Pausanias was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second-century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. He is famous for his Description of Greece, a lengthy work that describes ancient Greece from his first-hand observations; this work provides crucial information for making links between classical literature and modern archaeology. Andrew Stewart assesses him as: A careful, pedestrian writer...interested not only in the grandiose or the exquisite but in unusual sights and obscure ritual. He is careless or makes unwarranted inferences, his guides or his own notes sometimes mislead him, yet his honesty is unquestionable, his value without par. Pausanias was born in 110 AD into a Greek family and was a native of Lydia. Before visiting Greece, he had been to Antioch and Jerusalem, to the banks of the River Jordan. In Egypt, he had seen the pyramids. While at the temple of Ammon, he had been shown the hymn once sent to that shrine by Pindar. In Macedonia, he appears to have seen.
Crossing over to Italy, he had seen something of the wonders of Rome. He was one of the first known to write of seeing the ruins of Troy, Alexandria Troas, Mycenae. Pausanias' Description of Greece is in each dedicated to some portion of Greece, he begins his tour in Attica, where the city of its demes dominate the discussion. Subsequent books describe Corinthia, Messenia, Achaea, Boetia and Ozolian Locris; the project is more than topographical. Pausanias digresses from the description of architectural and artistic objects to review the mythological and historical underpinnings of the society that produced them; as a Greek writing under the auspices of the Roman empire, he was in an awkward cultural space, between the glories of the Greek past he was so keen to describe and the realities of a Greece beholden to Rome as a dominating imperial force. His work bears the marks of his attempt to navigate that space and establish an identity for Roman Greece, he is not a naturalist by any means, although from time to time, he does comment on the physical realities of the Greek landscape.
He notices the pine trees on the sandy coast of Elis, the deer and the wild boars in the oak woods of Phelloe, the crows amid the giant oak trees of Alalcomenae. It is in the last section that Pausanias touches on the products of nature, such as the wild strawberries of Helicon, the date palms of Aulis, the olive oil of Tithorea, as well as the tortoises of Arcadia and the "white blackbirds" of Cyllene. Pausanias is most of Delphi, yet in the most secluded regions of Greece, he is fascinated by all kinds of depictions of deities, holy relics, many other sacred and mysterious objects. At Thebes he views the shields of those who died at the Battle of Leuctra, the ruins of the house of Pindar, the statues of Hesiod, Arion and Orpheus in the grove of the Muses on Helicon, as well as the portraits of Corinna at Tanagra and of Polybius in the cities of Arcadia. Pausanias has the instincts of an antiquary; as his modern editor, Christian Habicht, has said, In general, he prefers the old to the new, the sacred to the profane.
Some magnificent and dominating structures, such as the Stoa of King Attalus in the Athenian Agora or the Exedra of Herodes Atticus at Olympia are not mentioned. Unlike a Baedeker guide, in Periegesis Pausanias stops for a brief excursus on a point of ancient ritual or to tell an apposite myth, in a genre that would not become popular again until the early nineteenth century. In the topographical part of his work, Pausanias is fond of digressions on the wonders of nature, the signs that herald the approach of an earthquake, the phenomena of the tides, the ice-bound seas of the north, the noonday sun that at the summer solstice, casts no shadow at Syene. While he never doubts the existence of the deities and heroes, he sometimes criticizes the myths and legends relating to them, his descriptions of monuments of art are unadorned. They bear the impression of reality, their accuracy is confirmed by the extant remains, he is frank in his confessions of ignorance. When he quotes a book at second hand he takes pains to say so.
The work left faint traces in the known Greek corpus. "It was not read", Habicht relates. The only manuscripts of Pausanias are three fifteenth-century copies, full of errors and lacunae, which all appear to depend on a single manuscript that survived to be copied. Niccolò Niccoli had this archetype in Florence in 1418. At his death in 1437, it went to the library of San Marco, Florence it disappeared after 1500; until twentieth-century archaeologists concluded that Pausanias was a reliable guide to the sites they were excavating, Pausanias was la
Karaburun is a district and the center town of the same district in Turkey's İzmir Province. The district area corresponds to the peninsula of the same name which spears north of the tourism resorts of neighboring Çeşme and its dependencies and west of the city of İzmir. In fact, the district area is one of the westernmost points of Anatolia. Karaburun town is situated close to the northern tip of the peninsula and checks the entry of the Gulf of İzmir with the town of Foça, another important tourism resort, across the waters; the district's administrative zone is bordered by the districts of Çeşme and Urla in its south and faces the Greek island of Chios to its west. Karaburun region is comparatively much less visited than Çeşme located in its south, its rate of urbanization at 20 per cent is the lowest across İzmir Province, although it provides an anticlimax to its southern neighbor and the associated attractions for those who want to escape the trails of mass tourism; the coasts of the peninsula have beautiful bays and pebble or sand beaches as yet undiscovered by outsiders, although there is one German vacation village to the north of the district center.
