The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con
Santos Juanes, Valencia
Santos Juanes is a Roman Catholic church located in the Mercat neighborhood of the city of Valencia, Spain. The church is denominated the Real Parroquia de los Santos Juanes or San Juan del Mercado due to its location adjacent to the city Central Market and facing the Llotja de la Seda building. By the mid-13th century, a church was built atop the site of a former mosque in a Gothic style. A major fire in 1592 led to a reconstruction, commissioned by the Archbishop and Viceroy Juan de Ribera in an exuberant Baroque style completed in the year 1700; this was located in the Boatella neighborhood working class quarters, outside the town walls, that housed some of the Morisco population. The main facade of the church retains a walled up oculus of a rose window from the older church; the square exterior of the apse, facing the piazza, houses a central niche decorated with a stucco statuary group of the Virgen del Rosario attributed to Jacopo Bertesi. The group display the virgin and child ensconced in a burst of rays and cherubs.
Other portals contain the symbols of John the Evangelist. The center is surmounted by a clock tower, a roofline dominated by statues of the Juanes: including the Baptist, the Evangelist, Saints Francesco Borgia and Luis Bertrán; this facade includes profuse complex iconography including a lamb atop a book with five seals. The interior has statues depicting the 12 tribes of Israel by Bertesi, large ceiling frescoes depicting numerous themes of the church triumphant by Antonio Palomino; the church interiors, including the frescoes, suffered arson damage during the Spanish Civil war
Valencian Gothic is an architectural style. It occurred under the Kingdom of Valencia between the 13th and 15th centuries, which places it at the end of the European Gothic period and at the beginning of the Renaissance; the term "Valencian Gothic" is confined to the Kingdom of Valencia and its area of influence, which has its own characteristics. The common characteristics of the Valencian Gothic are the following: Development of the architecture by techniques used in Roman architecture and of the Mediterranean countries. On these lines, the Kingdom of Valencia was influenced by arriving from France. Clear predominance of the architecture of the cultures of the Mediterranean countries respect of the influence of the French Gothic; the architectural proportions do not change with the arrival of the Renaissance. Divergence with the classic Gothic style. Clear influence of Flamboyant Gothic, which confers uniqueness. Cladding and concealment during the 17th to 19th centuries of the Valencian Gothic by newer styles such as the Baroque or the Neoclassical, so today much of the Valencian Gothic remains hidden.
Little impact of mudejar architecture, but in spite of this, there are interesting examples of mudejar architecture in the Valencian Community, that given the occasional use, are of great singularity. The most important valencian architects of the Valencian Gothic style are: Pere Compte, Francesc Baldomar, Pere Balaguer, Andreu Julià, etc. Province of AlicanteIn Alicante, Basilica of Santa Maria, Concatedral de San Nicolás. In Castalla, Ermita de la Sangre. In Jávea, Iglesia de San Bartolomé. In Orihuela, Orihuela Cathedral. In Teulada, Iglesia de Santa Catalina. In Villena, Iglesia Arciprestal de Santiago, Iglesia de Santa María. Province of CastellónIn L'Alcora, Iglesia de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción. In Burriana, Basílica de El Salvador. In Castellfort, Ermita de San Pedro. In Castellón, Castelló Cathedral, El Fadrí. In Jérica, Ermita de San Roque. In Morella, Iglesia de Santa María. In Sant Mateu, Iglesia arciprestal de San Mateo In Segorbe Cathedral. In Vallibona, Iglesia de la Asunción de la Virgen.
Province of ValenciaIn Ademuz, Ermita de Nuestra Señora de la Huerta. In Alfauir, Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba. In Carcaixent, Ermita de San Roque de Ternils. In Castielfabib, Ermita de Nuestra Señora de Gracia. In Gandia, Collegiate Basilica of Convent of Santa Clara of Gandia. In Luchente, Monastery of the Corpus Christi. In Serra, Cartuja de Porta Coeli. In Simat de la Valldigna, Monastery of Santa María de la Valldigna. In Valencia, Cathedral of Valencia, El Miguelete, Iglesia de San Juan del Hospital, Iglesia de San Martín, Antiguo Convento del Carmen, Convento de Santo Domingo, Iglesia de Santa Catalina, Monasterio de la Trinidad, Church of San Nicolás, Iglesia de San Agustín, etc. In Xativa, Iglesia de San Francisco, Hermitage of Santa Ana, etc; the most important buildings of the Valencian civil Gothic style are: Province of AlicanteIn Cocentaina, Palace of the Counts of Cocentaina. In Alcoy, palace of the Archaeological Museum Camil Visedo. Province of CastellónIn Cinctorres, Palacio de los San Juan.
