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Menopause known as the climacteric, is the time in most women's lives when menstrual periods stop permanently, they are no longer able to bear children. Menopause occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Medical professionals define menopause as having occurred when a woman has not had any menstrual bleeding for a year, it may be defined by a decrease in hormone production by the ovaries. In those who have had surgery to remove their uterus but still have ovaries, menopause may be considered to have occurred at the time of the surgery or when their hormone levels fell. Following the removal of the uterus, symptoms occur earlier, at an average of 45 years of age. In the years before menopause, a woman's periods become irregular, which means that periods may be longer or shorter in duration or be lighter or heavier in the amount of flow. During this time, women experience hot flashes. Hot flashes stop occurring after a year or two. Other symptoms may include vaginal dryness, trouble sleeping, mood changes.

The severity of symptoms varies between women. While menopause is thought to be linked to an increase in heart disease, this occurs due to increasing age and does not have a direct relationship with menopause. In some women, problems that were present like endometriosis or painful periods will improve after menopause. Menopause is a natural change, it can occur earlier in those. Other causes include surgery that removes some types of chemotherapy. At the physiological level, menopause happens because of a decrease in the ovaries' production of the hormones estrogen and progesterone. While not needed, a diagnosis of menopause can be confirmed by measuring hormone levels in the blood or urine. Menopause is the opposite of the time when a girl's periods start. Specific treatment is not needed; some symptoms, may be improved with treatment. With respect to hot flashes, avoiding smoking and alcohol is recommended. Sleeping in a cool room and using a fan may help; the following medications may help: menopausal hormone therapy, gabapentin, or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

Exercise may help with sleeping problems. While MHT was once prescribed, it is now only recommended in those with significant symptoms, as there are concerns about side effects. High-quality evidence for the effectiveness of alternative medicine has not been found. There is tentative evidence for phytoestrogens. During early menopause transition, the menstrual cycles remain regular but the interval between cycles begins to lengthen. Hormone levels begin to fluctuate. Ovulation may not occur with each cycle; the term menopause refers to a point in time. During the menopausal transition and after menopause, women can experience a wide range of symptoms. During the transition to menopause, menstrual patterns can show shorter cycling. There may be irregular bleeding. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding is experienced by women approaching menopause due to the hormonal changes that accompany the menopause transition. Spotting or bleeding may be related to vaginal atrophy, a benign sore, or may be a functional endometrial response.

The European Menopause and Andropause Society has released guidelines for assessment of the endometrium, the main source of spotting or bleeding. In post-menopausal women, any genital bleeding is an alarming symptom that requires an appropriate study to rule out the possibility of malignant diseases. Symptoms that may appear during menopause and continue through postmenopause include: painful intercourse vaginal dryness atrophic vaginitis – thinning of the membranes of the vulva, the vagina, the cervix, the outer urinary tract, along with considerable shrinking and loss in elasticity of all of the outer and inner genital areas. Other physical symptoms of menopause include lack of energy, joint soreness, back pain, breast enlargement, breast pain,heart palpitations, dizziness, itchy skin, tingling skin, weight gain, urinary incontinence,urinary urgency, interrupted sleeping patterns, heavy night sweats, hot flashes. Psychological symptoms include anxiety, poor memory, inability to concentrate, depressive mood, mood swings, less interest in sexual activity.

Menopause-related cognitive impairment can be confused with the mild cognitive impairment that precedes dementia. Forgetfulness affects about half of menopausal women, is caused by the effects of declining estrogen levels on the brain, or by reduced blood flow to the brain during hot flashes. Menopause confers: A possible but contentious increased risk of atherosclerosis; the risk of acute myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases rises after menopause, but the risk can be reduced by managing risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, increased blood lipids and body weight. Increased risk of osteopenia and accelerated lung function decline. Women who experience menopause before 45 years of age have an increased risk of heart disease and impaired lung function. Menopause can occur naturally. Induced menopause occurs as a result of medical treatment such as chemotherapy, oophorectomy, or complications of tubal ligation, unilateral or bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy or leuprorelin usage.

