National Rail in the United Kingdom is the trading name licensed for use by the Rail Delivery Group, an unincorporated association whose membership consists of the passenger train operating companies of England and Wales. The TOCs run the passenger services provided by the British Railways Board, from 1965 using the brand name British Rail. Northern Ireland, bordered by the Republic of Ireland, has a different system. National Rail services share a ticketing structure and inter-availability that do not extend to services which were not part of British Rail; the name and the accompanying double arrow symbol are trademarks of the Secretary of State for Transport. National Rail should not be confused with Network Rail. National Rail is a brand used to promote passenger railway services, providing some harmonisation for passengers in ticketing, while Network Rail is the organisation which owns and manages most of the fixed assets of the railway network, including tracks and signals; the two coincide where passenger services are run.
Most major Network Rail lines carry freight traffic and some lines are freight only. There are some scheduled passenger services on managed, non-Network Rail lines, for example Heathrow Express, which runs on Network Rail track; the London Underground overlaps with Network Rail in places. Twenty eight owned train operating companies, each franchised for a defined term by government, operate passenger trains on the main rail network in Great Britain; the Rail Delivery Group is the trade association representing the TOCs and provides core services, including the provision of the National Rail Enquiries service. It runs Rail Settlement Plan, which allocates ticket revenue to the various TOCs, Rail Staff Travel, which manages travel facilities for railway staff, it does not compile the national timetable, the joint responsibility of the Office of Rail Regulation and Network Rail. Since the privatisation of British Rail there is no longer a single approach to design on railways in Great Britain; the look and feel of signage and marketing material is the preserve of the individual TOCs.
However, National Rail continues to use BR's famous double-arrow symbol, designed by Gerald Burney of the Design Research Unit. It has been incorporated in the National Rail logotype and is displayed on tickets, the National Rail website and other publicity; the trademark rights to the double arrow symbol remain state-owned, being vested in the Secretary of State for Transport. The double arrow symbol is used to indicate a railway station on British traffic signs; the National Rail logo was introduced by ATOC in 1999, was used on the Great Britain public timetable for the first time in the edition valid from 26 September in that year. Rules for its use are set out in the Corporate Identity Style Guidelines published by the Rail Delivery Group, available on its website. "In 1964 the Design Research Unit—Britain’s first multi-disciplinary design agency founded in 1943 by Misha Black, Milner Gray and Herbert Read—was commissioned to breathe new life into the nation’s neglected railway industry".
The NR title is sometimes described as a "brand". As it was used by British Rail, the single operator before franchising, its use maintains continuity and public familiarity; the lettering used in the National Rail logotype is a modified form of the typeface Sassoon Bold. Some train operating companies continue to use the former British Rail Rail Alphabet lettering to varying degrees in station signage, although its use is no longer universal; the British Rail typefaces of choice from 1965 were Helvetica and Univers, with others coming into use during the sectorisation period after 1983. TOCs may use what they like: examples include Futura, Frutiger, a modified version of Precious by London Midland. Although TOCs compete against each other for franchises, for passengers on routes where more than one TOC operates, the strapline used with the National Rail logo is'Britain's train companies working together'. Several conurbations have their own metro or tram systems, most of which are not part of National Rail.
These include the London Underground, Docklands Light Railway, London Tramlink, Blackpool Tramway, Glasgow Subway, Tyne & Wear Metro, Manchester Metrolink, Sheffield Supertram, Midland Metro and Nottingham Express Transit. On the other hand, the self-contained Merseyrail system is part of the National Rail network, urban rail networks around Birmingham, Cardiff and West Yorkshire consist of National Rail services. London Overground is a hybrid: its services are operated via a concession awarded by Transport for London, are branded accordingly, but until 2010 all its routes used infrastructure owned by Network Rail. LO now possesses some infrastructure in its own right, following the reopening of the former London Underground East London line as the East London Railway. Since all the previous LO routes were operated by National Rail franchise Silverlink until November 2007, they have continued to be shown in the National Rail timetable and are still considered to be a part of National Rail.