Taken as a whole, in contrast with Çeşme, agriculture and livestock breeding, instead of tourism, remain the principal activities on which the district's economy is based. Karaburun's flora and fauna present particularities distinguishing it from the Anatolian mainland. Karaburun's name echoes in Turkey a high variety of flower breeds present across its area, narcissus and hyacinth; the distance between Karaburun and İzmir center by way of land is 100 km and there are regular bus services and a three-lane modern highway until the toll near Çeşme. The rest of the road is narrow and curvy in some places and it may take up to two hours to reach Karaburun from İzmir; the country road is traced northwards along the eastern coast of the peninsula to reach Mordoğan first, which is, aside from Karaburun, the district's only other depending township with own municipality. After Karaburun, the same road continues towards the tip of the peninsula from where it heads west to reach the village of Küçükbahçe.
The oldest name known for the region was Mimas, in reference to the son of Gaia, one of the Giants slain by Hephaistos during the war between Gods and Giants in Greek mythology. Homer mentions the "windy Mimas" mountain in his Odyssey; the Mimas mountain is associated with Iris and Narcissus. In Ionian through to Byzantine times, the region carried the names Stelar or Stylarius, Caleberno by the Genoese and Ahırlı during the Ottoman era. There are different possibilities for the name Karaburun. One, mentioned in the municipality web site is that it would be a modified form of Caleberno. Another possibility may have to do with the translation of the Turkish name, which means "black cape", a fitting description for sailors who approach Karaburun Peninsula from open sea; the region is rich in history although its only sizeable urban center from ancient Greek, Byzantine through to Ottoman times was in Erythrai. Today the village of Ildırı stands in the ancient town's location and the village depends Çeşme.
Traces of smaller settlements can be traced back to the Bronze Age. Karaburun is the most constituted district of İzmir, although the town of Karaburun was made into a municipality in 1902. Agriculture and livestock breeding remain the principal activities on which Karaburun's economy is based; the average yearly income level per inhabitant for the district was calculated at 3,673 US Dollars in 2007. Karaburun's trade relations with the outside world abroad remain modest, with total exports recorded as 26,319 US Dollars realized in 2007 flowers, with some exports of olive and olive oil and artichokes. Underground reserves include marble quarries, deposits of basalt, slate for constructions and clay for ceramics. Mercury was mined in the past; the district's total number of companies stood at 525 the same year. There was only one bank operating through one branch in Karaburun in 2007; the total number of residences in Karaburun district was counted as 8,912, an important part constituted by secondary residences owned by seasonal inhabitants.
The total accommodation capacity of the district is 982 beds, in which the depending municipality of Mordoğan has a sizable share. The level of literacy in Karaburun nears hundred per cent, the district is advantaged by the rather comfortable number of students, 12 in 2007, per teacher. There was one doctor for 1,447 patients in Karaburun in 2007. Nearer to Karaburun is the abandoned village of Sazak whose inhabitants were subject to the 1923 Population exchange between Greece and Turkey in the frame of the Treaty of Lausanne. Sazak today is a ghost town visited by tourists from Karaburun; the whole district is quiet during winter when the population of Karaburun center falls back to the usual 2500, with the owners of summer houses gone. Its spectacular gorges and heights makes the peninsula a favorite destination among trekkers in all seasons. There is talk since years on starting ferry services from İzmir to these two centers of the peninsula, which would be quite practical by allowing visitors to avoid the difficult end-portion of the land route, but the project meets the opposition of the dolmuş lobby.