Menopause occurs between 49 and 52 years of age. Half of women have their last peri

American Airlines Flight 910

American Airlines Flight 910, a four-engine Douglas DC-6 propliner, collided in mid-air with a single engine Temco Swift on final approach to Dallas Love Field on June 28, 1952, over Dallas, Texas. The DC-6 was carrying 5 crew members from San Francisco, California; the DC-6 landed with no injuries to any of its 60 occupants, while both occupants of the two-person Swift died when their aircraft impacted the ground. The two-seat, single-engine Temco Swift aircraft was a Model GC 1B, serial number 3558, manufactured on May 24, 1948, it was occupied by pilot Paul Brower, who owned the aircraft, passenger Don Walker, both of Denton, Texas. Brower, 19 years old, had logged a total of 250 flight hours, but had been granted his private pilot license only 3 days earlier. Both Brower and Walker were employees of Central Airlines at Love Field, Brower had been commuting to work in his airplane daily for the past few months. American Airlines Flight 910, a four-engine DC-6 propliner, departed San Francisco for Dallas at 23:05 on June 27, made three scheduled stops on its way to Dallas–Love Field.

On board was a flight crew of three, Captain G. H. Woolweaver, First Officer James R. Poe, Flight Engineer John Barrett, a cabin crew of two flight attendants, Arlene Siebert and Anita Schmidt. 55 passengers were on board for the final segment of the flight from El Paso to Dallas. At 06:56 of the following morning, the Swift aircraft departed Denton, Texas on a VFR flight for Dallas–Love Field, as it neared its destination the pilot contacted Love tower for landing instructions, requesting a "straight-in" approach. Flight 910 had canceled its IFR clearance earlier, flying VFR during its final flight segment, received landing clearance for Runway 13; the First Officer, seated on the right, was flying the aircraft, was guiding it down the ILS glidepath and localizer, while maintaining visual contact with the ground. The crew could hear the tower give instructions to a light aircraft nearby. At an altitude of 400 feet above ground level, First Officer Poe spotted the Swift under the fuselage of the DC-6 but was unable to take evasive action, the two aircraft collided.

The airliner's flight crew landed without incident. Capt. Woolweaver never saw the other airplane and was unsure what had happened until the airliner had landed and he was able to talk to people who had witnessed the collision. Witnesses aboard the DC-6 saw the Swift fly into the No. 4 propeller, the outermost propeller on the right wing. The collision severed most of the left wing of the Swift, threw the small plane over the fuselage of the DC-6, thus damaging the airliner's antenna, sent the craft spiraling into a northwest Dallas street. A nearby resident, Leo Zeock, heard the crash from inside his home and ran to render aid, but he found Brower and Walker dead; the wreck subsequently had to be extinguished by Dallas firefighters. The accident was investigated by the Civil Aeronautics Board, which issued its final report on March 3, 1953; the CAB attributed the crash to the failure of the Swift's pilot to exercise proper caution during his landing approach. The Swift's pilot radioed the Love tower to request a straight-in approach, but he did so much closer to the airport than recommended by flight regulations, he did not state his position, heading, or speed, he failed to establish two-way communication to obtain a landing clearance.

If a pilot could not establish clear contact with the tower, visual flight rules stated that he should only continue the approach with extreme caution under the assumption that conflicting air traffic was in the area. Instead, he continued the straight-in approach. Due to the lack of communication with the Swift, controllers were unaware of the proximity of the two aircraft until the Swift was spotted from the tower, leaving inadequate time to warn the airliner's crew of the situation; the Swift's initial position was below, to the right of the DC-6, so the Swift's pilot should have been able to see the large DC-6 overhead and to his left. From the viewpoint of the DC-6 flight crew, the Swift may have been in a blind spot created by the DC-6 nose structure. A contributing factor was "errors in judgment" on the part of a Love Field controller who instructed the Swift's pilot to turn into the path of the DC-6 upon spotting the second aircraft; the controller, relying on his vision to sequence aircraft for landing misidentified the Swift as a larger Beechcraft Bonanza.