Heathrow Express and Eurostar are not part of the National Rail network despite sharing of stations. Northern Ireland Railways were
Otley and Ilkley Joint Railway
The Otley and Ilkley Joint Railway was a railway line running between the towns of Otley and Ilkley in West Yorkshire. The line was managed and run jointly by the Midland Railway and the North Eastern Railway and was 6.5 miles long. Opened to passenger traffic on 1 August 1865 and freight traffic some months the line ran for 100 years before partial closure in July 1965 when the line to Otley closed. Today passenger services still run over the rest of the line as part of the West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive Wharfedale Line; the towns of Otley and Ilkley both lie in Wharfedale and the early railway schemes passed the valley by. An act of parliament had been obtained by the Lancashire & Yorkshire North Eastern Railway in 1846 to build a line from Skipton through Ilkley and Otley to Arthington but the scheme failed as the company could not raise the necessary capital and was wound up in 1852. A second proposal was made in 1856 for a company called the Wharfedale Railway to construct a line on the same route as that authorised in 1846, but the promoters of this scheme could get no support from the major companies who operated the lines into which the Wharfedale Railway would connect.
In 1860, following approaches from local representatives, the NER and the MR met and agreed to build a joint line between Otley and Ilkley. The Midland Railway would make a connection with the new line by building a branch from the Leeds to Bradford line at Apperley Bridge to a junction at Burley in Wharfedale and the NER would build a branch from its Leeds to Harrogate line at Arthington to make an end-on connection with the new line at Otley; the necessary parliamentary powers were granted in 1861 with the passing of two acts. To obtain its Act the MR had to agree to demands from the residents of Bradford who felt aggrieved that with the construction of the line there would be two direct routes between Ilkley and Leeds and none between Bradford and Ilkley; the act therefore stated that "equal facilities and advantages as regards trains and the conveyance and accommodation of passengers on the Railway shall be afforded to or from Bradford as those to or from Leeds". Construction began in 1863 with The MR taking responsibility for building the line between Otley and Ilkley.
The NER branch from Arthington was finished first, the first train from Otley to Leeds, via Arthington, ran on 1 February 1865. The MR line from Apperley Junction and the joint line itself were completed a few months and the first passenger train from Ilkley to Otley ran on 1 August 1865, freight services starting a year in October 1866; the need to provide no disadvantage to travellers to and from Bradford gave the Midland some problems as the journeys involved reversing trains at Apperley Junction. To alleviate this the Midland sought powers to build a further line from Guiseley Junction to Esholt Junction; the line opened in December 1876 and the NER negotiated running powers over the new section of line. This allowed the NER to run trains from Harrogate to Bradford without going via Leeds. A final through connection to the joint line was made when the Midland Railway opened its Skipton—Ilkley line in 1888; the two companies set up a joint committee, the Otley & Ilkley Joint Line Committee, to manage the line.
In the early days this led to some confusing arrangement e.g. east bound freight traffic for Leeds was sent on alternate weeks via Arthington and Apperley Junction to give fair distribution of income between the MR and the NER. Signalling was to be maintained in five year periods alternating between the two companies, an arrangement swiftly done away with and instead an agreement made that the Midland would signal west of Burley Junction, the North Eastern the line east of Burley Junction. Throughout its life most of the passenger traffic on the line was of a local nature and passengers seeking to travel further afield than Leeds, Bradford or Harrogate would need to change trains. North Eastern passenger services ran from Ilkley to Leeds via Otley, a longer route than the Midland services which ran via Apperley Junction — 18.75 miles via Otley compared to 16.5 miles via Apperley Junction. By the time of the grouping there were six trains each way on weekdays between Ilkley and Leeds and eight trains running between Harrogate and Bradford.
