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Mental disorder

A mental disorder called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning. Such features may be persistent and remitting, or occur as a single episode. Many disorders have been described, with signs and symptoms that vary between specific disorders; such disorders may be diagnosed by a mental health professional. The causes of mental disorders are unclear. Theories may incorporate findings from a range of fields. Mental disorders are defined by a combination of how a person behaves, perceives, or thinks; this may be associated with particular regions or functions of the brain in a social context. A mental disorder is one aspect of mental health. Cultural and religious beliefs, as well as social norms, should be taken into account when making a diagnosis. Services are based in psychiatric hospitals or in the community, assessments are carried out by mental health professionals such as psychiatrists and clinical social workers, using various methods such as psychometric tests but relying on observation and questioning.

Treatments are provided by various mental health professionals. Psychotherapy and psychiatric medication are two major treatment options. Other treatments include lifestyle changes, social interventions, peer support, self-help. In a minority of cases, there might be involuntary treatment. Prevention programs have been shown to reduce depression. Common mental disorders include depression, which affects about 300 million, bipolar disorder, which affects about 60 million, which affects about 50 million, schizophrenia and other psychoses, which affects about 23 million people globally. Stigma and discrimination can add to the suffering and disability associated with mental disorders, leading to various social movements attempting to increase understanding and challenge social exclusion; the definition and classification of mental disorders are key issues for researchers as well as service providers and those who may be diagnosed. For a mental state to classify as a disorder, it needs to cause dysfunction.

Most international clinical documents use the term mental "disorder", while "illness" is common. It has been noted that using the term "mental" is not meant to imply separateness from brain or body. According to DSM-IV, a mental disorder is a psychological syndrome or pattern, associated with distress, increased risk of death, or causes a significant loss of autonomy. DSM-IV precedes the definition with caveats, stating that, as in the case with many medical terms, mental disorder "lacks a consistent operational definition that covers all situations", noting that different levels of abstraction can be used for medical definitions, including pathology, deviance from a normal range, or etiology, that the same is true for mental disorders, so that sometimes one type of definition is appropriate, sometimes another, depending on the situation. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association redefined mental disorders in the DSM-5 as "a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior that reflects a dysfunction in the psychological, biological, or developmental processes underlying mental functioning.”

The final draft of ICD-11 contains a similar definition. The terms "mental breakdown" or "nervous breakdown" may be used by the general population to mean a mental disorder; the terms "nervous breakdown" and "mental breakdown" have not been formally defined through a medical diagnostic system such as the DSM-5 or ICD-10, are nearly absent from scientific literature regarding mental illness. Although "nervous breakdown" is not rigorously defined, surveys of laypersons suggest that the term refers to a specific acute time-limited reactive disorder, involving symptoms such as anxiety or depression precipitated by external stressors. Many health experts today refer to a nervous breakdown as a "mental health crisis". Additionally to the concept of mental disorder, some people have argued for a return to the old-fashioned concept of nervous illness. In How Everyone Became Depressed: The Rise and Fall of the Nervous Breakdown, Edward Shorter, a professor of psychiatry and the history of medicine, says: About half of them are depressed.

Or at least, the diagnosis that they got when they were put on antidepressants.... They go to work but they are unhappy and uncomfortable. There is a term for what they have, it is a good old-fashioned term that has gone out of use, they have a nervous illness. It is an illness not just of mind or brain, but a disorder of the entire body.... We have a package here of five symptoms—mild depression, some anxiety, somatic pains, obsessive thinking.... We have had nervous illness for centuries; when you are too nervous to function... it is a nervous breakdown. But that term has vanished from medicine, although not from the way we speak.... The nervous patients of yesteryear are the depressives of today; that is the bad news.... There is a deeper illness that drives the symptoms of mood. We can call this deeper illness something else, or invent a neologism, but we need to get the discussion off depression and