This caused an error in depth perception, as he concluded that there was a larger aircraft behind the DC-6 rather than a smaller aircraft on a collision course. He realized his error and retracted his instruction, telling the Swift's pilot to turn away, but the small plane did not initiate a turn until seconds before the collision. Investigators discovered corroded wiring between the Swift's radio and antenna, which could explain the poor communication with the pilot. However, the radio was operating properly the day before the crash. Notes Citations

Heinrich Baermann

Heinrich Joseph Baermann was a German clarinet virtuoso of the Romantic era, considered as being not only an outstanding performer of his time, but influential in the creation of several important composers' works for his instrument. Baermann was born in Potsdam. In his youth, Baermann took lessons from Joseph Beer at the military school in Potsdam. After his prowess came to the attention of the Berlin court in 1804, Prince Louis Ferdinand of Prussia had the 20-year-old musician pursue his training in Berlin under the guidance of Franz Tausch, he played in the court orchestra of Munich from 1807 until his retirement in 1834, when his son Carl Baermann succeeded him. Parallel to Baermann's rise, the clarinet was undergoing a series of developments in key construction and embouchure that allowed greater agility and flexibility in playing; the growing custom was to play with the reed on the bottom lip, as is done today, as opposed to the top lip as had been the previous prevailing style. Baermann was an exponent of this new style of playing, possessed a modern instrument made by Griesling & Schlott which allowed him to play chromatic passages with far greater ease than traditional 5-keyed instruments.

He is said to have had a great dynamic range. Numerous composers wrote for Baermann, who undoubtedly had a great influence on the Romantic clarinet repertoire thereby. Along with lesser-known composers such as Franz Danzi and Peter von Lindpaintner, Baermann received works from Felix Mendelssohn, Carl Maria von Weber and Giacomo Meyerbeer. Mendelssohn most notably wrote Opp. 113, 114 for Baermann and his son Carl to play together. As with many other virtuosi at the time, Baermann tried his hand successfully at composing for his instrument. Among other works, he wrote a Septet in E-flat major, Op. 23, for clarinet, string quartet, two ad libitum horns. The Adagio movement from this septet has received several recordings as a stand-alone piece, though it was for many years misattributed to Richard Wagner. Baermann died in Munich, aged 63. Concertstück in G minor, Concertino in C minor, Concertino in E-flat major, Dieter Klöcker, Orfeo International C 065 011 A, 2001 Adagio for clarinet and strings in D-flat, Academy of St Martin in the Fields, Neville Marriner – The Argo Years Notes Sources Pamela Weston.

"Heinrich Baermann." in Grove Music Online Rasmussen, Audrey. The Evolution of the Modern Clarinet: 1800–1850. Linfield College. Retrieved 29 June 2011. Free scores by Heinrich Baermann at the International Music Score Library Project Quartet, violin, violoncello, op. 18, B♭ major

Bernice Blackstock

Bernice Blackstock is a fictional character from the British ITV soap opera, played by Samantha Giles. She made her first on screen appearance on 25 November 1998. In September 2012, it was announced Giles had reprised her role and Bernice returned on 20 November 2012 after over eight years away from the programme. On 20 September 2019, Giles announced her departure from the series, with her final scenes aired on 28 November 2019. Bernice finds work as a barmaid at The Woolpack, she does not like Tricia Stokes, but after they discover their partners – Gavin and Jason Kirk – are having an affair, they become good friends. In April 1999, it is revealed that Bernice from down south, came to Leeds by closing her eyes and pointing at a map; the reason - she left her husband Anthony after finding him in bed with another man. Bernice calls off her engagement to Gavin, unfaithful with her friend, Stella Jones, she becomes the landlady of The Woolpack thanks to a bequest from the guilt-ridden Stella. Bernice begins a relationship with Ashley.

After getting Bishop George's blessing, they marry on Christmas Day. Bernice is given away by her mother, Diane though her father, Rodney, is in attendance. Bernice falls pregnant but miscarries and in her grief, she lashes out at Ashley and he takes a temporary job away from the village as he feels unable to help her. Bernice, feels abandoned and begins an affair with Carlos but this is complicated when Bernice discovers she is pregnant again but doesn't know who the father is. Bernice's half-sister, arrives in the village and begins dating Carlos, she is keener on him than he is on her but they announce that they are getting married and expecting a baby but on her hen night, Nicola admits that she is not pregnant but felt it was the only way to get Carlos to settle down with her. Bernice makes Nicola tell Carlos the truth and in revenge for Nicola's lies, Carlos tells her that he and Bernice are together and he could be the father of her baby. Nicola promptly tells the village about this, devastating Ashley, he asks her to move out.