Midland services comprised eight trains each way between Leeds and Ilkley and 11 trains between Ilkley and Bradford with 15 departures from Bradford to Ilkley, together with a limited number of trains between Otley and either Leeds or Bradford via Guiseley. An exception to the "local trains only" operations was a through coach service, available between Ilkley and London St Pancras between 1900 and 1914 but the service was discontinued at the outbreak of World War I and was never reinstated. After 1923 the line continued to be run on a joint basis by the London and Scottish Railway and the London and North Eastern Railway as the successors to the Midland and North Eastern companies. Weekday train services remained much the same and by 1935 there were eight services each way on the LNER route. LMS services consisted of 14 trains each way between Ilkley and Bradford and nine between Ilkley and Leeds. World War II had a dramatic effect on the line and after the end of the war services were poor compared to pre-war levels.
In April 1946 LNER direct services between Ilkley and Leeds had fallen to just
Ilkley railway station
Ilkley railway station is a railway station in Ilkley, in the City of Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. On the Wharfedale Line, it is served by Class 333 electric trains run by Northern, which manages the station. During Monday to Saturday, daytime services run to/from Leeds and Bradford twice per hour. In the evenings and all day on Sundays, services are hourly to/from both Leeds and Bradford Forster Square. Sunday services to Bradford were increased to hourly in December 2017 after new Northern Rail franchise operator Arriva Rail North took over in April 2016. Ilkley station was opened in August 1865 as the western terminus of the Otley and Ilkley Joint Railway; the station buildings were designed by the Chief Architect to the Midland Railway John Holloway Sanders. This railway offered two alternative routes to Leeds - either via Otley and the Leeds Northern/NER line through Headingley or via Guiseley and the former Leeds and Bradford Railway along the Aire Valley; the Midland subsequently built a branch from the latter route to Shipley in 1876 to provide a direct line from the town to Bradford Forster Square.
A milepost on the former Platform 4 indicated that the station was 211.25 miles from London St. Pancras. A further extension of the line opened in 1888 to Skipton via Addingham, Bolton Abbey and Embsay saw the station assume the status of a junction. Terminating trains only used the bay Platform 1, as the lack of a facing crossover on the approach lines meant that Platform 2 was not available as a terminating road. Platform 2 was only available as a departure road for trains that were first drawn back towards Ben Rhydding, shunted back into the bay. A carriage storage siding was provided between Platforms 1 and 2, explaining the wide gap between the current lines in this location; the facing crossover was installed during the remodelling of the station approaches in 1983, thus allowing terminating trains to directly access Platform 2. The through lines were served by Platforms 3 and 4; the lines continued through the back wall of the station and crossed over Brook Street by way of a bowstring girder bridge with a 85-foot span.
This extension fell victim to Dr Beeching's Reshaping of Britain's Railways report. It was closed to passengers in March 1965 and to all traffic at the beginning of 1966, reducing Ilkley to a terminus once more; the track alongside both Platforms 3 and 4 remained in place for a time following closure as a through route, with Platform 3 seeing occasional peak-time passenger use, Platform 4 occasional engineering use as a stabling siding. The pedestrian subway leading from the main station concourse to Platform 4 and the back entrance of the station on Railway Road was closed in 1983 owing to the deterioration of the glass roof above it. Much of the glass in the main roof at this side of the station was removed at this stage, Platforms 3 and 4 were permanently closed and the track lifted. Goods traffic was catered for by a yard comprising nine sidings and three through roads situated on the south eastern side of the station, in the area now occupied by Tesco's supermarket and car park. A large stone built attached offices was situated on one of the through lines.