Karaburun Peninsula September 2006 Karaburun, Turkey migrant boat disaster
This article is about Teucer, son of King Telamon of Salamis in Greek mythology. For Teucer, son of Scamander and Idaea in Greek mythology, see King Teucer. In Greek mythology, Teucer Teucrus, Teucros or Teucris, was the son of King Telamon of Salamis Island and his second wife Hesione, daughter of King Laomedon of Troy, he fought alongside his half-brother, Ajax, in the Trojan War and is the legendary founder of the city of Salamis on Cyprus. Through his mother, Teucer was the nephew of King Priam of Troy and the cousin of Hector and Paris—all of whom he fought against in the Trojan War. During the Trojan War, Teucer was a great archer, who loosed his shafts from behind the giant shield of his half-brother Ajax the Great; when Hector was driving the Achaeans back toward their ships, Teucer gave the Argives some success by killing many of the charging Trojans, including Hector's charioteer, Archeptolemus son of Iphitos. However, every time he shot an arrow at Hector, the protector of the Trojans, would foil the shot.
At one point in his rage at Teucer's success, Hector flung it at him. The rock injured Teucer, he took up a spear to fight in the war. He once again challenged Hector, narrowly avoided the path of Hector's flying javelin in the ensuing battle, he was one of the Danaans to enter the Trojan Horse. In total, Teucer slew thirty Trojans during the war, he wounded Glaucus, son of Hippolochus. After Ajax's suicide, Teucer guarded the body to make sure it was buried, insulting Menelaus and Agamemnon when they tried to stop the burial. Odysseus persuaded Agamemnon to let the burial happen; because of his half-brother's suicide, Teucer stood trial before his father, where he was found guilty of negligence for not bringing his dead half-brother's body or his arms back with him. He was disowned by his father, wasn't allowed back on Salamis Island, set out to find a new home, his departing words were introduced in the seventh ode of the first book of the Roman poet Horace's Odes, in which he exhorts his companions "nil desperandum", "do not despair", announces "cras ingens iterabimus aequor", "tomorrow we shall set out upon the vast ocean".
This speech has been given a wider applicability in relation to the theme of voyages of discovery found in the Ulysses of Tennyson. Teucer joined King Belus II in his campaign against Cyprus, when the island was seized, Belus handed it over to him in reward for his assistance. Teucer founded the city of Salamis on Cyprus, he further married Eune, daughter of Cinyras, king of Cyprus, had by her a daughter Asteria. The name Teucer is believed to be related to the name of the West Hittite God Tarku —the Indo-European Storm God—a role which explains his relationship to Belus, the Semitic storm god Baal. Local legends of the city of Pontevedra relate the foundation of this city to Teucer, although this seems to be based more on the suspicions that Greek traders might have arrived to that area in ancient times - hence introducing a number of Greek stories; the city is sometimes poetically called "The City of Teucer" and its inhabitants teucrinos. A number of sporting clubs in the municipality use names related to Teucer
In Greek mythology, Antilochus was a prince of Pylos and one of the Achaeans in the Trojan War. Antilochus was the son of King Nestor either by Eurydice, he was the brother to Thrasymedes, Polycaste, Stratichus, Aretus and Pisistratus. One of the suitors of Helen of Troy, Antilochus accompanied his father and his brother Thrasymedes to the Trojan War, he was distinguished for his beauty, swiftness of foot, skill as a charioteer. Though the youngest among the Greek princes, he commanded the Pylians in the war and performed many deeds of valour, he was a favorite of the gods and a friend of Achilles, to whom he was commissioned to announce the death of Patroclus. When his father Nestor was attacked by Memnon, Antilochus sacrificed himself to save him, thus fulfilling an oracle which had warned to "beware of an Ethiopian." Antilochus' death was avenged by Achilles, who drove the Trojans back to the gates, where he is killed by Paris. In accounts, he was slain by Hector or by Paris in the temple of the Thymbraean Apollo together with Achilles His ashes, along with those of Achilles and Patroclus, were enshrined in a mound on the promontory of Sigeion, where the inhabitants of Ilium offered sacrifice to the dead heroes.