Bernice, feeling guilty for hurting Ashley, tries to make amends but Ashley isn't interested and during another argument, they realise Bernice is in labour so he takes her to hospital where she has a daughter who she names Gabrielle. Bernice hopes Carlos is Gabby's father but a paternity test reveals she is Ashley's child, leading Ashley and Bernice to reconcile. However, Bernice's doubts about her marriage plus postnatal depression cause more problems between them and after Gabby's christening, Bernice tells Ashley that she does not love him any more. Finding living in Emmerdale after the split too difficult, Bernice takes a job on a cruise liner and leaves Gabby with Ashley. Bernice returns in 2004 to attend Tricia's funeral. Now living in Brighton, she tells her father that she wants Gabby to live with her but when she goes to discuss the idea with Ashley, she sees how close he and Gabby are and realises that it would be unfair to take Gabby away. Bernice returns to Brighton, leaving Diane unaware of her intentions.

Bernice gets engaged to her partner and gives birth to another daughter who she names Diane, after her mother. Bernice admits that her marriage to husband Charlie is over, her ex-husband Ashley asks Bernice what her intentions towards their daughter Gabby are and she states that she wants to spend more time with her. Ashley and his wife Laurel Thomas tell Bernice that they need to set some ground rules when Bernice asks Laurel to take a back seat, much to Ashley and Laurel's anger as Laurel has played a much bigger part in Gabby's upbringing than Bernice. Diane and Rodney learn that Bernice has been having an affair, they confront her and Bernice reveals that she is in love with a man named Steve and she is waiting for him to leave his wife. Bernice's half-sister Nicola takes matters into her own hands and informs Steve's wife about her husband's relationship with Bernice and she throws him out so he joins Bernice in the village; the only thing that Bernice is now unhappy about is that Charlie is proving awkward about allowing her access to their daughter so she goes to visit him, hoping to persuade him to be more reasonable.

Bernice becomes Acting landlady of The Woolpack working alongside Chas Dingle while Diane is away in Brighton. Diane returns weeks to inform everyone that she is moving to Australia and is selling her share of The Woolpack. Bernice has high hopes of buying Diane's share and becoming landlady again as does Chas. Diane reveals that she has decided to stay and takes The Woolpack off the market dashing Bernice's dreams of owning the pub again. In October 2013, along with many other villagers including Diane and Nicola, are held hostage in The Woolpack by Cameron Murray, he orders for Bernice to give him the pub's keys, if she threatens him in any way, he will shoot and kill Diane with a gun he has stolen. Bernice, Diane and the others are all released by Cameron, but he keeps Chas and Debbie Dingle hostage. In 2014, Bernice is stunned to hear that Diane has slept with Eric Pollard, the husband of Diane's sister, but sticks up for her mother. Bernice enters internet dating and meets a man named Anton Bluth.

She tells him that her name is "Beverley", they arrange to meet up at Nicola and her husband Jimmy's house. Bernice believes that she and Anton are going

Melissa Maughn

Melissa Taylor is a Canadian professional wrestler best known as her ring name 21st Century Fox. Maughn was trained by Sid Summers in Cambridge, Ontario. In October 2005, Maughn was defeated by Misty Haven in the finals of the Pure Wrestling Association's Women's Elite 8 Cup Tournament. Maughn won the PWA's Elite Women's Championship for the first time in 2005 from Cheerleader Melissa. In March 2006, Maughn dropped the title to Melissa, but she regained it in a triple threat match against Melissa and Misty Haven, she defended it against Haven on July 2006 at PWA's One Year Anniversary Show. Maughn retained her title in a match against Tiana Ringer before losing it to Aurora in July. Maughn, regained the title the same night, she traded the title with Misty Haven and defended it against challengers such as Miss Danyah and Portia Perez. In September 2006, she defeated Ivory in a wedding veil on a pole match with special guest referee Molly Holly. In April 2007, she defended her title against April Hunter.