Tibetan National Anthem

The Tibetan National Anthem, known as Gyallu, is the anthem of the Tibetan Government in Exile and is banned by the People's Republic of China in the Tibet Autonomous Region. It was written by Trijang Rinpoche in 1950. Tibet's first national anthem was, according to Tashi Tsering, written by a Tibetan scholar during the epoch of the seventh Dalai Lama and under the reign of the Pholanas in between 1745-1746. Gyallu is the national anthem of the Tibetan exile government and focuses on the radiance of the Buddha; the words were written by Trijang Rinpoche around 1950 but it is unclear whether it was first used before the incorporation of Tibet into the People's Republic of China in 1951 or after the 14th Dalai Lama went into exile in India in 1960. The earliest report of a state anthem is from the period of 1949 to 1950, introduced under reforms set in place to strengthen patriotism among the Tibetan people. Another report states; the melody is said to be based on a old piece of Tibetan sacred music, the lyrics are by the Dalai Lama's tutor, Trijang Rinpoche.

It has been used by Tibetans in exile since the introduction of the state anthem although it is banned in Tibet. The first Tibetan national anthem was created in the 18th century. According to eminent Tibetan scholar Tashi Tsering, it was composed by Pholanas in 1745/46, at the time of the 7th Dalai Lama. Sir Charles Bell described it as Tibet's "national hymn". Part of a Tibetan Buddhist prayer, namely Prayer for long life of the Dalai Lama; the Prayer mentioned below is the prayer for long life of 14th Dalai Lama Tenzin Gyatso, so it could not be the national anthem before his birth. In Tibetan Buddhism it is customary to write by realized Masters long life prayers for new reincarnations and other recognized Masters of the time, it is said that reciting such prayers that spontaneously appeared in the minds of reincarnated masters brings great benefits to those who recite them, not to mention of course the addressees of them. The Central Tibetan Administration has a page about the "Gyallu" that includes audio instrumental and vocal versions.


Eric Sall

Eric Sall is an artist from South Dakota. Sall attended the Yale Summer Program in 1998, graduated from the Kansas City Art Institute in 1999 with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree, he continued his education at Virginia Commonwealth University, graduated with a Master of Fine Arts in 2006. Sall has received a Virginia Museum of Fine Arts Fellowship, he has exhibited in shows including The Triumph of Painting at the Saatchi Gallery in London, The RAIR Paintings at Roswell Museum and Art Center and From The Root To The Fruit at Alona Kagan Gallery in New York. He is represented by ATM Gallery in New York City, Dolphin Gallery in Kansas City and ADA Gallery in Richmond, his work is held in the collections of the Daum Museum of Contemporary Art, Missouri. And Nerman Museum of Contemporary Art, Overland Park, Sall's art exhibits have been reviewed by Kansas City arts magazine The Pitch, the Seattle Times, the Village Voice. Sall – ADA Gallery Eric Sall – Painting – Saatchi Gallery Eric Sall on ATM Gallery Eric Sall - Painting - Dolphin Gallery Eric Sall - Marty Walker Gallery Charlotte Street Foundation - Eric Sall

Church of All Saints, Vilnius

All Saints Church is a Baroque-style church in Vilnius, Lithuania. All Saints church was adopted for Carmelites' needs. In the second half of the 17th century, the church was linked with a monastery and formed a single complex. A large old-regulation Carmelite monastery adjoins the church. In 1631–32, the main two-storey building following the street was completed. In the 16th–18th centuries they participated in public life, held religious feasts and processions. In 1819 the Carmelites established a parochial school in the monastery; the Church of all Saints is at the end of a street. During World War II, there was a tunnel through the sewers connecting the church with the ghetto; the priest of the church would provide bread to be taken into the ghetto through the tunnel. He hid some Jews smuggled out of the ghetto through the tunnel. There were Christian Lithuanians who helped smuggle Litvaks food into the ghetto. In Soviet times the church housed a museum of folk art after the reconstruction between 1967 and 1975.