In Vilafamés, palacio del Museo de Villafamés. Province of ValenciaIn Gandia, Ducal Palace of Gandia, Archaeological Museum of Gandia. In Valencia, Llotja de la Seda, Palace of the Borgias, Torres de Serranos, Almudín de Valencia, Atarazanas del Grao, Casa del Almirante, Palacio de Joan de Valeriola, Palacio de los Escrivà, etc. In Xativa, Almudin de Xativa. Province of CastellónIn Jérica, Torre mudéjar de la Alcudia. In Onda, Iglesia de la Sangre. In Segorbe, artesonado del Salón de Sesiones del antiguo Palacio Ducal. Province of ValenciaIn Alfauir, the cloister of the Monastery of Sant Jeroni de Cotalba. In Godella, la capilla del Cristo de la Paz en la Iglesia de San Bartolomé Apóstol. In Llíria, la iglesia de la Sangre de Liria. In Sagunto, la iglesia vieja de Sagunto. In Torres Torres, baños árabes. In Valencia, Baños del Almirante. Arturo Zaragozá Catalán. Valencian Gothic Architecture. Valencia, Generalitat Valenciana, 2000, ISBN 978-84-482-2545-2 Arturo Zaragozá Catalán. Memorias Olvidadas. Imágenes de la escultura gótica valenciana.
Valencia, Generalitat Valenciana, 2015, ISBN 978-84-482-6017-0 Mariano Torreño Calatayud. Arquitectura gótica valenciana. Valencia. Carena Editors, 2010. ISBN 978-84-96419-96-4 Route of the Monasteries of Valencia Route of the Borgias Route of the Valencian classics "Valencian Gothic architecture", by Arturo Zaragozá
Valencian Art Nouveau
Valencian Art Nouveau, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the Art Nouveau in the Valencian Community, in Spain. Its main form of expression was in architecture, but many other arts were involved, the design and the decorative arts, which were important in their role as support to architecture. Although Art Nouveau was part of a general trend that emerged in Europe around the turn of the 20th century, in the Valencian Community the trend acquired its own unique personality in the context of spectacular urban and industrial development, it is equivalent to a number of other fin de siècle art movements going by the names of Art Nouveau in France and Belgium, Jugendstil in Germany, Sezession in Austria-Hungary, Liberty style in Italy and Modern or Glasgow Style in Scotland. The Valencian Art Nouveau was active in the Valencian Community from 1899 to 1917; the Modernisme movement in the Valencian Community is best known for its architectural expression in the works of the architects Demetrio Ribes Marco and Francisco Mora Berenguer in Valencia or Vicente Pascual Pastor and Timoteo Briet Montaud in Alcoy, but was significant in sculpture and painting.
Notable art nouveau painters include Fernando Cabrera Cantó, Francisco Laporta Valor, Emilio Sala, Adolfo Morrió and Edmundo Jordá. A notable art nouveau sculptor was Lorenzo Ridaura Gosálbez. On the other hand, there are several Valencian populations who form part of the Art Nouveau European Route, an association of local governments and non-governmental institutions for the international promotion and protection of Art Nouveau heritage, it is the case of Alcoy and Sueca. Early 20th century architecture in Valencian Community was influenced by European Art Nouveau; the Valencian Art Nouveau takes place in different cities or areas, inside of a context of great industrial and urban development: Alcoy and Valencia, by number of works, will be the main Valencian cities where much more was developed the art nouveau architecture. Novelda, Burriana, Castellón de la Plana or Sueca are other cities with important examples of Valencian Art Nouveau architecture. With Valencian local architects, all of them formed in Barcelona or Madrid and contemporaries to the Catalan Modernism and to the Art Nouveau of Madrid, but that exercised the main part of his career in the Valencian Community, the Valencian Art Nouveau will receive a special architectural relevancy in different Valencian cities.