In late 2005, she participated in CIWA North's first women's wrestling match. She won a tag team Elmira the Iron Maiden. Maughn had a tryout match with World Wrestling Entertainment in September 2006. A month in November, she participated in Great Canadian Wrestling's W. I. L. D. Tournament, but lost to Sirelda, the winner of the tournament. In the 2007 tournament, she was defeated in the first round by Portia Perez. Maughn has an older brother. In high school, she played on the girls' football team for three years. Old School Pro Wrestling OSPW Women's Championship IAW Wrestling IAW North American Women's Championship Pure Wrestling Association PWA Elite Women's Championship

Emil Pietzuch

Emil Pietzuch was a German Communist activist-militant. After 1933 non-Nazi political activity was banned: Pietzuch became a resistance activist. Although few precise details of his activism during the early Hitler period survive, it is believed that he was at the centre of a resistance network in Berlin comprising at least 40 men and women, he was forced to flee the country for the last time in 1937 and ended up in the Soviet Union where he fell foul of the institutionalised paranoia, a feature of Stalin's rule. He died in a Soviet labour camp at the end of 1943. During the years of one-party dictatorship in East Germany between 1949 and 1990 Pietzuch was celebrated as a war hero, it was believed by scholars that he had been parachuted back into Germany near Munich, captured and murdered by Nazi "SS" paramilitaries during 1944, towards the end of the war, it was only with the opening up of concealed government records that followed the political collapse of the East German and Soviet dictatorships in 1989/90 that Margarete Forszpaniak, a former resistance comrade, disclosed the truth about Pietzuch's death to the historian Hans-Rainer Sandvoß, having herself learned it two decades earlier from Heinz Wieland, the responsible East German Central Committee official.

Emil Pietzuch was born in Neurode, near Breslau 1945). He trained as a carpenter-joiner. During the final part of the First World War he was conscripted for war service. After the war ended he settled in Berlin. In August 1922 Pietzuch joined the launched Communist Party. In 1924 he took over party duties as head of the "Zersewtzungsapparet", targetting military and police personnel in the Berlin-Brandenburg region. Towards the end of 1925 he was arrested in connection with this activity, he faced trial at the Supreme Court of Justice which determined that he had been disseminating "anti-military propaganda among army and police personnel", which supported a charge of "preparing high treason". Found guilty in June 1926, he was sentenced to a thirty month jail term. After a conditional early release in the middle part of 1927 Pitzuch made his way to Mannheim where he became a party organiser for the Baden region, he returned to Berlin in 1928. He now worked with the Trades Union department of the Party Central Committee.

That year he traveled to Moscow where he took part on the Sixth World Congress of the Communist International and was elected to various committees and commissions. Back in Germany, in 1929 he was accepted into to the national leadership of the party's established Revolutionary Trades Union Opposition, intended as the basis for an alternative communist sponsored trades union movement. In April 1932, Pietzuch returned to Baden; that year and during much of 1933 he was back in Moscow, this time as an "aspirant student" at the secretive "M-School" surrounded by a large wooded area fenced about with barbed wire at Bakovka, some 20 miles to the west of central Moscow. Here he was identified by the code name "Artur". In January 1933, the Hitler government took power and lost little time in transforming Germany into a one-party state dictatorship. Sources are vague on the timelines of Pietzuch's actions over the next few years, but during or before the first part of 1934 he was back in Germany, with instructions from comrades to organise communist sabotage and terror activities.

According to court documents prepared for a trial in 1940 over the next few years Pietzuch recruited a significant number of actists who were involved in courier work, passing messages and distributing political publications, or entrusted with "special tasks". In 1936, with Gestapo surveillance becoming ubiquitous, Pietzuch left Germany and, like many resistance activists at this time, headed for Prague. Here he was detained on charges of espionage offences against the Czechoslovak state. Release soon followed, he made his way back to Moscow. At the beginning of 1937 Pietzuch returned to Berlin where he participated with fellow activists in the preparation of violent measures targeting the state. By 2 April 1937 he was living secretly with Karl and Eleonore Bartel in their apartment at Kurfürstenstraße 74 in the city centre; that morning he was at the Kitchen stove conducting experiments with explosives, with a view to the larger scale manufacture of bombs and detonators for use in sabotage actions.

Unexpectedly, his experiments triggered a large explosion. The entire kitchen area was destroyed along with half of the living room. Much of the detail surrounding the event comes from the prosecution documents prepared two years for the trial of the widow Eleonore Bartel dated 20 October 1939: the information must be presumed to have been obtained through interrogation of members and fringe associates of the "Apparat Pietzuch"; the explosion caused Pitzuch serious facial injuries. His right hand was badly damaged. While a local policeman came in to investigate, Pietzuch was able to hide successfully; the policeman went off to assemble some colleague for a more thorough search of the apartment: by the time they all arrived Pietzuch had left the building. The extent of Pietzuch's network of contacts now be