Ciutadella de Menorca
Ciutadella de Menorca or Ciutadella is a town and a municipality in the western end of Menorca, one of the Balearic Islands. It is one of the two primary cities in the island, along with Maó, it was founded by the Carthaginians, became the seat of a bishop in the 4th century. After being governed by the Moors under the names of Medīna el Jezīra and Medīna Menūrqa for several centuries, Ciutadella was recaptured during the reconquista by men serving Alfonso III and became part of the Crown of Aragon. During the Middle Ages, it became an important trading center. On 9 July 1558, the Turks under Piyale Pasha and Turgut Reis with a powerful Turkish Armada of 140 ships and 15,000 soldiers, put the town under siege for eight days entered and decimated the town; the town was defended by only a few hundred men. All of Ciutadella's 3,099 inhabitants who survived the siege were taken as slaves to Turkey together with other inhabitants of surrounding villages. In total, 3,452 residents were sold into slavery in the slave markets of Turkey.
An obelisk was set up in the 19th century by Josep Quadrado in the Plaza d'es Born in memory of the offensive, with the following inscription: Here we fought until death for our religion and our country in the year 1558 Every year on July 9, a commemoration takes place in Ciutadella, remembering "l’Any de sa Desgràcia", or "the Year of the Disaster". Despite no longer being Menorca's capital, Ciutadella has remained the island's religious center as the Bishop refused to move; the festival of Saint John, its patron saint, takes place each year on 24 of June. The Cathedral of Menorca, located in the old quarter of Ciutadella, was built in 1287 on the foundation of an older mosque. Menorca do not have a capital, it belongs to the Baleares, the capital of Baleares is Palma de Mallorca In the 17th century, many of Ciutadella's civil and religious buildings were built in the Italian style and gave it a historical and artistic unity. Ciutadella's town hall is the former palace of the Arab governor and served as a royal palace under the Crown of Aragon and again as a governor's palace until the British moved the capital to the eastern town of Mahon in 1722.
Punta Nati Lighthouse is located due north of Ciutadella. Córdoba, Spain Oristano, since 1991 Long Beach Island, New Jersey, United States, since 2012
The term "Moors" refers to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula and Malta during the Middle Ages. The Moors were the indigenous Maghrebine Berbers; the name was also applied to Arabs. Moors are not a distinct or self-defined people, the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica observed that "The term'Moors' has no real ethnological value." Europeans of the Middle Ages and the early modern period variously applied the name to Arabs, North African Berbers, Muslim Europeans. The term has been used in Europe in a broader, somewhat derogatory sense to refer to Muslims in general those of Arab or Berber descent, whether living in Spain or North Africa. During the colonial era, the Portuguese introduced the names "Ceylon Moors" and "Indian Moors" in South Asia and Sri Lanka, the Bengali Muslims were called Moors. In the Philippines, the longstanding Muslim community, which predates the arrival of the Spanish, now self-identifies as the "Moro people", an exonym introduced by Spanish colonizers due to their Muslim faith.
In 711, troops formed by Moors from northern Africa led the Umayyad conquest of Hispania. The Iberian peninsula came to be known in Classical Arabic as al-Andalus, which at its peak included most of Septimania and modern-day Spain and Portugal. In 827, the Moors occupied Mazara on Sicily, they went on to consolidate the rest of the island. Differences in religion and culture led to a centuries-long conflict with the Christian kingdoms of Europe, which tried to reclaim control of Muslim areas. In 1224 the Muslims were expelled from Sicily to the settlement of Lucera, destroyed by European Christians in 1300; the fall of Granada in 1492 marked the end of Muslim rule in Iberia, although a Muslim minority persisted until their expulsion in 1609. During the classical period, the Romans interacted with, conquered, parts of Mauretania, a state that covered modern northern Morocco, western Algeria, the Spanish cities Ceuta and Melilla; the Berber tribes of the region were noted in the Classics as Mauri, subsequently rendered as "Moors" in English and in related variations in other European languages.