The Mercado Central in Valencia, one of the largest in Europe, covers more than 8,000 square metres, over two floors, with a predominantly Valencian Art Nouveau style. Its unusual roof comprises original domes and sloping sections at different heights, while the interior seems to be lined in a range of materials such as iron, wood and polychromed tiles; the beauty of the building stands out on account of the light that enters through the roof at various points, through coloured window panels. The Estación del Norte is the main railway station in Valencia located in the city centre next to the Plaza de Toros de Valencia, it was declared Good of Cultural Heritage in 1987. The Mercado de Colón is a public market located in the city center of Valencia; the building was designed by the Valencian architect Francisco Mora Berenguer between 1914 and 1916. This is a clear example of Valencian Art Nouveau architecture of the early century, it was declared a national monument. It impresses with lavish decor.
Between the works of the Valencian modernisme stand out: City Center Casa del Pavo Casa d'Escaló Circulo Industrial de Alcoy Casa Laporta Campus of Alcoy of the Technical University of Valencia Casa Vilaplana Casa Briet Canalejas Viaduct Monte de Piedad y Caja de Ahorros de Alcoy Casa Mataix Edificio en calle Sant Llorenç 3 Edificio en calle Sant Llorenç 5 Edificio en calle Sant Llorenç 27 Edificio en calle Sant Nicolau 4 Edificio en calle Sant Nicolau 29 Edificio en calle Sant Nicolau 35 Cocheras en plaza Emili Sala 12 Edificio en avenida País Valencià 30 Edificio en calle Capellà Belloch 9 Edificio en calle Sant Josep 26 Edificios en calle Pintor Casanova 16, 18 y 20 Edificios en calle Bartolomé José Gallardo 1, 3 y 5 La Glorieta de Alcoy Fábricas en calle Sant Joan 43 y 45 Edificio del Parque de Bomberos Kiosk of Art Nouveau style at the Plaza de la ConstituciónEnsanche-Santa Rosa Hydroelectrics substation of Alcoy Taller de carruajes en calle Agres 5 Fábrica en calle Agres 8 Fábrica en calle Alcoleja 4 Slaughterhouse of AlcoyEl Camí-Zona Alta Casa El Camí 1 Fábrica de "El Rosendo" Fábrica en calle Sant Vicent Ferrer 12Outskirts Fuente de El Molinar de Alcoy Alcoy Cemetery, Art nouveau pantheons and sculptures.
Central Market of Alicante Lonja del Pescado Casa Lamaignere Casa Carbonell Casa del Ascensor Edificio Torrent Casa Campos Carrera Casa de las BrujasNovelda: Santuario de Santa María Magdalena Art Nouveau House-Museum Centro Cultural Gómez-Tortosa Sociedad Cultural Casino de Novelda Casa MiraOrihuela: Casa Villaescusa Teatro Circo Lonja de OrihuelaTorrevieja: Casino de TorreviejaVillena: Chapí Theatre Les Alqueries: Chalé de SafontBenicarló: Casa BoschBenicàssim: Villa VictoriaBurriana: Orange Museum Circulo Frutero Burrianense Edificio de Correos de Castellón Casa de les Cigonyes Casa Dávalos Casa Alcón Edificio Academia la Purísima Transformador de Viuda de Estela Quiosco modernista de la plaza de la PazVila-real: Almacén de CabreraVinaròs: Casa Giner Casa Sendra Al
Bien de Interés Cultural
A Bien de Interés Cultural is a category of the heritage register in Spain. The term is used in Venezuela, other Spanish-speaking countries; the term means a "good of cultural interest" and includes not only material heritage, like monuments or movable works of art, but intangible cultural heritage, such as the Silbo Gomero language. Some bienes enjoy international protection as World Heritage Sites or Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. In Spain the category of Bien de Interés Cultural dates from 1985 when it replaced the former heritage category of Monumento nacional in order to extend protection to a wider range of cultural property. Monumentos are now identified as one of the sub-categories of Bien de Interés Cultural; the movable heritage designated as Bienes de Interes Cultural includes archeological artefacts and large works of art. Such protected objects may well be kept in a building, itself a BIC. Non-movable heritage is divided into the following classifications: Monumento Conjunto histórico Jardín histórico Sitio histórico Zona arqueológica Under the Spanish system regions maintain their own registers of cultural heritage.