In the Odyssey, the three friends are represented as united in the underworld and walking together in the Asphodel Meadows. According to Pausanias, they dwell together on the island of Leuke. Among the Trojans he killed were Melanippus, Atymnius and Thoon, although Hyginus records that he only killed two Trojans. At the funeral games of Patroclus, Antilochus finished second in the chariot race and third in the foot race. Antilochus left behind in Messenia a son Paeon, whose descendants were among the Neleidae expelled from Messenia, by the descendants of Heracles. Dares Phrygius, from The Trojan War; the Chronicles of Dictys of Crete and Dares the Phrygian translated by Richard McIlwaine Frazer, Jr.. Indiana University Press. 1966. Online version at theio.com Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae from The Myths of Hyginus translated and edited by Mary Grant. University of Kansas Publications in Humanistic Studies. Online version at the Topos Text Project. Homer, The Odyssey with an English Translation by A.
T. Murray, PH. D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Homer, The Iliad with an English Translation by A. T. Murray, Ph. D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Homer, Homeri Opera in five volumes. Oxford, Oxford University Press. 1920. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Pausanias, Description of Greece. W. H. S. Jones. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. Vol. 1. Books I–II: ISBN 0-674-99104-4. Pindar, Odes translated by Diane Arnson Svarlien. 1990. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Pindar, The Odes of Pindar including the Principal Fragments with an Introduction and an English Translation by Sir John Sandys, Litt. D. FBA. Cambridge, MA. Harvard University Press. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library. Pseudo-Apollodorus, The Library with an English Translation by Sir James George Frazer, F.
B. A. F. R. S. in 2 Volumes, Cambridge, MA, Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Greek text available from the same website. Strabo, The Geography of Strabo. Edition by H. L. Jones. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Online version at the Perseus Digital Library. Strabo, Geographica edited by A. Meineke. Leipzig: Teubner. 1877. Greek text available at the Perseus Digital Library; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Antilochus". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 126–127
Seven Against Thebes
Seven Against Thebes is the third play in an Oedipus-themed trilogy produced by Aeschylus in 467 BC. The trilogy is sometimes referred to as the Oedipodea, it concerns the battle between an Argive army led by Polynices and the army of Thebes led by Eteocles and his supporters. The trilogy won the first prize at the City Dionysia; the trilogy's first two plays and Oedipus, as well as the satyr play Sphinx, are no longer extant. When Oedipus, King of Thebes, realized he had married his own mother and had two sons and two daughters with her, he blinded himself and cursed his sons to divide their inheritance by the sword; the two sons and Polynices, in order to avoid bloodshed, agreed to rule Thebes in alternate years. After the first year, Eteocles refused to step down, leading Polynices to raise an army of Argives to take Thebes by force; this is. Seven Against Thebes features little action. Dialogues show aspects of Eteocles' character. There is a lengthy description of each of the seven captains that lead the Argive army against the seven gates of the city of Thebes as well as the devices on their respective shields.
Eteocles, in turn, announces. The commander of the troops before the seventh gate is revealed to be Polynices, the brother of the king. Eteocles remembers and refers to the curse of their father Oedipus. Eteocles resolves to fight his brother in person before the seventh gate and exits. Following a choral ode, a messenger enters, announcing that the attackers have been repelled but that Eteocles and Polynices have killed each other in battle, their bodies are brought on stage, the chorus mourns them. Due to the popularity of Sophocles' play Antigone, the ending of Seven against Thebes was rewritten about fifty years after Aeschylus' death. While Aeschylus wrote his play to end with somber mourning for the dead brothers, it now contains an ending that serves as a lead-in of sorts to Sophocles' play: a messenger appears, announcing a prohibition against burying Polynices; the seven attackers and defenders in the play are: The mytheme of the "outlandish" and "savage" Seven who threatened the city has traditionally seemed to be based on Bronze Age history in the generation before the Trojan War, when in the Iliad's Catalogue of Ships only the remnant Hypothebai subsists on the ruins of Thebes.
Yet archaeologists have been hard put to locate seven gates in "seven-gated Thebes": In 1891 Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff declared that the seven gates existed only for symmetry with the seven assailants, whose names vary: some have their own identity, like Amphiaraus the seer, "who had his sanctuary and his cult afterwards... Others appear as stock figures to fill out the list," Burkert remarks. "To call one of them Eteoklos, vis-à-vis Eteokles the brother of Polyneikes, appears to be the desperate invention of a faltering poet" Burkert follows a suggestion made by Ernest Howald in 1939 that the Seven are pure myth led by Adrastos on his magic horse, seven demons of the Underworld. The city is saved when the brothers run each other through. Burkert adduces a ninth-century relief from Tell Halaf which would illustrate a text from II Samuel 2: "But each seized his opponent by the forelock and thrust his sword into his side so that all fell together"; the mythic theme passed into Etruscan culture: a fifth-century bronze mirrorback is inscribed with Fulnice and Evtucle running at one another with drawn swords.
