Works Progress Administration
In a much smaller but more famous project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects. Almost every community in the United States had a new park, the WPAs initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States. At its peak in 1938, it provided jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration. Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people, most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. The stated goal of building programs was to end the depression or, at least, alleviate its worst effects. Millions of people needed subsistence incomes, Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, and kept skills sharp.
The WPA was a program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments. Usually the local sponsor provided land and often trucks and supplies, WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs. It was liquidated on June 30,1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the shortage of World War II. The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years, on May 6,1935, FDR issued Executive Order 7034, establishing the Works Progress Administration. The WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA. The WPA was largely shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, which was responsible for projects including education programs, recreation programs. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division, the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics, known as the Division of Social Research, the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety, the goal of the WPA was to employ most of the unemployed people on relief until the economy recovered
A campsite or camping pitch is a place used for overnight stay in the outdoors. In American English the term campsite generally means an area where an individual, group, or military unit can pitch a tent or park a camper, there are two types of campsites, an impromptu area a dedicated area with improvements and various facilities. The term camp comes from the Latin word campus, meaning field, therefore, a campgrounds consists typically of open pieces of ground where a camper can pitch a tent or park a camper. More specifically a campsite is an area set aside for camping. Campsites typically feature a few improvements, dedicated campsites, known as Campgrounds, usually have some amenities. Common amenities include, listed roughly in order from most to least common and it is thought to be a nuisance, harmful to the environment, and is often associated with vagrancy. However some countries have specific laws and/or regulations allowing camping on public lands, in the United States, many national and state parks have dedicated campsites and sometimes allow impromptu backcountry camping by visitors. U. S.
National Forests often have established campsites, but generally allow camping anywhere, in Britain, it is more commonly known as wild camping, and is mostly illegal. However, Scotland has a view and wild camping is legal in the majority of Scotland. In many parts of Canada, roughing it is considered to be camping on government owned, public land known as crown land. In North America many campgrounds have facilities for Recreational Vehicles and are known as RV parks. Similar facilities in the UK are known as Caravan Parks, the Kampgrounds of America is a large chain of commercial campgrounds located throughout the United States and Canada. Many travellers prefer to use KOA, or similar campsites, as an alternative to hotels or motels. Both commercial and governmental campgrounds typically charge a fee for the privilege of camping there, to cover expenses. However, there are some in North America that do not charge a use fee and rely on such as donations. Staying the night in a big-box store parking lot is common, some RV parks provide year-round spaces.
Frequently confused with campsites, campgrounds and RV parks, trailer parks are made up of long term or semi-permanent residents occupying mobile homes, the holiday park is a United Kingdom version of the North American trailer park. All of the homes are either available for rent from the land owner, or pitches are leased on a long-term basis from the land owner
A bungalow is a type of building, originally from Bengal region in South Asia, but now found throughout the world. Across the world, the meaning of the word bungalow varies, common features of many bungalows include verandas and being low-rise. In Australia, the California bungalow was popular after the First World War, some portable classrooms are called bungalows. The term originated in India, deriving from the Gujarati બંગલો baṅgalo, meaning Bengali and this Asian architectural form and design originated in the countryside of Bengal region in South Asia. Such houses were small, only one story and detached. The term was first found in English from 1696, where it was used to describe bungales or hovells in India for English sailors of the East India Company, developers began to use the term for smaller houses. Bungalows are very convenient for the homeowner in that all living areas are on a single-story, a bungalow is well suited to persons with impaired mobility, such as the elderly or those in wheelchairs.
Neighbourhoods of only bungalows offer more privacy than similar neighbourhoods with two-story houses, with bungalows, strategically planted trees and shrubs are usually sufficient to block the view of neighbours. They are a very cost-effective way of living, on the other hand, even closely spaced bungalows make for quite low-density neighbourhoods, contributing to urban sprawl. In Australia, bungalows have broad verandas and as a result are often excessively dark inside, on a per unit area basis, bungalows are more expensive to construct than two-story houses, because a larger foundation and roof area is required for the same living area. The larger foundation will often translate into larger lot size requirements, although the footprint of a bungalow is often a simple rectangle, any foundation is theoretically possible. For bungalows with brick walls, the windows are positioned high. This architectural technique avoids the need for special arches or lintels to support the wall above the windows.
The developer Richard Stanton built in Federation Bungalow style first in Haberfield, New South Wales, the first Garden Suburb, beecroft and Lindfield contain many examples of Federation Bungalows built between 1895 and 1920. From about 1910 until 1930, the California Bungalow style was popular in Australia. The style seems to have first been imported in Sydney and throughout the Australian states. In South Australia, the suburb of Colonel Light Gardens contains many well-preserved bungalow developments, in the rural areas of Bangladesh, it is often called “Bangla Ghor”. The Bungalow style houses are very popular in the rural Bengal
Civilian Conservation Corps
The Civilian Conservation Corps was a public work relief program that operated from 1933 to 1942 in the United States for unemployed, unmarried men from relief families as part of the New Deal. Originally for young men ages 18–25, it was expanded to young men ages 17–28. Robert Fechner was the head of the agency, the CCC was designed to provide jobs for young men, and to relieve families who had difficulty finding jobs during the Great Depression in the United States. At the same time, it implemented a general natural resource conservation program in every state, maximum enrollment at any one time was 300,000. Over the course of its nine years in operation,3 million young men participated in the CCC, which provided them shelter, clothing. The American public made the CCC the most popular of all the New Deal programs, principal benefits of an individuals enrollment in the CCC included improved physical condition, heightened morale, and increased employability. The CCC operated separate programs for veterans and Native Americans, approximately 15,000 Native Americans participated in the program, helping them weather the Great Depression.
Despite its popular support, the CCC was never a permanent agency and it depended on emergency and temporary Congressional legislation and funding to operate. By 1942, with World War II and the draft in operation, the need for work relief declined, as governor of New York, Roosevelt had run a similar program on a much smaller scale. He promised this law would provide 250,000 young men with meals, uniforms, the Emergency Conservation Work Act was introduced to Congress the same day and enacted by voice vote on March 31. Roosevelt issued Executive Order 6101 on April 5,1933 which established the CCC organization and appointed a director, Robert Fechner, the organization and administration of the CCC was a new experiment in operations for a federal government agency. A CCC Advisory Council was composed of a representative each of the supervising departments. In addition, the Office of Education and Veterans Administration participated in the program, to end the opposition from labor unions Roosevelt chose Robert Fechner, vice president of the American Machinists Union, as director of the corps.
William Green, head of the American Federation of Labor, was taken to the first camp to demonstrate that there would be no job training involved beyond simple manual labor. Reserve officers from the U. S. Army were in charge of the camps, General Douglas MacArthur was placed in charge of the program but said that the number of Army officers and soldiers assigned to the camps was affecting the readiness of the Regular Army. But the Army found benefits in the program. When the draft began in 1940, the policy was to make CCC alumni corporals, CCC provided command experience to Organized Reserve Corps officers. Through the CCC, the Regular Army could assess the performance of both Regular and Reserve Officers