Mauri is recorded as the native name by Strabo in the early 1st century. This appellation was adopted into Latin, whereas the Greek name for the tribe was Maurusii; the Moors were mentioned by Tacitus as having revolted against the Roman Empire in 24 AD. During the Latin Middle Ages, Mauri was used to refer to Berbers and Arabs in the coastal regions of Northwest Africa; the 16th century scholar Leo Africanus identified the Moors as the native Berber inhabitants of the former Roman Africa Province. He described Moors as one of five main population groups on the continent alongside Egyptians, Abyssinians and Cafri. In medieval Romance languages, variations of the Latin word for the Moors developed different applications and connotations; the term denoted a specific Berber people in western Libya, but the name acquired more general meaning during the medieval period, associated with "Muslim", similar to associations with "Saracens". During the context of the Crusades and the Reconquista, the term Moors included the derogatory suggestion of "infidels".
Apart from these historic associations and context and Moorish designate a specific ethnic group speaking Hassaniya Arabic. They inhabit Mauritania and parts of Algeria, Western Sahara, Morocco and Mali. In Niger and Mali, these peoples are known as the Azawagh Arabs, after the Azawagh region of the Sahara; the authoritative dictionary of the Spanish language does not list any derogatory meaning for the word moro, a term referring to people of Maghrebian origin in particular or Muslims in general. Some authors have pointed out that in modern colloquial Spanish use of the term moro is derogatory for Moroccans in particular and Muslims in general. In the Philippines, a former Spanish colony, many modern Filipinos call the large, local Muslim minority concentrated in Mindanao and other southern islands Moros; the word is a catch-all term, as Moro may come from several distinct ethno-linguistic groups such as the Maranao people. The term was introduced by Spanish colonisers, has since been appropriated by Filipino Muslims as an endonym, with many self-identifying as members of the Bangsamoro "Moro Nation".
Moreno can mean "dark-skinned" in Spain, Portugal and the Philippines. In Spanish, morapio is a humorous name for "wine" that which has not been "baptized" or mixed with water, i.e. pure unadulterated wine. Among Spanish speakers, moro came to have a broader meaning, applied to both Filipino Moros from Mindanao, the moriscos of Granada. Moro refers to all things dark, as in "Moor", etc, it was used as a nickname. In Portugal, mouro may refer to supernatural beings known as enchanted moura, where "Moor" implies "alien" and "non-Christian"; these beings were siren-like fairies with a fair face. They were believed to have magical properties. From this root, the name moor is applied to unbaptized children. In Basque, mairu means moor and refers to a mythical people. Muslims located in South Asia were distinguished by the Portuguese historians into two groups: Mouros da Terra and the Mouros da Arabia/Mouros de Meca ("Moors from Arabia/Mecca" or "Paradesi
Doma menorquina is the traditional style of riding of the island of Menorca. It is associated with the Menorquín horse. Doma menorquina is based on classical dressage and resembles a combination of Haute Ecole and Doma vaquera disciplines. Stallions 3–4 years old are trained. From the three basic gaits, walk and gallop, training progresses to the Spanish walk, half pass, flying changes and piaffe and culminates in the bot, or walking courbette; the remarkable ability of Menorcan horses in the bot is the most notable element of Menorcan riding. Horses and riders are at the centre of local festa celebrations, in a tradition that may go back to the 14th century and incorporate elements of Christian and Moorish ritual; some 150 riders participate in the festival of Mare de Déu de Gràcia, the Birth of Mary, in Mahón and in that of Sant Joan, Saint John, in Ciutadella. Riders pass through the crowds, executing caracoles and performing the bot. Touching the horses is believed to bring good luck. At Ciutadella three types of contest of skill are held: the ensortilla, in which the rider armed with a lance attempts to take a small ring suspended from a cord.