A gruesome detail from the battle, in which Tydeus gnawed on the living brain of Melanippos in the course of the siege appears, in a sculpted terracotta relief from a temple at Pyrgi, ca. 470–460 BC. The Seven Against Thebes were Adrastus Amphiaraus Capaneus Hippomedon Parthenopeus Polynices TydeusAllies: Eteoclus and Mecisteus; some sources, state that Eteoclus and Mecisteus were in fact two of the seven, that Tydeus and Polynices were allies. This is because both Polynices were foreigners. However, Polynices was the cause of the entire conflict, Tydeus performed acts of valour far surpassing Eteoclus and Mecisteus. Either way, all nine men were present in the battle; the defenders of Thebes included Melanippus Polyphontes Megareus Hyperbius Actor Lasthenes EteoclesSee Epigoni, the mythic theme of the Second War of Thebes Of the other two plays that made up the trilogy that included Seven Against Thebes and Oedipus, of its satyr play The Sphinx, few fragments have survived. The only fragment definitively assigned to Oedipus is a line translated by Herbert Weir Smyth as "We were coming on our journey to the place from which three highways part in the branching roads, where we crossed the junction of the triple roads at Potniae."
The only two fragments definitively assigned to The Sphinx were translated by Smyth as "For the stranger a garland, an ancient crown, the best of bonds, as Prometheus said," and "The Sphinx, the Watch-dog that presideth over evil days." Translators David Grene and Richmond Lattimore wrote that "the rise of German Romanticism, the consequent resurgence of enthusiasm for Aesc
Demophon of Athens
In Greek mythology, Demophon was a king of Athens. According to Pindar, Demophon was brother of Acamas; some say that Demophon's mother was daughter of Iphicles. Demophon was among those who entered the city in the Trojan Horse; the brothers freed their grandmother Aethra, captured by the Dioscuri and served Helen as a handmaid for a while, brought her home. Demophon married Phyllis, daughter of a Thracian king, while he stopped in Thrace on his journey home from the Trojan war. On the next day after the wedding, however, he had to leave, promising to return and take Phyllis with him as soon as possible, she told not to open it unless he should lose every hope to return to Thrace. Demophon settled in Cyprus and forgot about Phyllis, she would come to the sea shore every day, expecting to see the sails of his ship, but in vain. After the appointed date was past, she hanged herself. One day Demophon opened the casket out of curiosity. Others, say that he did return, but Phyllis was dead by the time.
Not all sources, accepted the tradition of Demophon's death in Cyprus. In Euripides' play Heracleidae, Demophon was the king of Athens, having succeeded to his father's power, he granted the children of Heracles, refuge in Athens. As Eurystheus prepared to attack, an oracle told Demophon that he would win if and only if a noble virgin was sacrificed to Persephone. Macaria volunteered for a spring was named the Macarian spring in her honor; when Diomedes, having landed on the coast of Attica after a storm and failing to recognize the land, started to ravage it, Demophon marched out against the invaders, was successful enough to take the Palladium from Diomedes. However, he accidentally killed a fellow Athenian in the battle, was tried in court for that. Demophon had a son Oxyntes. Lucian relates the story concerning Phyllis not of Demophon, but of his brother Acamas because the character of his work was supposed to be ignorant and to have confounded the two brothers. Tzetzes repeats the mistake.
Acamas is better known for having been loved by Laodice, daughter of Priam
Gelon aka Gelo, son of Deinomenes, was a 5th-century BC ruler of Gela and Syracuse and first of the Deinomenid rulers. Gelo was the son of Deinomenes, his ancestors according to Herodotus came from the island of Telos in the Aegean Sea and were the founders of the city of Gela in southern Sicily. One of his relatives, was said to have reconciled his people after a period of civil strife through the divine rites of the Earth Goddesses, all his descendents continued a tradition of priesthood in the cult of these goddesses, which included Demeter. Gelo was in all likelihood a priest of this cult, his three brothers were Hieron and Polyzelos. Deinomenes consulted an oracle about the fates of his children, was told that Gelo and Thrasybulus were all destined to become tyrants. Gelo fought in a number of the conflicts between the various tyrant kings of Sicily and earned a reputation as a formidable soldier, his performance was so impressive that he was promoted to be commander of the cavalry for Hippocrates, tyrant of Gela.