A five-ton hand-cranked crane stood to the east of the shed. The yard closed for all freight except coal on 1 February 1965, to all traffic on 7 August 1967; the last two wagons were removed on 9 August 1967 after which the yard sidings stood derelict until removed in the mid 1970s. The original engine shed, dating from the opening of the line was on the site now occupied by the station car park. In a subsequent development, a two road engine shed and two coaling sidings, together with a 50-foot turntable were provided on the northern side of the approach lines, the original facility demolished; the new shed was some distance below the main running lines and two reversals were required to access it. The Ilkley brewery building was provided with a single 475-foot-long siding that served as the headshunt for access to the engine shed area; the shed. In the late 1980s, the roofed area covering the western end of the station platforms was closed in and converted into a small supermarket, the lines being shortened by around 40 metres to make room for this alteration.
The main station building was taken out of railway use and turned over to retail in May 1988. The area between former Platforms 3 and 4 was infilled during electrification work and is now a carpark; the vehicle ramp leading up from Station Road passes through the area once occupied by the coal drops at the eastern end of Platform 4. The line was electrified at 25 kV AC in 1995, was worked by three car Class 308 EMUs; the previous latticework footbridge - constructed by Andrew Handyside and Co. in 1909 - was demolished during electrification works and replaced with the present structure which has solid sides to protect pedestrians from the overhead wires. Ilkley is notable in; the gas lights were extinguished for the last time on 8 May 1988. In November 2011, a major refurbishment of the station, which cost £625,000, was completed; this new upgrade included the construction of a brand new station building with a ticket office, a heated waiting room and new shelters providing space for passengers to await trains
Northern (train operating company)
Northern is a train operating company in Northern England. A subsidiary of Arriva UK Trains, it began operating the Northern franchise on 1 April 2016 and inherited units from the previous operator Northern Rail. Central to franchise commitments will be the introduction of 101 new-built units – the Class 195 and 331; these will be the first new-build trains for the Northern franchise since the introduction of the Class 333 in 2000 and the new rolling stock will enable all 102 Pacer trains in service with Northern to be retired by the end of 2019. Additionally, it is planned that a franchise sub-brand, known as Northern Connect, will provide inter-urban services between major cities and towns in Northern England, as well as serving a number of major commuting stations; however since the franchise began in April 2016, it has been beset by falling punctuality, poor customer service, regular industrial action by staff and delays in introducing new rolling stock due to issues encountered during testing.
Despite passenger growth at the vast majority of train operating companies in the United Kingdom and the Northern franchise operating more services, the number of passengers carried since the franchise commenced in 2016 has declined and has been attributed to worsening performance. The franchise will run to 2025 with an option for an additional year, dependent on performance. In August 2014, the Department for Transport announced that Abellio and Govia had been shortlisted to bid for the next Northern franchise; the franchise was awarded to Arriva in December 2015. In May 2016, the Competition and Markets Authority launched an investigation into the transport department's decision to award the Northern network to Arriva. Arriva operated the CrossCountry franchise and owned many bus companies in the Northern trains operating area in which'a significant overlap occurs without competition from other service providers.'In April 2018, a penalty fare scheme under the Railways Regulations 2018 commenced to encourage passengers to purchase a ticket before boarding trains.
Although this scheme is not wholly enforced across the Northern network, passengers are liable to paying a £20 penalty fare if they are deemed to have travelled without a valid ticket and had the ability to purchase a ticket prior to boarding the train at the station of origin. Customers who need to purchase a ticket at the station of origin with cash may do so by collecting a'Promise to Pay' notice prior to boarding from a ticket machine as these are not capable of accepting cash; these notices can be exchanged with the on-board conductor or with a member of railway staff at the destination station for a paid ticket. Section 6 of the Railways Regulations 2018 covers a number of scenarios that prohibit penalty fares being issued such'no facilities in operation for the sale of a travel ticket for that passenger’s journey'; the franchise was criticised for implementing a new timetable in May 2018 which resulted in widespread delays and cancellations. Network Rail and Northern announced an independent inquiry to learn lessons and identify route alterations in readiness for the next timetable change in December 2018.
