Charlottenburg to Kreuzberg, the previous AII became the line 2; the severed eastern line section, used since 1949 by the BVG East / BVB, retained unchanged the "A" as a line designation, as well as the red color code. On January 9, 1984, the BVG took over the managed by the Deutsche Reichsbahn S-Bahn lines in West Berlin; the marking of the subway lines traveled by the BVG changed again because of the now parallel operated U- and S-Bahn. To better distinguish the two trades, the respective Arabic number, which has remained valid since 1966, was prefixed with the letter "U" as a line number. According to the model of public transport networks, such things were followed from various cities they were called U1 to U9 and equivalent to the acquired S-Bahn routes preceded by "S" and the route number.
With the merging of Berlin in the context of German reunification and the reconstruction of the disused section Wittenbergplatz - Mohrenstraße, the BVG decided to swap the western branches of the meeting at the Wittenbergplatz lines U1 and U2. The reunited former AI line has since been under the new name "U2", but as earlier by the two separate parts of the city with traditional red line color; the increasing traffic problems in Berlin at the end of the 19th century led to a search for new efficient means of transport. Inspired by Werner von Siemens, numerous suggestions were made for overhead conveyors, such as a suspension railway, as was built in Wuppertal, or a tube railway as was built in London. Siemens and some prominent Berliners submitted a plan for an elevated railway on the model of New York; these people opposed Siemens' suggestion of building an overhead railway in the major street of Friedrichstraße, but the city of Berlin opposed underground railways, since it feared damage to one of its new sewers.
After many years
Daimler AG is a German multinational automotive corporation, headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. Daimler-Benz was formed with the merger of Benz & Cie and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft in 1926; the company was renamed DaimlerChrysler upon acquiring the American automobile manufacturer Chrysler Corporation in 1998, was again renamed Daimler upon divesting of Chrysler in 2007. As of 2014, Daimler owned or had shares in a number of car, bus and motorcycle brands including Mercedes-Benz, Mercedes-AMG, Smart Automobile, Detroit Diesel, Western Star, Thomas Built Buses, BharatBenz, Mitsubishi Fuso, MV Agusta as well as shares in Denza, KAMAZ and Beijing Automotive Group; the luxury Maybach brand was terminated at the end of 2012, but revived in April 2015 as "Mercedes-Maybach" versions of the Mercedes-Benz S-Class and G-Class. In 2017, Daimler sold 3.3 million vehicles. By unit sales, Daimler is the thirteenth-largest car manufacturer and is the largest truck manufacturer in the world. Daimler provides financial services through its Daimler Financial Services arm.
The company is a component of the Euro Stoxx 50 stock market index. Daimler AG complex in Stuttgart include central company headquarters, Mercedes-Benz and Daimler car plants, Mercedes-Benz museum and stadium Mercedes-Benz Arena. Daimler AG's origin is in an Agreement of Mutual Interest signed on 1 May 1924 between Benz & Cie and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft. Both companies continued to manufacture their separate automobile and internal combustion engine marques until 28 June 1926, when Benz & Cie. and Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft formally merged - becoming Daimler-Benz AG - and agreed that thereafter, all of the factories would use the brand name of "Mercedes-Benz" on their automobiles. The inclusion of the name Mercedes in the new brand name honored the most important model series of DMG automobiles, the Mercedes series, which were designed and built by Wilhelm Maybach, they derived their name from a 1900 engine named after the daughter of Emil Jellinek. Jellinek became one of DMG's directors in 1900, ordered a small number of motor racing cars built to his specifications by Maybach, stipulated that the engine must be named Daimler-Mercedes, made the new automobile famous through motorsports.
That race car became known as the Mercedes 35 hp. The first of the series of production models bearing the name Mercedes had been produced by DMG in 1902. Jellinek left the DMG board of directors in 1909; the name of Daimler as a marque of automobiles had been sold by DMG - following his death in 1900 - for use by other companies. Since the new company, Daimler-Benz, would have created confusion and legal problems by including Daimler in its new brand name, it therefore used the name Mercedes to represent the Daimler-Motoren-Gesellschaft interest. Karl Benz remained as a member of the board of directors of Daimler-Benz AG until his death in 1929. Although Daimler-Benz is best known for its Mercedes-Benz automobile brand, during World War II, it created a notable series of aircraft and submarine engines. Daimler produced parts for German arms, most notably barrels for the Mauser rifle. During World War II, Daimler-Benz employed slave labour. In 1966, Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH merged with Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau Friedrichshafen GmbH to form Maybach Mercedes-Benz Motorenbau GmbH, under partial ownership by Daimler-Benz.
The company is renamed Motoren und Turbinen-Union Friedrichshafen GmbH in 1969. In 1989, Daimler-Benz InterServices AG was created to handle data processing and insurance services, real estate management for the Daimler group. In 1995, MTU Friedrichshafen became a wholly owned subsidiary of Daimler-Benz. In a so-called "Merger of Equals," or "Marriage made in Heaven", according to its CEO and architect Jürgen E. Schrempp, Daimler-Benz AG and United States-based automobile manufacturer Chrysler Corporation, the smallest of the main three American automakers, merged in 1998 in an exchange of shares and formed DaimlerChrysler AG. Valued at US$38 billion, it was the world's largest cross-border deal; the terms of the merger allowed Daimler-Benz's non-automotive businesses such as Daimler-Benz InterServices AG, "debis AG" for short, to continue to pursue their respective strategies of expansion. Debis AG reported revenues of $8.6 bn in 1997. The merger was contentious with investors launching lawsuits over whether the transaction was the'merger of equals' that senior management claimed or amounted to a Daimler-Benz takeover of Chrysler.
A class action investor lawsuit was settled in August 2003 for US$300 million while a suit by billionaire investor activist Kirk Kerkorian was dismissed on 7 April 2005. The transaction claimed the job of its architect, Chairman Jürgen E. Schrempp, who resigned at the end of 2005 in response to the fall of the company's share price following the transaction; the merger was the subject of a book Taken for a Ride: How Daimler-Benz Drove Off With Chrysler, by Bill Vlasic and Bradley A. Stertz. Another issue of contention is whether the merger delivered promised synergies and integrated the two businesses. Martin H. Wiggers' concept of a platform strategy like the VW Group, was implemented only for a few models, so the synergy effects in development and production were too low; as late as 2002, DaimlerChrysler appeared to run two independent product lines. That year
Berlin Schönhauser Allee station
Berlin Schönhauser Allee is a railway station in the Prenzlauer Berg district of Berlin. It is located on the Berlin U-Bahn line U 2 and on the Ringbahn. Built in 1913 by A. Grenander opened as "Bahnhof Nordring"; as the station was well accepted the roof was elongated in 1925 and a new entrance build. In 1936 the station was named "Schönhauser Allee". On an average day 500 trains and more than 26000 people cross this station. At this station, the Elevated U2 crosses the below-ground S-bahn, while at the other crossing of the U2 and the ringbahn, messe-nord/Icc S-bahn station and kaiserdamm U2 station, the U2 crosses above the below-ground s-bahn on the bottom deck of a road bridge