The elevade, in which the horse beats the air with the front hooves, is a part of the ritual of the festa. List of Equestrian Sports Doma Menorquina at Muro, Mallorca, 2010 Video showing the bot TV footage of two ensortillas Video of córrer abraçats Video of the festa of Sant Joan at Ciutadella
The Monchino or Monchinu or is a breed of horse indigenous to the Valle de Guriezo in the Cantabria region of northern Spain, extending into neighbouring Biscay province. It is listed in the Official Catalogue of Livestock Breeds of Spain in the group of autochthonous breeds in danger of extinction; the word monchinu means highlander, from the mountains, in Cantabrian. Iberian horse
The Barb or Berber horse is a northern African breed with great hardiness and stamina. The Barb possesses a fiery temperament and an atypical sport-horse conformation, but has influenced modern breeds; the Barb is a light riding horse noted for its stamina. It has a powerful front end, high withers, short back, a sloping croup, carries its tail low, it is hardy with sound hooves. It does not have good gaits, but gallops like a sprinter, it was used as breeding stock to develop racing breeds such as the Thoroughbred, American Quarter Horse, Standardbred. The predominant color is gray, but bay, black and brown horses are found; the Barb stands 1.47–1.57 metres at the withers. It is not known. There is controversy over whether the Barb and Arabian horses share a common ancestor, or if the Arabian was a predecessor of the Barb. Native horses of the region may have been influenced by the crossing of "oriental" breeds, including the Arabian horse, Turkoman Horse or Akhal-Teke, Caspian horse, with Iberian horses brought back from Europe by the Berber invaders after they conquered southern Spain.
Today the several varieties of Barb include the Algerian and Tunisian. When imported to Europe, the Barbs were sometimes mistaken for Arabians, although they have distinctly different physical characteristics; the Europeans saw that their size was similar and their handlers were Berber Muslims who spoke Arabic. An example of such confusion is that the Godolphin Arabian, one of the foundation sires of the Thoroughbred, was an Arabian stallion but, due to his Moroccan origins, was referred to as the "Godolphin Barb."The Barb is now bred in Morocco, Algeria and southern France. Due to difficult economic times in North Africa, the number of purebred Barbs is decreasing; the World Organization of the Barb Horse, founded in Algeria in 1987, was formed to promote and preserve the breed. In 2014, the FEI recognized the Barb horse as their Horse of Honor at the World Equestrian Games in Normandy; the West African Barb is found in West Africa. It is small, most representatives are gray, the breed is used for both riding and draft work.
The Barb may have had more influence on the racing breeds throughout the world than any other horse except the Arabian. Berber invaders from North Africa took their horses, the forerunners of today's Barbs, to Europe from the early eighth century onwards. Once established with settlers on the Iberian peninsula, the Barb horse was bred with Spanish stock under 300 years of Umayyad patronage to develop the Andalusian; the Andalusian was prized and it was used for major development stock in horse breeding all over the world. Historical references to "Barbary" horses include Roan Barbary, owned by King Richard II of England in the 14th century; the Barb horses were valued by other Europeans, including the Italians, whose noble families established large racing stables. During the 16th century, Henry VIII purchased a number of Barbary horses from Federico Gonzaga of Mantua, importing seven mares and a stallion, he continued to buy other Andalusians. After the Royal Stables were sold off under Cromwell, private owners in England continued to value the Barbs and used them to develop the Thoroughbred.
The influence of the Barb is evident in the Argentinian Criollo, the Paso Fino, many other Western Hemisphere breeds, including the American Quarter Horse, the Mustang and the Appaloosa. Despite its importance as a progenitor of other breeds, the Barb has less renowned than the Arab because it was considered a less attractive-looking breed. In other important qualities, the Barb has the same stamina and endurance, the same ability to thrive on meager rations, the same sure-footedness and speed over short distances; the Barb was valued for its "strong, short-coupled body, perfect for collection— the posture that makes weight-bearing easiest for the horse—its eagerness to learn and its gentle nature." Because of these characteristics, beginning in the 16th century, the horses were trained for dressage, in Paris and other European capitals. Sixteenth-century and portraits of royalty on horses portrayed the latter in dressage positions. Andalusian horse Arabian horse Equine coat color genetics Spanish-Norman horse Spanish Barb Aramco World Article - The Barb "The Barb or The Berber".