In an attempt to counter operational problems, Northern implemented an emergency timetable on 4 June 2018 – it stemmed some delays and cancellations but was still problematic compared with performance before the timetable change. Punctuality was bad in the North West due to the delay in the Blackpool-Preston electrification scheme and the number of trains per hour through Manchester increased with more services utilising the Ordsall Chord which became operational in December 2017. Network Rail only informed train operating companies in January 2018 that the electrification scheme would be delayed until November – Northern had planned for the scheme to be complete as scheduled by May and had trained drivers to operate new routes with electric rolling stock. An alternative timetable had to be drafted up and many train drivers were not sufficiently trained to drive the existing diesel rolling stock which resulted in widespread cancellations. Furthermore, the additional services through the Manchester corridor resulted in increased congestion and which had a knock-on effect.
Performance statistics published by the Office of Rail and Road in October 2018 showed that from April to June 2018, the franchise recorded the lowest PPM – measured by train service departing within 5 minutes of its scheduled time – of any quarter since punctuality records began on the Northern franchise in 2009. Performance towards the latter half of the 2018 continued to be poor with many passengers protesting and the network beset by a reduced service on Saturdays due to industrial action. In October 2018 it was announced that Manchester Oxford Road station, the busiest station managed by Northern with over 8 million passengers, was the most delayed station in the United Kingdom in 2018 – this was attributed to the chaos following the May 2018 timetable. Between 14 October and 10 November 2018, Northern recorded the worst monthly performance on record with more trains late than on time. Less than 40% of services arrived on time and only 71.9% departed within 5 minutes of the scheduled departure time.
By November 2018, Arriva were re-evaluating their future involvement in the franchise due to a combination of declining passenger numbers as a result of the chaotic May 2018 timetable change and increasing compensation claims as a result of falling punctuality. Both have pushed the franchise into a loss-making entity and face a £282 million government subsidy shortfall, due to be passed onto the franchise. Since the franchise commenced in April 2016 and despite an increase
British Rail Class 333
The British Rail Class 333 is an electric multiple unit with a top speed of 100 mph. These trains are operated by Northern and are based on the Class 332 units operated by Heathrow Express. Sixteen three-car units were introduced in early 2000 by Northern Spirit and are now operated by Northern, they replaced the Class 308 slam-door units on the Wharfedale and Airedale lines in West Yorkshire and North Yorkshire. They are based at the Neville Hill depot in Leeds and painted in the livery of West Yorkshire Metro, the local passenger transport executive. Due to increased passenger numbers, the units were lengthened to four cars, 333001–333008 in 2002 and 333009–333016 in 2003, funded by Metro and the Strategic Rail Authority. However, this funding ran out in 2007 and as a consequence of this the fourth cars could have been removed. Had this happened the four-car Class 321s would have been removed from Doncaster services to Wharfedale and Airedale services; this means that the fourth cars are now funded by South Yorkshire PTE, despite running in South Yorkshire, to ensure that four-car units are available on Doncaster services.
Units 333002 and 333004 received the new livery by September 2008, but the finish of the vinyls was unsatisfactory. New vinyls were acquired and the whole fleet was reliveried by mid-2009. Beginning in late 2018, the entire fleet of 16 is going under a complete refurbishment. There will be a new livery and a refreshed interior. At-seat plug points and customer information screens will be installed at a date. Along with the Class 321 and Class 322 units, these trains were fitted with free Wi-Fi facilities in 2015; the units are capable of 100 mph. They have standard class only 2+3 high-density seating, each set has one toilet, they are fitted with Scharfenberg couplers at each end and are only compatible within their own class. "RRNE confirms orders for 16 Class 333 EMUs for West Yorkshire". RAIL. No. 327. EMAP Apex Publications. 25 March – 7 April 1998. P. 10. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699
Bradford Forster Square railway station
Bradford Forster Square railway station serves Bradford, West Yorkshire, England. The majority of services to/from the railway station use Class 333 electrified trains operated by Northern, on the Airedale Line to Skipton, the Wharfedale Line to Ilkley and the Leeds-Bradford Line to Leeds; the other main railway station in the city is Bradford Interchange, about 10 minutes on foot from Forster Square, from where services operate along the Caldervale Line to Leeds, Huddersfield, Manchester Victoria and London King's Cross. Bradford Interchange is situated across the city centre, than Forster Square; the Bradford Crossrail proposal to link the two stations is viewed as unlikely to proceed. The first rail service into Bradford was opened by the Leeds and Bradford Railway on 1 July 1846; the line approached the town from the north, up Bradford Dale from Shipley, terminated at a railway station on Kirkgate, opposite the end of Market Street. There were hourly services to Leeds Wellington Station, through trains to London Euston via Derby and Rugby.