From this position he played a key role in a number of battles, including one against Syracuse, a city which he himself would conquer. But it was not until Hippocrates was killed in a battle with the native Sicel tribe of Sicily at Hybla that Gelo's rise to power began. Upon Hippocrates’ death his sons retained the throne, but the common people were tired of this family's rule and revolted. Gelo quelled the revolt on the pretext of helping Hippocrates’ sons gain power. Instead, he took power for himself with the help of the army in 491 BC; the territory now under his control as tyrant included that of Gela, Naxos in the east, Zancle in the northeast, Camarina in the south. Gelo ruled over his other territories in eastern Sicily peacefully for the next five years. In 485 BC, the aristocracy of Syracuse called the Gamori, forced out of the city by the common people, came to Gelo seeking his aid. Seeing an opportunity for expansion, Gelo used his now large military force to capture the city of Syracuse with little or no resistance, reinstating the exiled Gamori.
Gelo now left his brother Hiero to rule over Gela. According to Herodotus, he forced half the citizens of Gela to move to Syracuse, he removed all the aristocracy from Camarina. He continued this strategy as he conquered nearby Euboea and Megara Hyblaea, forcibly removing the aristocracy from each city and placing the rest of the population in slavery. According to Herodotus, because he was raised as a noble and was in the presence of nobility, Gelo did not care for the lower class, “found the common people unpleasant to share a house with”. Under Gelo's rule, Syracuse soon became prosperous. Along with grand building program in Syracuse, Gelo sought to create a powerful mercenary army. Most of the recruits for his army came from the native Sicel tribes. However, some were recruited from the Greek mainland, men who had most fought with Gelo at some point in the past, their total number was said to be around 10,000. All of these men were granted citizenship of Syracuse. Gelo found a powerful ally in Theron, tyrant of Acragas, a city west of Gela, after he married Theron's daughter, Demareta.
In 481 BC representatives of Athens came to him asking for his aid in the upcoming war against Xerxes I and his Persian army. Gelo replied that he could supply 28,000 men as well as 200 ships if he was appointed commander of either the Greek navy or army, he was denied both positions and, refused to supply the Greeks with any supplies or men. In fact, he went so far as to prepare gifts for Xerxes in case the Persian king won his war against the Greek alliance. Struck circa 480-478 BC. Charioteer, holding kentron in right hand, reins in driving slow quadriga left. Boehringer Series VIa, 76. Near EF, attractive cabinet tone. Fine late archaic style. Rare with obverse type left, his unwillingness to support the Greeks could have been related to the threat posed by the Carthaginians on the west coast of Sicily. Theron of Acragas had jeopardized the independence of all of Sicily from the powerful Carthaginians when he defeated the tyrant Terillus at Himera. Seeking a powerful ally to assist in recapturing Himera, Terillus went to Carthage for assistance.
The Carthaginians were happy to respond to his plea. The Carthaginians were keen to increase their influence and territory in Sicily and the opportunity came at a perfect time because of the coming Persian invasion of Greece; some scholars argue that Xerxes and the Carthaginians were in contact with each other and coordinated a simultaneous attack on both the western and eastern fronts of Greece and its colonies, in the hopes that it would prevent either front from aiding the other. In any case, in 480 BC a Carthaginian force of 300,000 men landed at Panormus on the north coast of Sicily and advanced east towards Himera, led by their general Hamilcar. Gelo, upon hearing the danger his ally Theron was in, led an army of 50,000 men and 5,000 cavalry to Himera. A contingent of Gelo's men gained access to the Carthaginian camp by posing as allies from the nearby city of Selinus. Once inside they signalled to the rest of Gelo's troops, who were stationed in the mountains overlooking the camp, by setting fire to Hamilcar's ships.
The ensuing battle was a decisive victory for Gelo and Theron, with Carthaginian casualties estimated at 150,000, including Hamilcar. The riches collected from the