The bell tower is massive with elaborate decorations. After a fire in the 18th century, it was finished with a rococo-style dome roof. Marcin Knackfus prepared project for the church's altar. Above the high altar rises another altar reminiscent of a royal throne with a canopy. A belfry was erected and the sculptures in the interior were created in the 18th century. In 1859 the polychrome interior décor was enriched. East of the church lies a square, in which the Convent of the Barefoot Carmelites once stood alongside a Baroque Church of St. Joseph the Betrothed established in 1638 by the Vice-Chancellor of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania Stephen Pac, its exterior was reminiscent of the Church of St. Theresa, Vilnius. In 1877 the Church of St. Joseph the Betrothed was demolished by the tsar's order, to be replaced by a market

Christine Carpenter (historian)

Mary Christine Carpenter is an English historian who serves as professor of medieval English history at the University of Cambridge. Carpenter was born on 7 December 1946 in England. Carpenter received her Bachelor of Arts and Doctor of Philosophy degrees from Newnham College, Cambridge, she is editor of a number of English history books and papers. Carpenter's research interests focus on the political and constitutional history of England from 1066 to c. 1500, in the political, economic and cultural history of noble and gentry landowners in that period. Carpenter supervises postgraduate work on government and landed society from c. 1250 to 1500 and at the undergraduate level she teaches all aspects of English history from c. 1050 to 1500. Carpenter is the director of an Arts and Humanities Research Council–funded project to complete the calendaring of the 15th-century Inquisition post mortems, one of the editors of the Cambridge University Press Studies in Medieval Life and Thought, in addition to serving on other editorial committees.

In June 2012, Carpenter was selected to give the Ford Lectures at the University of Oxford in the 2015–2016 academic year. Freelance tutor and lecturer at the University of Cambridge, 1976–1979 Fellow and college lecturer, New Hall, 1979–2005 University assistant lecturer, 1983–1988 University lecturer, 1988–1995 Reader in medieval English history, 1995–2005 Professor of medieval English history, 2005–present Locality and Polity: A Study of Warwickshire Landed Society 1401–1499 Updated version of Kingsford's edition of The Stonor Letters and Papers 1290–1483 The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution c. 1437–1509 The Armburgh Papers, an edition of the largest collection of 15th-century gentry letters discovered since the 19th century Political Culture in Late Medieval Britain, as co-editor with Linda Clark and author of the introduction A New Constitutional History of Late-Medieval England, 1215–1509, in preparation. Wisdom and Chivalry: Chaucer's Knight's Tale and Medieval Political Theory by S. H. Rigby.

Reviewer: Professor Christine Carpenter, University of Cambridge. Fellow of the Royal Historical Society, 1982 Faculty of History representative for The Prince's Teaching Institute Royal Historical Society Whitfield Prize, 1992 Associate editor, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, 1994–2002 James Ford Special Lecturer, University of Oxford, 1996 Guest lecturer, Moscow State University, 2006 Co-editor, Cambridge University Press Studies in Medieval Life and Thought Member, editorial board, The Fifteenth Century Member, Medieval Sources Advisory Panel, The National Archives Member, board of directors, Anglo-American Legal Tradition Member and Humanities Research Council Review Panel British Academy/Leverhulme Trust senior research fellow, 2002–2003 Arts and Humanities Research Council major research grants, 1999–2008 Member, council of governors, Francis Holland Schools Professorial fellow, New Hall, 2005–2008 Faculty of History, University of Cambridge University of Cambridge Faculty of History, Professor Christine Carpenter BBC Radio 4 - The Tudor State with...

"Christine Carpenter, Fellow in History at New Hall, Cambridge." Institute of Historical Research - History On-line

CCGS Leonard J. Cowley

CCGS Leonard J. Cowley is an ice-strengthened fisheries patrol vessel of the Canadian Coast Guard; the ship entered service in 1984 and is still in service. During the Turbot War, the patrol vessel took part in the detainment of the Spanish fishing vessel Estai. Leonard J. Cowley's home port is Newfoundland and Labrador. Leonard J. Cowley is similar in design to CCGS John P. Tully. Leonard J. Cowley is 72 m long overall with a beam of a draught of 4.5 m. The ship has a full load displacement of 2,080 long tons with a 2,188 gross tonnage and a 655 net tonnage; the ship is propelled by one controllable-pitch propeller driven by two Polar Nohab F312V geared diesel engines creating 3,160 kW. This gives the ship a maximum speed of 15 knots; the ship carries one Caterpillar 3306 emergency generator. The vessel carries 420.00 m3 of diesel fuel giving the ship a range of 10,000 nmi at 12 knots and allowing Leonard J. Cowley to stay at sea for up to 35 days; the vessel is ice-strengthened, being certified as Type B.

