Mentorship is a relationship in which a more experienced or more knowledgeable person helps to guide a less experienced or less knowledgeable person. The mentor may be older or younger than the person being mentored, but he or she must have a certain area of expertise, it is a learning and development partnership between someone with vast experience and someone who wants to learn. Interaction with an expert may be necessary to gain proficiency with/in cultural tools. Mentorship experience and relationship structure affect the "amount of psychosocial support, career guidance, role modeling, communication that occurs in the mentoring relationships in which the protégés and mentors engaged."The person in receipt of mentorship may be referred to as a protégé, a protégée, an apprentice or, in the 2000s, a mentee. The mentor may be referred to as a godmother. "Mentoring" is a process that always involves communication and is relationship-based, but its precise definition is elusive, with more than 50 definitions in use.

One definition of the many that have been proposed, is Mentoring is a process for the informal transmission of knowledge, social capital, the psychosocial support perceived by the recipient as relevant to work, career, or professional development. Mentoring in Europe has existed since at least Ancient Greek times, roots of the word go to Mentor, son of Alcimus in Homer's Odyssey. Since the 1970s it has spread in the United States in training contexts, with important historical links to the movement advancing workplace equity for women and minorities, it has been described as "an innovation in American management"; the roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. The word itself was inspired by the character of Mentor in Homer's Odyssey. Though the actual Mentor in the story is a somewhat ineffective old man, the goddess Athena takes on his appearance in order to guide young Telemachus in his time of difficulty. Significant systems of mentorship include the guru–disciple tradition practiced in Hinduism and Buddhism, the discipleship system practiced by Rabbinical Judaism and the Christian church, apprenticing under the medieval guild system.

In the United States, advocates for workplace equity in the second half of the twentieth century popularized the term "mentor" and concept of career mentorship as part of a larger social capital lexicon which includes terms such as glass ceiling, bamboo ceiling, role model, gatekeeper—serving to identify and address the problems barring non-dominant groups from professional success. Mainstream business literature subsequently adopted the terms and concepts, promoting them as pathways to success for all career climbers. In 1970, these terms were not in the general American vocabulary; the European Mentoring and Coaching Council called the EMCC, is the leading global body in terms of creating and maintaining a range of industry standard frameworks and processes across the mentoring and related supervision and coaching fields e.g. a code of practice for those practising mentoring. The focus of mentoring is to develop the whole person and so the techniques are broad and require wisdom in order to be used appropriately.

A 1995 study of mentoring techniques most used in business found that the five most used techniques among mentors were: Accompanying: making a commitment in a caring way, which involves taking part in the learning process side-by-side with the learner. Sowing: mentors are confronted with the difficulty of preparing the learner before he or she is ready to change. Sowing is necessary when you know that what you say may not be understood or acceptable to learners at first but will make sense and have value to the mentee when the situation requires it. Catalyzing: when change reaches a critical level of pressure, learning can escalate. Here the mentor chooses to plunge the learner right into change, provoking a different way of thinking, a change in identity or a re-ordering of values. Showing: this is making something understandable, or using your own example to demonstrate a skill or activity. You show what you are talking about, you show by your own behavior. Harvesting: here the mentor focuses on "picking the ripe fruit": it is used to create awareness of what was learned by experience and to draw conclusions.

The key questions here are: "What have you learned?", "How useful is it?". Different techniques may be used by mentors according to the situation and the mindset of the mentee, the techniques used in modern organizations can be found in ancient education systems, from the Socratic technique of harvesting to the accompaniment method of learning used in the apprenticeship of itinerant cathedral builders during the Middle Ages. Leadership authors Jim Kouzes and Barry Z. Posner advise mentors to look for "teachable moments" in order to "expand or realize the potentialities of the people in the organizations they lead" and underline that personal credibility is as essential to quality mentoring as skill. Multiple mentors: A new and upcoming trend is having multiple mentors; this can be helpful. Having more than one mentor will widen the knowledge of the person being mentored. There are different mentors. Profession or trade mentor: This is someone, in the trade/profession you are entering, they know the trends, important changes and new practices that you shou

Papilio zagreus

Papilio zagreus is a butterfly of the family Papilionidae. It is found in South America, including Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and western Brazil. A powerfully built insect with strong neuration in the forewing; the frons is either quite black or bears a yellow mesial line, never a yellow lateral streak along the eye. The antennae are long, with thin club; the spots of the forewing orange, the marginal ones yellow. The wingspan is 110–130 mm. Papilio zagreus is a palatable Batesian mimic of various Heliconius butterfly species. Papilio zagreus zagreus Papilio zagreus ascolius C. & R. Felder, 1864 Hindwing without black spots in the cell and on the disc, basal area of the cell of the forewing always pure pale yellow, between the 3. Radial and 1. Median two spots touching the cell: cell of the hindwing and the adjoining parts of the disc orange. Batesian mimic of various Ithomiini. Papilio zagreus bachus C. & R. Felder, 1865 The orange area of the hindwing of the preceding subspecies is here only represented by a narrow variable band: however, the veins are more or less yellowish on the underside.