The first railway station building was an imposing neoclassical building designed by William Andrews. By 1853, the Midland Railway had acquired the Leeds and Bradford, rebuilt the station; the new building was less interesting architecturally. In 1890, the railway station was again replaced; the Midland Railway's architect Charles Trubshaw designed a large complex containing the passenger station, goods station and the Midland Hotel. The station had an overall glazed roof of the ridge and furrow pattern; the roof was replaced with utilitarian ` butterfly' awnings. The station was used by the North Eastern Railway; the station began to be called Market Street Station at this time, but local maps and directories do not confirm this. By 1906, Forster Square had been built just south-east of the railway station, but the name Forster Square Station was not used until 1924. In March 1963, the Beeching Report recommended the closure of all railways serving Wharfedale, the removal of several services out of Forster Square.
As a consequence, many railway stations closed in 1965, local services to Leeds ceased. However, the decision to close was deferred for some of the lines. In 1972, Bradford Corporation, together with several other local authorities in the area, determined to subsidise the Wharfedale and Airedale lines; the lines have remained open, in the ensuing years, a number of stations have been reopened. From April 1974, the new West Yorkshire Passenger Transport Executive took responsibility for those services. Forster Square Station was truncated in 1990, when a new station was built on the western side of the former station; the new station has three platforms. The old station was demolished and a shopping centre called'Broadgate' was scheduled to be constructed on the site; that development was cancelled because of the early 1990s recession, the area was used as a car park, but a new tax office was built there. Part of the screen arcade. In 2005, these became much more visible, when the city centre redevelopment began and Forster House was demolished.
The line into Forster Square was electrified in 1994, as part of the electrification of the Airedale Line and Wharfedale Line, which allowed through electric trains to London via the newly-electrified East Coast Main Line. More the pedestrian approach from Cheapside has been redeveloped, ticket barriers installed. Services have been as follows: There is some disagreement about what names were used and when. Most modern references state that at least one of them was called'Market Street', but there is disagreement as to when this name was in use: According to Alan Whitaker, it was'Market Street' from the rebuilding in 1890 until 1924. Tony Dewick, p. 42, shows one of the three stations as'Market Street' in red, which in that book indicates that the station and the name passed out of use before 1901. However, contemporary sources do not seem to use the name; the Bradford Post Office Directory says that the Midland terminal is at "Station, bottom of Kirkgate" or "Station, Forster Square". Neither the map by Dixon & Hindle nor the 1906 OS map gives a name for the station other than'Midland Station', but the latter names'Exchange Station'.
It seems that the original station was called simply'Bradford', at least until the Lancashire & Yorkshire station opened, at Drake Street in 1850. After it would have been the Midland Station, it came to be called'Bradford Market Street', but that does not appear to have been official. Bradshaw's July 1922 Railway Guide, in a timetable footnote, refers to Market Street and gives the distance to Exchange Station. Trains from Bradford Forster Square are operated by London North Eastern Railway. Most trains are run by Northern. During Monday to Saturday daytimes, trains operate every 30 minutes on each route. On weekday and Saturday evenings there are trains every hour to each of Skipton and Ilkley, but no trains run through to Leeds. Connections are avail