Leonard J. Cowley has a flight deck capable of operating a light helicopter of the MBB Bo 105 or Bell 206L types and a retractable hangar. There is a helicopter strobe beacon and VHF homing transmitter for navigation, an agent-and-foam system for fire fighting on the helicopter deck; the ship is equipped with an autopilot including adaptive steering gear, a shilling rudder and a 250-horsepower bow thruster for maneuvering. Leonard J. Cowley has a computer system which identifies exact locations of other vessels, two radars, one of which has a feed to the electronic charting unit; the vessel has a Differential Global Positioning System feed and a Global Marine Distress Safety System. The fisheries patrol vessel has a complement of 19, with 9 officers and 11 crew and 20 additional berths. Leonard J. Cowley monitors fishing activities to fulfill Canada's commitment to the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization. Due to the nature of the vessel's duties in fisheries enforcement, Leonard J. Cowley carries an armed boarding team.

While Leonard J. Cowley's primary task is fisheries patrol, the vessel carries out search and rescue operations; the ship was constructed by West Coast Manly Shipyard in Vancouver, British Columbia with the yard number 590. The vessel was launched in November 1984 and completed in June 1985; the vessel entered service with the Canadian Coast Guard in 1984. The ship was named for Len Cowley, a Newfoundland biologist who served with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans as assistant deputy minister. From 1974 to 1981, Len Cowley was a regional director general for Newfoundland. After being employed by the department for 22 years, Len Cowley died in 1982; the ship is registered in Ottawa and homeported at St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador. At the height of the Turbot War in June 1994, a dispute between Canada and the European Union over fishing rights, Leonard J. Cowley was tasked with monitoring the European fishing fleet on the Grand Banks. During the arrest of the Spanish fishing vessel Estai for illegal fishing, Leonard J. Cowley was used as the command vessel during the operation and her crew were ordered to fire machine gun bursts across the bow of the Spanish vessel.

The operation was successful and the nets from the Spanish fishing vessel were used to vindicate Canada's actions in the affair. On 10 January 1996 the merchant vessel Amphion was damaged in a storm 485 miles southeast of St. John's; the ship requested assistance. Leonard J. Cowley was among the vessels dispatched to the scene; the crew of Amphion were taken off and brought to the fisheries patrol vessel while the merchant vessel was brought to port by the tugboat Tignish Sea. On 22 February 2009, the vessel was instrumental in rescuing the 22-person crew of the Spanish fishing vessel FV Monte Galineiro, burning and sinking off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador. Beginning in February 2015, Leonard J. Cowley underwent an $8.5 million refit performed by NEWDOCK St. John's Dockyard Limited in St. John's; this was announced by Gail Shea, Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, Diane Finley, Minister of Public Works and Government Services on 18 February 2015. The refit lasted until October as part of the plan to renew the Coast Guard fleet.

Bryan Williston of the Canadian folk band Two Roads Home adapted the poem "The Amphion" into a song. Both the song and poem tell of the rescue of a ship called The Amphion by the crew of Leonard J. Cowley. Maginley, Charles D.. The Canadian Coast Guard 1962–2002. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-55125-075-6. Maginley, Charles D.. The Ships of Canada's Marine Services. St. Catharines, Ontario: Vanwell Publishing Limited. ISBN 1-55125-070-5. "Leonard J. Cowley". Miramar Ship Index. Retrieved 26 December 2016. Saunders, Stephen, ed.. Jane's Fighting Ships 2004–2005. Alexandria, Virginia: Jane's Information Group. ISBN 0-7106-2623-1. Fisheries and Oceans Canada article about CCGS Leonard J. Cowley