There have been some differences in approach between autonomous communities. An example is bullfighting. Madrid's regional government considers that bullfighting events should be protected as cultural heritage, whereas in Catalonia a ban on bullfighting came into effect in 2012, although this was overturned by the Supreme Court. Lists of Bienes de Interés Cultural Patrimonio histórico español Declaran Bien de Interés Cultural de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela la canción Alma Llanera The Protection of Historic Properties: A Comparative Study of Administrative... By Consuelo Olimpia Sanz Salla Procedimiento y proceso administrativo práctico, Volume 2 XX Jornadas del Patrimmonio Cultural de la Región de MurciaBy Pedro Collado y José Antonio Melgares Boletin de la Real Academia de la Historia. TOMO CCII. NUMERO III. AÑO 2005By Vv.aa Cuerpo Tecnico de la Comunidad Autonoma de Extremadura. Especialidad.. Código de la Administración Gallega By Jaime Rodriguez-Arana Muñoz, Miguel Ángel Sendín García Manual de arte rupestre de CundinamarcaBy Alvaro Botiva Contreras XXII Jornadas de Patrimonio Cultural de la Región de MurciaBy Varios Autores Los tesoros del mar y su régimen jurídicoBy Jesús Ignacio Fernández Domingo Código legislativo de CantabriaBy Cantabria
Llotja de la Seda
The Llotja de la Seda is a late Valencian Gothic-style civil building in Valencia, Spain. It is a principal tourist attraction in the city. Built between 1482 and 1548, la Lonja is composed of three parts; the main hall, Sala de Contratacion is a large lavishly decorated space supported by gorgeous twisted columns. This was the financial centre of La Lonja; the side-wing is named the Pavilion of the Consulate, this was the seat of the Tribunal del Mar - the first marine merchant tribunal to be formed in Spain. The first two floors were the main function rooms, with the upper one hosting a richly decorated ceiling; these rooms are still maintain original furnishings. On occasion, the Tribunal would imprison merchants for debts in the central tower of La Lonja - the third part of the structure. Behind the current building, there was an earlier one from the 14th century, called the Oil Exchange, it was used not only for all kind of business. Where in 1348 was traded perxal as some kind of silk. Valencia's commercial prosperity reached its peak during the 15th century, led to the construction of a new building.
The design of the new Lonja of Valencia was derived from a similar structure in the Lonja of Palma de Majorca, built by the architect Guillem Sagrera in 1448. The architect in charge of the new Lonja was Pere Compte, who built the main body of the building – the Trading Hall – in only fifteen years. So is written in a blue band that runs along all four walls of the Trading Hall called "Hall of Columns", it proclaims in golden letters the following inscription: Inclita domus sum annis aedificata quindecim. Gustate et videte concives quoniam bona est negotiatio, quae non agit dolum in lingua, quae jurat proximo et non deficit, quae pecuniam non dedit ad usuram eius. Mercator sic agens divitiis tandem vita fructur aeterna. According to the local Valencian scholar Joan Francesc Mira, this inscription showed that it was not a necessary to be a Protestant or a foreigner to establish the basis of a good trade. Other construction and decoration works lumbered on until 1548, such as the Consolat del Mar, a Renaissance building adjoined to La Lonja.
During subsequent centuries, La Lonja functioned as a silk exchange. The honesty of its traders is honored by the inscription; the UNESCO considered it as a World Heritage Site in 1996 since "the site is of outstanding universal value as it is a wholly exceptional example of a secular building in late Gothic style, which illustrates the power and wealth of one of the great Mediterranean mercantile cities." Llotja Materials from the World Heritage website
Lluís Domènech i Montaner
Lluís Domènech i Montaner was a Spanish architect, influential on Modernisme català, the Catalan Art Nouveau/Jugendstil movement. He was a Catalan politician. Born in Barcelona, he studied physics and natural sciences, but soon switched to architecture, he was registered as an architect in Barcelona in 1873. He held a 45-year tenure as a professor and director at the Escola d'Arquitectura, Barcelona's school of architecture, wrote extensively on architecture in essays, technical books and articles in newspapers and journals, his most famous buildings, the Hospital de Sant Pau and Palau de la Música Catalana in Barcelona, have been collectively designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. As an architect, 45-year professor of architecture and prolific writer on architecture, Domènech i Montaner played an important role in defining the Modernisme arquitectonic in Catalonia; this style has become internationally renowned due to the work of Antoni Gaudí. Domènech i Montaner's article "En busca d'una arquitectura nacional", published 1878 in the journal La Renaixença, reflected the way architects at that time sought to build structures that reflected the Catalan character.