Papilio zagreus zalates 1890 The most northern form. The cell area of the forewing is dusted with black, the subapical cell-spot is narrow, the discal spots are short, the marginal area of the hindwing narrower than in the other forms and the hindwing beneath deeper orange. Papilio zagreus rosenbergi Druce, 1903 The subapical cell-spot of the forewing large, the discal spot between the 1. and 2. Radial small, sometimes absent large, the following discal spots on the whole larger than in the preceding forms, whilst the posterior submarginal spots are smaller. Named for the London-based insect dealer W. F. M. Rosenberg. Papilio zagreus chrysomelus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906 The forewing orange above and beneath from the base to the disc, at the costal margin more or less pale yellow. Papilio zagreus daguanus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906 The cell-spot of the forewing as in zalates, the discal spots on the contrary as in ascolius, the discal spot between the 1. and 2. Radial much shorter than the one placed behind it.

Papilio zagreus batesi Papilio zagreus chrysoxanthus Fruhstorfer, 1915 Papilio zagreus nigroapicalis Papilio zagreus baueri Papilio zagreus is in the Papilio zagreus species group. This clade has two members. Papilio zagreus; the status was changed to subspecies by Racheli and Parise in 1992 and this was accepted by Tyler and Wilson in 1994. Lewis, H. L. 1974 Butterflies of the World ISBN 0-245-52097-X Page 25, figure 17 Butterflycorner Collins, N. Mark. Threatened Swallowtail Butterflies of the World: The IUCN Red Data Book. Gland & Cambridge: IUCN. ISBN 978-2-88032-603-6 – via Biodiversity Heritage Library


Halite known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral form of sodium chloride. Halite forms isometric crystals; the mineral is colorless or white, but may be light blue, dark blue, pink, orange, yellow or gray depending on inclusion of other materials and structural or isotopic abnormalities in the crystals. It occurs with other evaporite deposit minerals such as several of the sulfates and borates; the name halite is derived from the Ancient Greek word for salt, ἅλς. Halite occurs in vast beds of sedimentary evaporite minerals that result from the drying up of enclosed lakes and seas. Salt beds may underlie broad areas. In the United States and Canada extensive underground beds extend from the Appalachian basin of western New York through parts of Ontario and under much of the Michigan Basin. Other deposits are in Ohio, New Mexico, Nova Scotia and Saskatchewan; the Khewra salt mine is a massive deposit of halite near Pakistan. Salt domes are vertical diapirs or pipe-like masses of salt that have been "squeezed up" from underlying salt beds by mobilization due to the weight of overlying rock.

Salt domes contain anhydrite and native sulfur, in addition to halite and sylvite. They are common along the Gulf coasts of Texas and Louisiana and are associated with petroleum deposits. Germany, the Netherlands and Iran have salt domes. Salt glaciers exist in arid Iran where the salt has broken through the surface at high elevation and flows downhill. In all of these cases, halite is said to be behaving in the manner of a rheid. Unusual, fibrous vein filling halite is found in France and a few other localities. Halite crystals termed hopper crystals appear to be "skeletons" of the typical cubes, with the edges present and stairstep depressions on, or rather in, each crystal face. In a crystallizing environment, the edges of the cubes grow faster than the centers. Halite crystals form quickly in some evaporating lakes resulting in modern artifacts with a coating or encrustation of halite crystals. Halite flowers are rare stalactites of curling fibers of halite that are found in certain arid caves of Australia's Nullarbor Plain.

Halite stalactites and encrustations are reported in the Quincy native copper mine of Hancock, Michigan. The world's largest underground salt mine is the Sifto Salt Mine, it produces over 7 million tons of rock salt per year using the pillar mining method. It is located half a kilometre under Lake Huron in Canada. In the United Kingdom there are three mines. Salt is used extensively in cooking as a flavor enhancer, to cure a wide variety of foods such as bacon and fish, it is used in food preservation methods across various cultures. Larger pieces dusted over food from a shaker as finishing salt. Halite is often used both residentially and municipally for managing ice; because brine has a lower freezing point than pure water, putting salt or saltwater on ice, below 0 °C will cause it to melt — this effect is called freezing-point depression. It is common for homeowners in cold climates to spread salt on their sidewalks and driveways after a snow storm to melt the ice, it is not necessary to use so much salt that the ice is melted.

Many cities will spread a mixture of sand and salt on roads during and after a snowstorm to improve traction. Using salt brine is more effective than spreading dry salt because moisture is necessary for the freezing-point depression to work and wet salt sticks to the roads better. Otherwise the salt can be wiped away by traffic. In addition to de-icing, rock salt is used in agriculture. An example of this would be inducing salt stress to suppress the growth of annual meadow grass in turf production. Other examples involve exposing weeds to salt water to dehydrate and kill them preventing them from affecting other plants. Salt is used as a household cleaning product, its coarse nature allows for its use in various cleaning scenarios including grease/oil removal, stain removal, dries out and hardens sticky spills for an easier clean. Some cultures in Africa and Brazil, prefer a wide variety of different rock salts for different dishes. Pure salt is avoided. Many recipes call for particular kinds of rock salt, imported pure salt has impurities added to adapt to local tastes.

Salt was used as a form of currency in barter systems and was controlled by authorities and their appointees. In some ancient civilizations the practice of salting the earth was done to make conquered land of an enemy infertile and inhospitable as an act of domination. One biblical reference to this practice is in Judges 9:45: "he killed the people in it, pulled the wall down and sowed the site with salt."Polyhalite a mineral fertiliser, is not an NaCl-polymer but hydrated K2Ca2Mg-sulfate. Coarse salt Salt tectonics