Philadelphia, sometimes known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U. S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, the sixth-most populous U. S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U. S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis; the Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States. William Penn, an English Quaker, founded the city in 1682 to serve as capital of the Pennsylvania Colony. Philadelphia played an instrumental role in the American Revolution as a meeting place for the Founding Fathers of the United States, who signed the Declaration of Independence in 1776 at the Second Continental Congress, the Constitution at the Philadelphia Convention of 1787.
Several other key events occurred in Philadelphia during the Revolutionary War including the First Continental Congress, the preservation of the Liberty Bell, the Battle of Germantown, the Siege of Fort Mifflin. Philadelphia was one of the nation's capitals during the revolution, served as temporary U. S. capital while Washington, D. C. was under construction. In the 19th century, Philadelphia became a railroad hub; the city grew from an influx of European immigrants, most of whom came from Ireland and Germany—the three largest reported ancestry groups in the city as of 2015. In the early 20th century, Philadelphia became a prime destination for African Americans during the Great Migration after the Civil War, as well as Puerto Ricans; the city's population doubled from one million to two million people between 1890 and 1950. The Philadelphia area's many universities and colleges make it a top study destination, as the city has evolved into an educational and economic hub. According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, the Philadelphia area had a gross domestic product of US$445 billion in 2017, the eighth-largest metropolitan economy in the United States.
Philadelphia is the center of economic activity in Pennsylvania and is home to five Fortune 1000 companies. The Philadelphia skyline is expanding, with a market of 81,900 commercial properties in 2016, including several nationally prominent skyscrapers. Philadelphia has more outdoor murals than any other American city. Fairmount Park, when combined with the adjacent Wissahickon Valley Park in the same watershed, is one of the largest contiguous urban park areas in the United States; the city is known for its arts, culture and colonial history, attracting 42 million domestic tourists in 2016 who spent US$6.8 billion, generating an estimated $11 billion in total economic impact in the city and surrounding four counties of Pennsylvania. Philadelphia has emerged as a biotechnology hub. Philadelphia is the birthplace of the United States Marine Corps, is the home of many U. S. firsts, including the first library, medical school, national capital, stock exchange and business school. Philadelphia contains 67 National Historic Landmarks and the World Heritage Site of Independence Hall.
The city became a member of the Organization of World Heritage Cities in 2015, as the first World Heritage City in the United States. Although Philadelphia is undergoing gentrification, the city maintains mitigation strategies to minimize displacement of homeowners in gentrifying neighborhoods. Before Europeans arrived, the Philadelphia area was home to the Lenape Indians in the village of Shackamaxon; the Lenape are a Native American tribe and First Nations band government. They are called Delaware Indians, their historical territory was along the Delaware River watershed, western Long Island, the Lower Hudson Valley. Most Lenape were pushed out of their Delaware homeland during the 18th century by expanding European colonies, exacerbated by losses from intertribal conflicts. Lenape communities were weakened by newly introduced diseases smallpox, violent conflict with Europeans. Iroquois people fought the Lenape. Surviving Lenape moved west into the upper Ohio River basin; the American Revolutionary War and United States' independence pushed them further west.
In the 1860s, the United States government sent most Lenape remaining in the eastern United States to the Indian Territory under the Indian removal policy. In the 21st century, most Lenape reside in Oklahoma, with some communities living in Wisconsin, in their traditional homelands. Europeans came to the Delaware Valley in the early 17th century, with the first settlements founded by the Dutch, who in 1623 built Fort Nassau on the Delaware River opposite the Schuylkill River in what is now Brooklawn, New Jersey; the Dutch considered the entire Delaware River valley to be part of their New Netherland colony. In 1638, Swedish settlers led by renegade Dutch established the colony of New Sweden at Fort Christina and spread out in the valley. In 1644, New Sweden supported the Susquehannocks in their military defeat of the English colony of Maryland. In 1648, the Dutch built Fort Beversreede on the west bank of the Delaware, south of the Schuylkill near the present-day Eastwick neighborhood, to reassert their dominion over the area.