His buildings displayed a mixture between rationalism and fabulous ornamentation inspired by Spanish-Arabic architecture, followed the curvilinear design typical of Art Nouveau. In the El castell dels 3 dragons restaurant in Barcelona, for many years the Zoological Museum, he applied advanced solutions, he developed this style further in other buildings, such as the Palau de la Música Catalana in Barcelona, where he made extensive use of mosaic and stained glass, the Hospital de Sant Pau in Barcelona, the Institut Pere Mata in Reus. Domènech i Montaner's work evolved towards more open structures and lighter materials, evident in the Palau de la Música Catalana. Other architects, like Gaudí, tended to move in the opposite direction. Domènech i Montaner played a prominent role in the Catalan autonomist movement, he was a member of the La Jove Catalunya and El Centre Català and chaired the Lliga de Catalunya and the Unió Catalanista. He was one of the organisers of the commission that approved the Bases de Manresa, a list of demands for Catalan autonomy.
He was a member of the Centre Nacional Català and Lliga Regionalista, was one of the four parliamentarians who won the so-called "candidature of the four presidents" in 1901. Though re-elected in 1903, he abandoned politics in 1904 to devote himself to archeological and architectural research, he was buried in the Sant Gervasi Cemetery in that city. Born in Carrer Avinyó in Barcelona, he was the second son of Pere Domènech i Saló, a prestigious publisher and book-binder, Maria Montaner i Vila, a member of a prosperous family from Canet de Mar, where Domènech i Montaner spent much time in his home/office, now converted into a museum. After having studied physics and mathematics, he studied as an architect in Barcelona and at the school of architecture of the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid, from where he graduated on 13 December 1873. Having completed his studies, he travelled through France, Italy and Austria to gain experience of trends in architecture. In 1875, as soon as the Barcelona school of architecture opened, he joined it, along with his friend Josep Vilaseca, as a teacher of topography and mineralogy.
In 1877 he became professor of "Knowledge of materials and the application of physiochemical science to architecture". In 1899 he was appointed professor of "Architectural Composition" and project teacher. In 1900 he became director of the school of architecture, between 1901 and 1905 he was substituted by Joan Torras i Guardiola, Domènech at this time being in Madrid as a deputy in the Congress, he returned to the post from 1905 to 1920. His teaching career lasted 45 years, he exercised a considerable influence on what was to become Modernisme in Catalonia. With his colleague Antoni Maria Gallissà he subsequently set up a workshop for advanced work on the decorative arts applied to architecture. Domènech i Montaner's buildings combine structural rationality with extraordinary ornamentation inspired by Hispano-Arabic architectural tradition and by the curves typical of Modernisme, they were in the architectural vanguard at the time, with the use of structural steel and the total utilization of exposed brickwork, incorporated a profusion of mosaics and stained glass, arranged in exquisite harmony.
As director of the School of Architecture he promoted a style, adopted by many of his pupils. Puig i Cadafalch regarded him as "a man of a certain period and of a certain artistic school, a sounding-board for developments in other countries, adapting them to his own character in an innovative way"; as the years went by, unlike many Modernista architects, Domènech i Montaner's buildings tended to become lighter, reducing the amount of structural material but retaining ornamentation as a primary element. No sooner had Domènech graduated than he set out on a tour of Europe in the company of Josep Vilaseca, was attracted by Prussian architecture. This, as well as Vilaseca's personality, had an influence on his subsequent work; this influence can be seen in a number of Domènech's works from before 1878: the Clavé family tomb and the Casa Montaner on the Ronda de la Universitat, as well as a project for the provi