The Pottok or Pottoka, is an endangered, semi-feral breed of pony native to the Pyrenees of the Basque Country in France and Spain. It is considered an ancient breed of horse well adapted to the harsh mountain areas it traditionally inhabits. Once common, it is endangered through habitat loss and crossbreeding but efforts are made to safeguard the future of this breed, it is considered iconic by the Basque people. Pottoka is the Basque language name for this horse, both south of the mountains. In Upper Navarrese and pottoka are generic terms for colts and young horses whereas in Lapurdian and Lower Navarrese the meaning of pottoka is "pony"; the name is linked to words such as pottolo "chubby, tubby". In French sources, the spelling Pottok predominates. In English, both Pottoka and Pottok are encountered but the term Basque Pony can also be encountered. Many opinions exist on the origins of the Pottok, it is deemed by the scientific community to have lived in the area for at least several thousand years.
It displays signs of genetic isolation and is genetically closest to breeds like the Asturcón, the Losino, the Galician, the Landais, the Monchino horses. Tests have revealed considerable genetic differences between populations in the Northern Basque Country and the Southern Basque Country, leading some to consider them separate breeds; some claim the Pottok's origins derive from the horses on ancient cave paintings in the area and thus claim to descend from the Magdalenian horses of 14,000–7000 BC. Other link its origins to an influx of horses during the Bronze Age. However, neither of these theories has to date been scientifically verified. Genetic research by the University of the Basque Country's Genetics, Physical Anthropology and Animal Physiology department into various genetic markers amongst the 4 indigenous horse breeds in the Basque Country have examined their relationship to other horses. Based on microsatellite tests, of the four Basque horse breeds, the Pottok and the Basque Mountain Horse, are genetically the most distant from other breeds.
The others, the Burguete horse and the Jaca Navarra, less so. This variability in the Pottok and the Basque Mountain Horse appears to be related to the fact males mate range more and mate with more females in these feral or semi-feral herds. Research into a known single-nucleotide polymorphism showed this non-native alternation is rare in purebred Pottoks. Tests of mitochondrial DNA revealed Pottoks are most to crossbreed with the Basque Mountain Horses, less so with other breeds. Although some genetic markers of other European horse breeds were found, overall the genetic distance to the other European breeds is large. One marker only found in certain British breeds has been found in Pottoks, its traditional range extends west as far as the Biscayan Encartaciones and east as far as the Saint-Jean-le-Vieux area. A census carried out in 1970 found 3.500 purebred Pottoks north of the Pyrenees and 2.000 purebreds to the south, a considerable drop from historic populations, linked to an overall drop in the number of horses being bred and used commercially.
Competition with sheep and more commercial forestry has infringed on the Pottok's natural habitat. The traditional core habitat are the mountains of Labourd and Navarre from about 1.500m upwards on poor acidic soil and limestone formations. The Pottok measures 1.15 to 1.47 metres in height, weighs between 300 to 350 kilograms. It has a large, square head, small ears, short neck and long back with short but slim legs, small, sturdy hooves; the winter fur is one of the key characteristics of the Pottok and can reach up to 10 centimetres in length on young horses. The archetypal coat colorations are in bay range with no patterning, but today various shades of brown and black exist in Pottok herds. Pottok pintos first appeared in Biscay in the 1850s and have spread to parts of Navarre and Labourd since. There are noticeable differences between mountain herds of Pottok and valley or flatland herds, with mountain horses being smaller; the official French breed standard distinguishes two types, the Pottok de Montagne or Mountain Pottok, with a height range of 1.15–1.32 m, the larger Pottok de Prairie or Plains Pottok, which has a height range of 1.20–1.47 m.
The Government of Biscay carried out research into some 250 horses of the Pottok population of Biscay, both wild and stabled, in 1996–97. The census revealed that the majority of semi-feral Pottoks in Biscay live in the far northwest of the province, in the Encartaciones; these semi-feral herds are rounded up twice a year, once in March before birthing and once in October after weaning. The survey concluded that the main characteristics of the Biscayan population were: black or blackish coats dominating, followed by bays with Height range 1.15 to 1.30 metres, average height 1.256 m long, slim legs with black hooves large, heavy heads a heavy winter coat Semi-feral Pottoks tend to be shy and live in small, territorial herds or harems numbering between 10–30 mares. They are able to predict the weather conditions, moving into the valleys in anticipation of bad weather and upland when high pressure builds. During the autumn, the herd breaks up into smaller groups of 5–10 horses and re-unite in spring.