The Swedes responded by building Fort Nya Korsholm, or New Korsholm, named after a town in Finland with a Swedish majority. In 1655, a
Temple University is a state-related research university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It was founded in 1884 by the Baptist minister Russell Conwell. In 1882, Conwell came to Pennsylvania to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working-class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules; these students dubbed "night owls", were taught in the basement of Conwell's Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the university's name and mascot. By 1907, the institution was incorporated as a university; as of 2017, more than 40,000 undergraduate and professional students were enrolled in more than 500 academic degree programs offered at sites across the globe, including eight campuses across Pennsylvania and Tokyo. Temple is among the world's largest providers of professional education, preparing the largest body of professional practitioners in Pennsylvania. Temple University was founded in 1884 by Russell Conwell, a Yale-educated Boston lawyer and ordained Baptist minister, who had served in the Union Army during the American Civil War.
Conwell came to Pennsylvania in 1882 to lead the Grace Baptist Church while he began tutoring working class citizens late at night to accommodate their work schedules. These students dubbed "night owls," were taught in the basement of Conwell's Baptist Temple, hence the origin of the university's name and mascot; the Grace Baptist Church grew popular within the North Philadelphia area. A temporary board of trustees was created to handle the growing formalities associated with the church's programs; when the board conducted its first meeting they named Russell H. Conwell president of "The Temple College." Within the following months, Grace Baptist Church appointed a new board of trustees, printed official admissions files, issued stock to raise funds for new teaching facilities. Regardless of whether they had the resources to support the school, Conwell's desire was “to give education to those who were unable to get it through the usual channels”. Philadelphia granted a charter in 1888 to establish “The Temple College of Philadelphia”, but the city refused to grant authority to award academic degrees.
By 1888, the enrollment of the college was nearly 600. It was in 1907 that Temple College revised its institutional status and incorporated as a university. Legal recognition as a university enhanced Temple in noticeable ways including its reputation and graduate programs, overall enrollment, financial support. Over time, Temple expanded: Samaritan Hospital was founded, a Medical School was added, Temple merged with the Philadelphia Dental College. After the merger, Temple reincorporated as Temple University on December 12, 1907. On April 2, 1965, Lester B. Pearson, Prime Minister of Canada and recipient of the Nobel peace prize was awarded the Temple University World Peace Prize. During his acceptance speech Pearson criticized American bombing of Vietnam: There are many factors which I am not in a position to weigh, but there does appear to be at least a possibility that a suspension of such air strikes against North Vietnam, at the right time, might provide the Hanoi authorities with an opportunity, if they wish to take it, to inject some flexibility into their policy without appearing to do so as the direct result of military pressure.
The speech infuriated President Lyndon B. Johnson who, the next day at Camp David, took Pearson out onto the terrace and began "laying into in no uncertain fashion". Pearson apologized for the speech. Since 1965, Temple has been a Pennsylvania state-related university, meaning the university receives state funds, subject to state appropriations, but is independently operated. Temple University has six campuses and sites across Pennsylvania, plus international campuses in Rome and Tokyo; the main campus is in North Philadelphia, about 1.5 miles north of Center City. It occupies 118 acres. Events for students and the public include concerts, clubs and lectures; the campus has notable landmarks. O'Connor Plaza surrounds the Founder's Garden between Liacouras Walk; the bronze statue of an owl, the university's mascot, is a popular photo spot at the heart of main campus. The Founder's Garden near Liacouras Walk, is the burial place of Russell Conwell, founder and 38-year president of Temple. A former Yale student, Civil War captain, Boston lawyer, Philadelphia minister, Conwell used the income from his famous “Acres of Diamonds” speech to fund Temple as a place where working-class Philadelphians might receive higher education.
It has been estimated that Conwell, who died at 82, helped more than 90,000 men and women pursue higher education. A bust of Conwell marks his grave. Another green area on campus is the Johnny Ring Garden, it is located near the faculty staff dining'Diamond Club', celebrates Conwell and Johnny Ring. The Bell Tower sits at 110 ft. tall in the center of the Main Campus between Paley Library and Beury Hall. The surrounding plaza and grassy area, the largest "green space" on the urban campus, are called "the beach"; the area is a meeting place and hangout location for students and their protests, speeches, political campaigning, charity drives. It hosts various official events such as Spring Fling. Health Sciences Campus is in North Philadelphia, spanning Broad Street from Allegheny Avenue to Venango street; the campus is home to a teaching hospital.