Foals mature quickly. Fillies become fertile at age 2 mate at age 3 and give birth at age 4, the age of maturity for males. Foals, like those of other breeds, are born after 11 months during spring/early summer and are weaned after 6
The hand is a non-SI unit of measurement of length standardized to 4 inches. It is used to measure the height of horses in some English-speaking countries, including Australia, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and the United States, it was based on the breadth of a human hand. The adoption of the international inch in 1959 allowed for a standardized imperial form and a metric conversion, it may be abbreviated to "h" or "hh". Although measurements between whole hands are expressed in what appears to be decimal format, the subdivision of the hand is not decimal but is in base 4, so subdivisions after the radix point are in quarters of a hand, which are inches. Thus, 62 inches is a half hands, or 15.2 hh. "Hands" may be abbreviated to "h", or "hh". The "hh" form is sometimes interpreted as standing for "hands high." When spoken aloud, hands are stated by numbers, 15.0 is "fifteen hands", 15.2 is alternately "fifteen-two" or "fifteen hands, two inches," and so on. To convert inches to hands, the number in inches is divided by four the remainder is added after the radix point.
Thus, a horse that measures 60 inches is 15 hands high and a horse halfway between 15 and 16 hands is 15.2 hands, or 62 inches tall Because the subdivision of a hand is a base 4 system, a horse 64 inches high is 16.0 hands high, not 15.4. A designation of "15.5 hands" is not halfway between 15 and 16 hands, but rather reads 15 hands and five inches, an impossibility in a base 4 radix numbering system, where a hand is four inches. The hand, sometimes called a handbreadth or handsbreadth, is an anthropic unit based on the breadth of a male human hand, either with or without the thumb, or on the height of a clenched fist. On surviving Ancient Egyptian cubit-rods, the royal cubit is divided into seven palms of four digits or fingers each. Five digits are equal to a hand, with thumb; the royal cubit measured 525 mm, so the length of the ancient Egyptian hand was about 94 mm. In Biblical exegesis the hand measurement, as for example in the Vision of the Temple, Authorized Version Ezekiel 40:43, is taken to be palm or handbreadth, in modern translations may be rendered as "handbreadth" or "three inches".
The hand is a traditional unit in the UK. It was standardised at four inches by a statute of King Henry VIII in 1540, but some confusion between the various types of hand measurement, between the hand and the handsbreadth, appears to have persisted. Phillips's dictionary of 1706 gives four inches for the length of the handful or hand, three inches for the handsbreadth. Wright's 1831 translation of Buffon mentions "A hand breadth, the breadth of the four fingers of the hand, or three inches", but the Encyclopædia Perthensis of 1816 gives under Palm: "A hand, or measure of lengths comprising three inches". Today the hand is used to measure the height of horses and other equines, it is used in the U. S. and in some other nations that use the metric system, such as Canada and the UK. In other parts of the world, including continental Europe, in FEI-regulated international competition, horses are measured in metric units metres or centimetres. In South Africa, measurements may be given in both hands and centimetres, while in Australia, the equestrian regulations stipulate that both measurements are to be given.
In those countries where hands are the usual unit for measuring horse height, inches rather than hands are used in the measurement of miniature horses, miniature ponies, miniature mules and Shetland ponies. A horse is measured from the ground to the top of the highest non-variable point of the skeleton, the withers. For official measurement, the spinous process of the fifth thoracic vertebra may be identified by palpation, marked if necessary. Miniature horses, but not miniature ponies, are measured at the base of the last true hairs of the mane rather than at the withers. For international competition regulated by the Fédération Équestre Internationale and for USEF competition in the US, a horse can be measured with shoes on or off. In the United Kingdom, official measurement of horses is overseen by the Joint Measurement Board. For JMB purposes, the shoes must be removed and the hooves prepared for shoeing prior to measurement. Anthropic units List of horse breeds List of unusual units of measurement Pony Span