Mendelssohn Glee Club
The Mendelssohn Glee Club of New York City, founded in 1866, is the oldest surviving independent musical group in the United States after the New York Philharmonic. Their concerts, given in high-society settings, featured the new four-part arrangements that the Club founders discovered when wealthy folk began to tour Europe during the expansionist boom brought about by the Civil War. In a format, followed by the glee clubs that sprang up in other cities, the Mendelssohn Club presented artistic works from composers, mixed with 4-part renditions of sentimental and novelty pieces, to audiences of influential friends and relatives in pleasantly informal settings. In this way, the Club created an audience for classical music among the newly well-to-do where none had existed before, leading directly to the establishment of symphony orchestras and other classical music ensembles across the country The Club's concerts were invitation-only affairs, in its heyday it could take up to six years for new members to be admitted.
In 1890, their performance so affected Alfred Corning Clark, the millionaire owner of Singer Sewing Machines and a former member who had joined in a duet with Nell Arthur, the wife of President Chester A. Arthur, in the Club's second concert, that he commissioned the construction of the six-story Mendelssohn Hall on West 40th Street, close by the early home of the Metropolitan Opera; the Hall was designed by architect and member Robert Henderson Robertson and was completed in 1892. It featured an 1100-seat auditorium, rehearsal space and two gigantic 30-foot long murals on canvas by the artist Robert Frederick Blum in the neo-classical style that characterized the Golden Age. Among the Club's tenants was the artist Winslow Homer, who once offered to sketch the club in payment for his back rent; the Club was dispossessed in 1911 after Clark's widow died, her heirs sought to make some money by leasing the building to Kinemacolor, an ambitious but premature venture into color movies. On February 12, 1916, on the golden anniversary of the Mendelssohn Glee Club and that of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company and guests gathered in the auditorium of the Waldorf Astoria in New York, where the Club sang to the members and guests of the Ellis Glee Club of Los Angeles, seated with telephone receivers held fast to their ears in the Biltmore Hotel, 3,000 miles of wire away.
Singing to New York in their turn, the Ellis Club completed the world's first transcontinental concert, marking the dawn of the Electronic Age as the Golden Age faded away. The first significant conductor of the Mendelssohn Glee Club, Joseph Mosenthal, helped to popularize the group through his dramatic leadership and musical vision. Mosenthal, who served for 30 years and composed several ambitious works for the Club, exhausted himself getting to rehearsal during a snowstorm in January 1896 and died on a sofa in Mendelssohn Hall, directly beneath his portrait by John White Alexander, he was succeeded by the young Edward MacDowell, who had just returned to New York to found the School of Music at Columbia University. When MacDowell's career came to a tragic end in 1904 after being nearly killed by a hansom cab, the Club stepped in with benefit concerts and private donations that led to the founding of the MacDowell Colony for the Arts in Peterborough, New Hampshire, where the composer succumbed.
His place was taken by Walter Damrosch, of the famous New York musical family. During World War II the Club was led by Cesare Sodero, the vocal director for Verdi operas at the Met. Sodero was followed by Emerson Buckley, who left to found the Fort Lauderdale Symphony and lster to introduce Luciano Pavarotti to America; the noted basso John Royer Bogue led the Club through its centennial years. In 1966, the first concert of its 100th season was marked by the only time the great Blum murals have been displayed since Mendelssohn Hall was torn down; the baton was passed to the present director, Eugene Wisoff, in 1993. Notable members have included tenor soloist Richard Crooks, baritone soloist and composer Oley Speaks, operatic and concert basso Herbert Witherspoon. Members of the Met chorus joined the Club as well. Among the young female soloists who have been part of the Club's performances since President Arthur's wife are some who went on to be Metropolitan Opera stars, like Licia Albanese, Aprile Millo, Helen Traubel.
The Mendelssohn Glee Club had a tremendous impact on American musical tastes the appreciation of what we now call classical music among the upper class in the 19th Century. A trip to Boston in 1871 resulted in the formation of the Apollo Club of Boston, leading soon after to the Boston Symphony Orchestra. In the same way, the Mendelssohn Club's visits initiated the Orpheus Club of Philadelphia, from this the Philadelphia Orchestra. Other men's glee clubs on the Mendelssohn model sprang up across the country, creating a lasting heritage of participation in serious music by men who love to sing
Music of Philadelphia
The city of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is home to a vibrant and well-documented musical heritage, stretching back to colonial times. Innovations in classical music, opera, R&B, jazz and soul have earned the music of Philadelphia national and international renown. Philadelphia's musical institutions have long played an important role in the music of Pennsylvania, as well as a nationwide impact in the early development of hip hop music. Philadelphia's diverse population has given it a reputation for styles ranging from dancehall to Irish traditional music, as well as a thriving classical and folk music scene; the Philadelphia Orchestra's third conductor, Leopold Stokowski, championed American classical music of the 20th century, on tour, in recordings, notably in Walt Disney's 1940 animated film Fantasia, brought the traditional and modern classical repertoire to a broad American listening public for the first time. The Curtis Institute of Music on Rittenhouse Square, founded in 1924 by Curtis Publishing Company heiress Mary Louise Curtis Bok, has trained many of the world's best-known and respected American composers and performers, including Leonard Bernstein and Samuel Barber during the 20th century and current stars Juan Diego Flórez, Alan Gilbert, Hilary Hahn, Jennifer Higdon, Lang Lang.
The city has played an prominent role in developing popular music. In the early years of rock and roll, a number of South Philadelphia-born popular vocalists made Philadelphia and popular music synonymous, including Chubby Checker, Frankie Avalon, Bobby Rydell; this led to the airing of the popular rock and roll dance show American Bandstand, from Philadelphia, hosted by twenty-something Dick Clark from the Channel 6 studios at 46th and Market Streets at the time, where teenagers would descend in droves after school to be televised dancing to the latest hits on the pop charts in front of a national audience. Philadelphia has a wide variety of performance venues for music; the city's most senior venue is the famed Academy of Music. Established in 1857, the Academy is the longest continuously operating opera house in the United States, still being used for its original purpose. At the center of Philadelphia's musical life, the Academy is home to many internationally recognized performance ensembles, including the Philly Pops, the Pennsylvania Ballet and the Opera Company of Philadelphia.
The Academy presents touring artists and musical theatre of the highest caliber. The most recent addition to the city's list of venues is the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, home of the internationally renowned Philadelphia Orchestra, which opened in 2001; the Philadelphia Singers sing in concerts with the orchestra. The center is home to the Chamber Orchestra of Philadelphia and the Philadelphia Chamber Music Society; the PCMS, established in 1986, puts on concerts by internationally renowned performers as well as local ensembles like 1807 and Friends, who have been prominent local performers since 1981. Of major importance to the city is the Mann Center for the Performing Arts, one of the largest outdoor amphitheatres in the United States. Established in 1976 as the Robin Hood Dell West, the Mann Center is the summer performance space for the Philadelphia Orchestra, it is host to major touring artists from all genres of music and is Philadelphia's main venue for popular entertainers.
In addition to the Mann Center, the Tower Theater, in Upper Darby, Pennsylvania just outside Philadelphia serves as a destination for many top touring acts. The Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts is another notable venue in the city. Founded in 1971, the Center now includes the University of Pennsylvania's Irvine Auditorium, Zellerbach Theatre and Harold Prince Theatre; the center offers a varied program of more than 170 performances each year, including concerts and dance. Philadelphia has a thriving jazz and cabaret scene due to the efforts of the John W. Coltrane Cultural Society, which honors local jazz legend John Coltrane and helps to promote jazz in the city. There are a number of nightclubs in the city that host live music, most notably Warmdaddy's, a hot spot for jazz and blues entertainers for more than four decades; the city is home to the Clef Club of Jazz and Performing Arts, called the "first-ever club designed and constructed as a jazz institution". Another notable venue is World Cafe Live, which opened October 2004.
A three-tiered music hall and bar, WCL has been host to such artists as George Clinton and the Parliament-Funkadelic, Rhett Miller, Natalie Cole, KT Tunstall, Allen Toussaint, Pink Martini and Liz Phair. Philadelphia's diverse ethnic groups have established several organizations that promote their musical styles, including the Asian Arts Initiative and the Latin American Musicians Association; the AMLA was established by Jesse Bermudez in 1982 in North Philadelphia, to promote Latino music and musicians. The Association runs a Latin School of Arts, which features teachers like Elio Villafranca and Pablo Batista; the Italian American Broadcasting Network is based out of Philadelphia and promotes radio stations that broadcast Italian music in southeastern Pennsylvania. The Painted Bride Art Center is a local organization which promotes alternative and avant garde music, while Crossroads Music is the city's only organization dedicated to presenting musicians with roots in specific cultural traditions from all parts of the world Other local institutions include the Philadelphia Gay Men's Chorus, founded in 1981, the Mendelssohn Club, a choral group that dates back to the 19th century.